How To Become An Assassin by The Propagation

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2: This region is located just below the centermost point of the forehead The nerve is on the outside of the skull thus when the bone is struck it will trap the nerve. This could result in jarring the cerebral hemispheres, concussion, unconsciousness, impaired vision, & paralysis. If and only if maximum impact is applied, death could result from brain haemorrhage.

3: I'm sure we all know where the temple is but for those of you that don't know it is located on a horizontal plane across from the top of the ear. It is the recessed part on each side of the head. It is actually the bone tip of the sphenoid. The trigeminal nerve runs through the temple. This nerve controls several facial functions. Also passing through is the middle meningeal artery which is the largest branch supplying dura matter. A direct hit could break the tip off the sphenoid causing it to enter the brain. The meningeal could burst. Contact to the trigeminal could result in loss of control of facial functions. Compression of the brain, hemorrhage, concussion, shock, & death are likely results of striking the temple with a horizontal blow directed towards the opposite temple.

4: The eyes are located...uh I think you know. The eyes are very sensitive even to the slightest touch. They are held in by fascia bulbi (a soft membrane) and eye muscles. This makes them easy to pop out. They are also very soft, and if a blow reached the vitreous body (center of eye) the eyeball would collapse. Other than causing temporary or permanent loss of sight a deep thrust could puncture the brain causing death.

5: These are located on each side of the head. Air is easily trapped in the external acoustic meatus (the tunnel from the outer ear to the inner ear) and forced into the eardrum causing it to bust. This in turn ruptures the hammer or malleus within the middle ear. Damages would cause severe pain, loss of hearing, bleeding from the mouth and ear, and bleeding into the throat via the internal auditory tube. Also, the inner ear is the center of equilibrium (balance) for the cerebellum. a forceful strike could leave the victim sprawled on the ground with no balance! The blow should be delivered horizontally driving into the ear.


6: The mastoid is located directly behind the earlobe. It is the recessed area where the skull meets the neck. It is filled with air pockets which are used to communicate with the middle ear. A thrust should not be used; rather apply pressure with a nuckle or thumbnail in an upward direction. Prolonged pressure could cause damage to the auditory system.

7: Known more commonly as the nose the septal cartilage is the hard substance that makes up the nose. Two strikes are used here for different measures

II-A : a horizontal strike causing breakage of the septal cartilage and nasal bone which ruptures the angular vein producing a lot of blood along with great pain, however, not enough to stop some attackers II-D : an upward 45 degree strike forcing the septal cartilage through the internal nasal cavity and crista galli (a small bone formation between the nasal cavity & the brain) into the brain. Death would be instantaneous because of compression of the brain.

8: This is located beneath the nose and above the lips. It is the area between the 2 lines running from the nose to upper lip. Many of the facial nerves run through this area. A direct hit would cause the sensory fibers to relay the shock to the pons, causing dizziness. A hit would also cause damage to the maxilla bone which holds the gums & teeth. This could cause extensive bleeding posibly scaring the victim about the blood loss. A straight blow in needed to achieve this aiming towards the back of the head.

9: This is the joint that holds the jaw bone in place. It connects with the skull in front of the ear. The joint is really made up of 2 separate joints, thus dislocation can be unilateral or bilateral. With a 45 degree downward strike (preferably with the mouth open) will dislocate the mandible (jaw bone). An easier way to break the bone is to strike the joint itself or anywhere on the jaw bone really while the head is turned to one side or the other. This reduces the absorbtion of the blow by the neck. This method requires the least amount of force.


10: The madible is the jaw bone and of course the tip is located on the very end of the chin. Boxers use this point for a quick K.O. Hitting this area sends a shock snesor to the cerebellum causing unconsciousness. Hit this point with an upward blow.

11: This is the area at the frontal sides of the neck. The sternocleidomastoid muscles run from behind the ear down to the clavicle bones. Beneath these muscles lie the jugular vein and cartoid artery which supply blood to the heart & brain. This are is very sensitive. Try poking yourself there. A medium strike results in dizziness. A more forceful blow could blister, swell, collapse or or burst 1 or both of the blood lines. This could easily cause death because of lack of oxygen to the heart or brain. A strike should be done on an upsloping plane at 45 degrees on either side of the chin in the neck area.

12: Referred to as the windpipe or throat; is located in the center portion of the neck. This is a tubular passage running from the mouth to the stomach & lungs. When a straight on blow is delivered the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple(the lump in your throat)) and the hyaline cartilage (hold the windpipe in a cylinder shape) are pushed through the larynx and/or trachea resulting in blood drowning or partial or complete obstruction of the vital air passages. The cartilages act as cutting devices.

13: The muscle is the one that runs from the base of the neck to the shoulder. It raises up on most people. The brachial plexus is a nerve center which supplies info about the shoulder & arm down to the wrist. It runs through the trapezius. Striking the trapezius (from either front or back) with a downward 45 degree motion could paralyze the arm & shoulder temporarily. With a maximun blow unconsciousness & paralysis could be attained.

14: This lies between the collarbones; it connects them. A blow here could dislodge the collarbones from the sternum, collapsing the shoulders. But there are better targets behind the sternum. Such as the aorta, the superior vena cava (major blood lines to the brain), and the trachea all these pass directly behind the sternum. A forceful blow would follow these reactions : dislodge both clavicles from the sternum, the sternum would split, the 2 clavicles & sternum would be forced against or puncture the aorta and vena cava, the cartilages & bones would then be forced against or puncture the trachea. The strike should be delivered at a downward 45 degree angle. The suprasternal notch is a MAJOR death target.


15: This is the bone on each side of the body that runs from the shoulder to the center of the chest. It supports the shoulder so breaking a clavicle (collarbone) would result in the collapse of the shoulder. It is possible for the broken bone to puncture a lung or possibly the heart or one of the things mentioned in #14. A simple break would immobilize the victim due to structural damage & pain. An inward & down motion should be used when attacking also at 45 degrees.

16. This is the cardiac muscle that pumps the blood throughtout the body. It is hidden behind the sternam, (the breast plate in the middle of the chest). A forceful strike would cause the heart to skip beats and collapse, ceasing the movement of oxygen around the body resulting in death.

17. The kidneys are located in the soft area of the back, at the bottom of the rib cage. The front of the kidneys is protected by the floating ribs, however, the back of the kidneys are exposed and vunerable. There is one on each side of the vertebral column. A firm strike to this area generates alot of pain and will cause structural damage. Internal bleeding may result causing death.

18. This is the point at which the top of the humurus and the scaptula meet in a ball and socket joint. To disslocate the shoulder joint, one must place a foot or knee under the arm and sharply pull and twist the arm. This will create alot of pain.

19. The elbow, which is a hinge joint, where the base of the humurus and the forearm meet. This joint works only one way. Therefore, by holding the back of this joint and applying pressure by pulling the forearm in the opposite direction to which the subject is facing it can be broken quite readily. This will cause pain and immobility due to structural damage.

20. The carpals, metacarpals and phalanges are the bones which make up the hand and fingers. They are attatched by means of a hinge joint and can be easiely broken in much the same way as the elbow. This technique is effective against holds and stranglers where the fingers can readily be bent backwards. this will cause structural damage and generate pain.


21. The Petalla, often known as the knee cap, is a small round piece of bone which floats freely in the hinge joint of the femur and the tibia. By using a downward strike the petella can easiely become disslodged causeing pain and immobility.

22. The tarsals and metatarsals are the bones which make up the foot. They, like the carpals and metacarpals, work on the basis of hinge joints. However, it is extremly difficult to get the chance to, let alone bend these back. A prefered method is to execute an extremely powerful downward strike such as a stamp onto the bones causing them to break. the subject will then fall to the floor as there is no base on which the body weight can be placed.

23. The thoracic cage, often known as the rib cage, is the protective box in which holds the vital organs. The rib cage consists of a number of long bones that start at the spinal column and proceed around the body connecting at the sternam in the centre of the chest. A forceful strike or stamp to the frontal area can cause the thoracic cage to collapse resulting in the feeling of a tight chest, extreme pain and immobility. In some cases the broken bones may piece the heart or lungs resulting in death.

24. The floating ribs also begin at the spinal column and extend around the body. However, they do not join at the front. They are located below the thoracic cage and can be much more readily brocken than those in the thoracic cage. In some instances the brackage of these bones may pierce the liver or spleen resulting in the subject rapidly bleeding to death.

25. The vertabral coloumn or spinal column, runs down the centre of the back from the base of the skull to the anus. It is made up of a large number of small disc shaped bones connected together. The spinal column holds the spinal cord within it, this is a thick collection of nerves that controls the middle and lower body. A strong strike to this column would break the vertabrae and in some cases snap the spinal cord resulting in full or partial paralysis.


26. The diaphragm is a thick membrane located at the base of the sternam that strecthes from the front to the back and from left to right. THe diaphragm is the membrane that, by contracting and relaxing, changes the volume in the lungs causing intake and expiration of oxygen. A rising strike into this area would temporarily paralyse this membrane and knock out all of the air out of the lungs. Thus, damage to this organ would result in a inability to breath resulting in unconsciousness and maybe death.

27. The testes are located between the legs at the base of the body on a male. Even a slight strike to this area would cause extreme pain , immobility and maybe unconsciousness.

28. The coccyx is a small collection of bones located at the base of the spinal column at the anal opening. A forceful strike to this area would cause extreme pain and immobility.

29. The armpit is a concave area of tissue that is located under the arm where the upper arm and main body join. Within the armpit is a large gathering of nerves. Although this area is not often accessable, a strike to the armpit would cause intense pain and immobility.

30. The posterior cutaneous is a large collection of nerve cells found at the back of the upper leg. A pinching technique to this area would cause sharp pain and a sudden relfex action to move.

31. The liver is located on the right side of the body extending across to a point on the left. The top of the liver is protected by the ribs on both sides. However the bootom of the liver, found on the right side is unprotected. The liver is saturated with blood and any damage to this organ would result in a rapid loss of blood due to internal bleeding. Resulting in death.

32. The spleen is similar to the liver in that it too is saturated with blood. However, the spleen is a smaller organ and is found on the left side. It is completely protected by the ribs. Damage to this organ would also produce rapid blood loss due to internal bleeding. Resulting in death.


BASIC MARTIAL ARTS

It is always an advantage for the assassin to have at least a basic knowledge of martial atrs. The following text by no means attempts to replace proffesional teachings. It is suggested that the training assassin enroles in one or more martial arts clubs. Preferences include, jujitsu, aikido, other close quarters fighting styles and maybe one or two distance styles such as taekwondo which involves kicking and jumping techniques. The following text will attempt to portray some of the practical aspects of martial arts.

The Stance

The stance should be comfortable to the assassin. The stance should be about one shoulders width and one and a half shoulders long. The knees should be bent always, or they provided an easy target to become broken. The lead hand or front hand, should be about brought up to apx. 20 centermeters from the shoulder to the thumb. The rear hand should be brought up to next to the cheek and apx. 2 fist widths away from it. Both elbows should be brought in to protect the bidy. The body should be turn to about 45 degrees to provide a smaller target for the enemy. Always keep the arms up to protect the face.

Making A Fist: Firstly, the assassin must know how to make a proper first so as not to injure themselvs whilst in a confrontation.

*Fully open out the hand. *Curl the fingers down so they touch the pad of flesh running along the top of the palm; *Fold the fingers forward from the knuckles; *Lock the fist closed by folding your thumb across the index and middle fingers.

The thumb must never be closed within the hand as this will cause it to dislocate at the point of impact.

Strike the target with the index and middle finger knuckles only, holding the fist in such a way that the wrist does'nt flex painfully on impact.


Strikes

The Jab

Target areas, #'s: 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 26

The jab is a short punch delievered with the lead hand. The jab can be used as a distracting punch rapidly being followed up by a reverse punch, hook or uppercut.

*Begin in a comfortable stance allowing for the ability to move freely, always keep the knees bent.

*Extend the lead hand out and twist the hips into the punch to gain full distance.

*The chin should be kept tucked into the body so that a counter attack will not connect and break it.

*As the lead hand reaches the target, twist the hand so into the target, so that the palm is facing downwards.

*Sharply retract the arm.

Reverse Punch

Target areas, #'s: 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 26

This punch comes from the rear hand and is alot more powerful than the jab.

*Begin in the fighting stance

*Bring the lead hand in slightly to the face to protect it;

*Step forward slightly with the lead foot.

*Punch out with your rear hand twisting your hips into the move by pivoting on the ball of the rear foot.

*As the punch reaches the target, twist the hand into it as before.

Back Fist

Target areas, #'s: 3, 5, 6, 7, 9

The back fist strike can be a follow up from a hook or can be used on its own, and can be used from either hand. A developed back fist can cause fatal results. *Start in the fighting position

*Bring the striking fist up to the opposite ear, palm facing inwards.
*Extend the arm striking with the back of the hand on the knuckles.
*Pull back the spent arm.

The Hook

Target areas,#'s: 3, 5, 9, 17, 23, 24, 29

This punch is used to reach targets that the previous punches can not. It is also used as a counter attack to an incomming punch. Bring the lead hand up to the ear to protect the head and lean to the outside of the punch, ducking under it. Then execute the hook punch. It can be used form both the front and rear hands. The latter of the two will be discussed.

*Start in the fighting stance
*Slightly drop the rear hand and bring it back a little.
*As you bring it forwards, push the elbow out so that the forearm is parallel to the floor.
*Twist the hips and let the hand follow, bringing power into the punch. Pivoting on the ball of the rear foot.


The Uppercut

Target areas,#'s: 7, 8, 10, 26, 29

The uppercut is used to get up under the enemy's defense and into the body region. It can also be performed from both front and rear. The latter will be discussed.

*Begin in the fighting stance
*Drop your body weight slightly by bending your knees. You should also drop the rear shoulder bringing the palm to face your body.
*Push up with your legs and simultaneously push the rear hand up vertically and out towards the target. Be sure to twist the hips into the punch and pivot on the ball of the rear foot.
*The rear shoulder should have the effect of creating a small circular movement.


The Palm Heel Strike

Target areas,#'s: 2, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18, 23, 24, 26


The palm heel strike uses the base of the hands palm to perform a powerful strike, usually upwards forcing a particular section of the target further on.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Bring the lead hand up to the face to protect it.
*Step forward slightly with the lead foot.
*Turn the rear hand so that the palm faces away from your body
*Extend the fingers of the rear hand.
*Push the heel straight forwards to strike the target. Twist the hips as you do this to add power and speed.
*Quickly retrieve the hand and bring it back to the guard position.
*Ensure that you strike with the heel of the hand and keep the thumb tucked back.


Ridge Hand Strike

Target areas,#'s: 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 24, 27, 29

This technique can be performed from either the lead or rear hand and can deliever a powerful, painful and immobilsing strike.

*Begin in the fighting stance.
*Extend the figures of the hand to be used and bring the thumb in across the palm, providing a 'knife' edge.
*Perfrom a hook like manouver, striking with the index finger edge of the hand. Be sure to keep the thumb tucked well in.


Elbow Strike

Target areas, #'s; 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 23, 24

This strike is effective in close combat, and can be delievered with either arm. It can provide a powerful immobilizing attack to the enemy.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Keep the hand near to the shoulder and perform a hook manouver.
*Strike with the point of the elbow and twist the body into the attack.


Rising Elbow Strike

Target areas, #'s: 6, 7, 8, 10


This can be used in place of an upper cut in close combat, and can also be delievered from either arm. It can produce disasterous effects including death.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Bring the fist up the shoulder
*Bend the knees and as the legs are straigthened-
*Push the point of the elbow striaght up and slightly out to meet the target.
*Ensure a good body twist for full damage


Basic Kicking Techniques

The Front Kick

Target areas,#'s; 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32

This is the first technique taught to the begginer in most martial arts. It is often used to stop a lunging attack and, once learnt correctly, can have devestating effects. All kicking techniques can be performed from both legs. The most powerful of the two is the rear leg, therefore, this is the one which shall be described in all cases here after.

*Begin in the fighting position
*Lift the rear knee up close to the chest
*Keeping the foot on the same horizontal path straighten the leg out leaning back and pushing your hips into the kick.
*Hit the target with the ball of the foot.
*Bring the knee back in by the chest before placing it back down, This is so that another kick can be executed quickly and with power if needed.


The Side Kick

Target areas,#'s: 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 31, 32

This is the most powerful of kicks. It can collapse a thoracic cage and is useful for stopping lunging attacks. This technique can become devestatingly powerful by stepping the rear leg behind the front leg then executing the side kick from the front leg.

*Start in the fighting stance

*Bring the rear leg up to the chest
*Pivot on the base foot so that the toes point away from you to the rear. The leg should naturally turn horizontal.
*Push the foot out to create an imaginary line fom the shoulder down the hip and to the heel.
*Strike the target area with the outside edge of the foot.
*As before, pull the leg back to the chest before placing it down.

The Roundhouse Kick or Turning Kick

Target areas,#'s: 17, 21, 23, 24, and legs

This kick can be performed with tremendous speed and power, breaking ribs, legs and arms if correctly applied. Proffessional martial artists can knock someone out and sometimes kill them with a turning kick to the head.

*Begin in the fighting stance
*Imagine/or place a chair next to your front foot and infront of your rear foot. Lift the rear knee high and bring it up and over the chair coming around pivoting on the ball of the base foot as before.
*Stop the knee before it goes past the imaginary line that runs through the body.




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