During the period of breath restraint the aim must be perfected and the trigger operated to achieve a shot release without any alteration to the aim or to the grip.
As the shot is fired the recoil action causes the weapon to move and the direction of this movement should be consistent for successive shots. Direction of movement can be indentified by consentrating on the aim picture throughout the process of trigger operation. When the direction of movement is not consistent with that of previous firing, it is an indication that all is not well, and it may be found that this particular shot will be displaced from the remainder of the group.
Remember! The ability to shoot well requires coordination and control of a number of skills and the consistent application of the previously mentioned marksmanship principles.
In battle or during range work, the strength and direction of the wind have a direct effect influence on the path of the bullet. It is essential that you make allowances to counter this influence and ensure a first round hit. It is also important to know how to react, should the shot miss the target.
Aiming off for elevation and direction.
Errors in elevation and direction can be overcome by changing the POA, for example if, fom the POA, the shot is seen to be high (300mm) and to the left (100mm), reaim low (300mm) and to the right (100mm) of the original POA. Errors in the elevation can only be corrected by altering the range setting. An alteration of one graduation on the range drum will alter the position of the mean point of impact (MPI) by approximately the same number of millimeters as the range of the target. ie. 200m = 200mm, 300m + 300mm, etc. When firing at small targets at ranges of 200m or less, aim at the bottom of the target.
Aiming off for wind.
Only a wind blowing across the front at ranges greater than 100m will make the bullet veer considerably. To allow for this, aim off to into the wind: the direction of the wind can be determined by its effect on the face, trees dust and smoke. The amount to aim off is determined by the strength of the wind.
1. A fresh wind has an appreciable effect on bushes and thin branches of trees and can be distinclty felt on the side of the face. It would cause flags to stand about half way out from the pole.
2. A strong wind has a noticable effect on tree tops and lifts dust off dry grounds. Range flags would tend to strain away from their poles.
In windy conditions at ranges greater than 100m the following POA should be used for fresh wind (10kph) and strong (20kph).
A. Fresh wind 200m : POA is halfway between the centre and the edge of the target.
B. Strong wind 200m: POA is at the edge of the target.
C. Fresh wind 300m: POA is at the edge of the target.
D. Strong wind 300m: POA is one target width from the centre of the target.
Gun Fight Situations
When in a gun fight situation, when possible, indentify the type of weapon used and identify the type and number of rounds associated with it. This way you will be able to count the bullets and catch the enemy on a reload. To count the rounds try not to mentally count 1,2,3,4 - rather let the pattern of shots enter you mind and asses them. Practice by watching films - people often use 8-9 rounds from a 6-round revolver. Be aware of extended magazines! When in a gunfight, do not always aim directly at the target. use knock on effects. If there is an explosive cylinder nearby the target aim for it and cancel the enemy that way. Likewise, loosly hung heavy or electrical objects can be knocked/shot down onto the enemy. If the enemy is standing in a pool of gas or petrol aim at the floor or metal object nearby. If the enemy is in a pool of water, aim to move an electrical applience into the watery area. Never watse ammunition. Take an aim as much as possible. With an automatic - use short, sharp, directed, bursts of fire. When under enemy fire - find cover. if none is available create some. Target any explosive or smoke/steam producing objects between you and the enemy. Open a car door an get behind it.
When engaged in a gun fight - take two shots at the target with out aiming whilst moving to cover. Once in cover, take aim and cancel the target.
Never reach for id with your gun hand.
The blowgun is an interesting weapon which has several advantages. A blowgun can be extremely accurate, concealable, and deliver an explosive or poisoned projectile. The manufacture of an explosive dart or projectile is not difficult.
Perhaps the most simple design for such involves the use of a pill capsule, such as the kind that are taken for headaches or allergies. Empty gelatin pill capsules can be purchased from most health-food stores. Next, the capsule would be filled with an impact-sensitive explosive, such as mercury fulminate. An additional high explosive charge could be placed behind the impact sensitive explosive, if one of the larger capsules were used.
Finally, the explosive capsule would be reglued back together, and a tassel or cotton would be glued to the end containing the high explosive, to insure that the impact-detonating explosive struck the target first.
Such a device would probably be about 3/4 of an inch long. Care must be taken- if a powerful dart went off in the blowgun, you could easily blow the back of your head off.
Wrist Rockets And Sling Shots
A modern wristrocket is a formidable weapon. It can throw a shooter marble about 500 ft. with reasonable accuracy. Inside of 200 ft., it could well be lethal to a man or animal, if it struck in a vital area. Because of the relatively large sized projectile that can be used in a wristrocket, the wristrocket can be adapted to throw relatively powerful explosive projectiles.
A small segment of aluminum pipe could be made into an impact-detonating device by filling it with an impact-sensitive explosive material.
Also, such a pipe could be filled with a low-order explosive, and fitted with a fuse, which would be lit before the device was shot. One would have to make sure that the fuse was of sufficient length to insure that the device did not explode before it reached its intended target.
Finally, .22 caliber caps, such as the kind that are used in .22 caliber blank guns, make excellent exploding ammunition for wristrockets, but they must be used at a relatively close range, because of their light weight.
When special ammunition is used in combination with the power and rapidity of modern firearms, it becomes very easy to take on a small army with a single weapon. It is possible to buy explosive ammunition, but that can be difficult to do. Such ammunition can also be manufactured in the home. There is, however, a risk involved with modifying any ammunition. If the ammunition is modified incorrectly, in such a way that it makes the bullet even the slightest bit wider, an explosion in the barrel of the weapon will occur.
If an individual wished to produce explosive ammunition for his/her handgun, he/she could do it, provided that the person had an impact-sensitive explosive and a few simple tools. One would first purchase all lead bullets, and then make or acquire an impact-detonating explosive. By drilling a hole in a lead bullet with a drill, a space could be created for the placement of an explosive. After filling the hole with an explosive, it would be sealed in the bullet with a drop of hot wax from a candle. This hollow space design also works for putting poison in bullets.
Because of their large bore and high power, it is possible to create some extremely powerful special ammunition for use in shotguns. If a shotgun shell is opened at the top, and the shot removed, the shell can be re-closed. Then, if one can find a very smooth, lightweight wooden dowel that is close to the bore width of the shotgun, a person can make several types of shotgun-launched weapons.
Insert the dowel in the barrel of the shotgun with the shell without the shot in the firing chamber. Mark the dowel about six inches away from the end of the barrel, and remove it from the barrel.
Next, decide what type of explosive or incendiary device is to be used. This device can be a chemical fire bottle (sect. 3.43), a pipe bomb (sect 4.42), or a thermite bomb (sect 3.41 and 4.42). After the device is made, it must be securely attached to the dowel. When this is done, place the dowel back in the shotgun. The bomb or incendiary device should be on the end of the dowel.
Make sure that the device has a long enough fuse, light the fuse, and fire the shotgun. If the projectile is not too heavy, ranges of up to 300 ft are possible.
Special "grenade-launcher blanks" should be used- use of regular blank ammunition may cause the device to land perilously close to the user.
Compressed Air/Gas Weapons
This section deals with the manufacture of special ammunition for compressed air or compressed gas weapons, such as pump B.B guns, CO2 B.B guns, and .22 cal pellet guns. These weapons, although usually thought of as kids toys, can be made into rather dangerous weapons.
A B.B gun, for this manuscript, will be considered any type of rifle or pistol that uses compressed air or CO2 gas to fire a projectile with a caliber of .177, either B.B, or lead pellet. Such guns can have almost as high a muzzle velocity as a bullet-firing rifle. Because of the speed at which a .177 caliber projectile flies, an impact detonating projectile can easily be made that has a caliber of .177.
Most ammunition for guns of greater than .22 caliber use primers to ignite the powder in the bullet. These primers can be bought at gun stores, since many people like to reload their own bullets. Such primers detonate when struck by the firing pin of a gun. They will also detonate if they are thrown at a hard surface at a great speed.
Usually, they will also fit in the barrel of a .177 caliber gun. If they are inserted flat end first, they will detonate when the gun is fired at a hard surface. If such a primer is attached to a piece of thin metal tubing, such as that used in an antenna, the tube can be filled with an explosive, be sealed, and fired from a B.B gun.
The front primer is attached to the tubing with a drop of super glue. The tubing is then filled with an explosive, and the rear primer is glued on. Finally, a tassel, or a small piece of cotton is glued to the rear primer, to insure that the projectile strikes on the front primer. The entire projectile should be about 3/4 of an inch long.
.22 Caliber pellet guns
.22 caliber pellet gun usually is equivalent to a .22 cal rifle, at close ranges. Because of this, relatively large explosive projectiles can be adapted for use with .22 caliber air rifles. A design similar to that used in section 5.12 is suitable, since some capsules are about .22 caliber or smaller. Or, a design similar to that in section 5.31 could be used, only one would have to purchase black powder percussion caps, instead of ammunition primers, since there are percussion caps that are about .22 caliber. A #11 cap is too small, but anything larger will do nicely.
The assassin regards anything and everything as a weapon. From a firearm or sword, down to a feather in the enemy's throat. The key to successful defense using objects other than the empty hand is - Improvisation. The spine of a book can be used to deliver an effective strike to the throat or nasal area, as can a credit card. In ninjitsu the ninja would never perform a block as such, rather they would aim to attack the incoming threat. This can be kept in mind whenever using weapons.
Tips for weapons - To enforce the forearms and shins against attack. Wear shin guards with metal bones in. These can also be worn on the arm, although martial art forearm guards are available. They should be fitted with metal bars, plates or bones to ensure devatating blocks and protection from blade attacks. For defense against headlock manouvers, sewing pins should be carried in the outside edge of the top of trousers. Keep a knife in trouser pockets or fixed to a belt. Do not place in jacket pockets as these pockets are more prone to move and become twisted and unavailable in a combat situation.
This next section of text will run through a few weapons, both modern and traditional, and attempt to provide some insight into their use and substitutes.
These are oriental weapons form india. They comprise of a hard wooden stick apx. the length of the users arm. They are often used in pairs. The following text will describe the basic use of the single eskrima stick.
Substitutes: Half a pool cue, tree branches, any short, straight, hard stick, pole or bar.
*The weapon is held in the right hand, apx 1 1/2 widths of a fist from the base. The length of the weapon should extend forwards and away from the body. The left leg should lead as this allows you to block with the lead hand and strike with the weapon hand.
*An effective downward strike can be performed by moving the elbow into the centre of the body and allowing the furthest point of theweapon to execute a large circle by twisting the wrist inwards.. The point of the weapon should proceed straight down passed the knee and up passed the shoulder. Add power as the weapon goes round. This technique can be applied to areas such as the clavicle, sternocleidomastoid region and top of the head.
*Another technique is to bring the weapon around from the right hand side in a sweeping motion. This can be executed against areas like the temples, temporomandibular joint, liver, spleen, ribs, ears, arms legs and knees.
*The base of the weapon can also be used to strike the enemy by using a jabbing motion, in areas such as the temple and neck region, the spinal column, kidneys and ribs.
*The base can also be used as an effective uppercut type move. This would be used on areas such as the testes, nasal area and tip of the jaw.
*An alternative method of holding the weapon would be to place it in the right hand as before. Then bring the furthest piont straight up and over and behind the right shoulder. The left hand would then grasp the 'loose' end from under the right armpit. Form here a number of strike can be executed by both hands. This has the advantage that the enemy does not no where the strike will orignate from until it is to late.
*The weapon can also be used to generate some devestating blocks againgst a number of attacks.
*A simple downward block can be perfomed by bring the futhest point straight down passed the left hand side, ending just passed the right knee. The left hand is brought into the body to act as protection.
*A block to the middle section would be performed by bringing the right hand horizontally across to the left, keeping the base of the weapon parallel to the ground, and the length of the weapon vertical. Slightly shift the body weight to the right to add power. This block can be quickly followed up by a sweeping strike originating from the left side.
*A high section block can be executed by turning the weapon to fall across the body, with the further most point on the left side and the length parallel to the ground. Bend the legs, dropping the body weight as you push the right hand straight up above the head.
The jo is the japanese short staff. It is apx. 5ft high or as tall as from the ground to the users shoulder. It is often made of a hard wood and is used on its own.
Substitutes: Pool cue, Broom stick, other poles, sticks and bars of apx. 5ft in length.
*The jo is held apx. 2ft in from the right with the right hand, palm facing down. and apx. 2ft in from the left end with the left hand , palm facing up.
*The most effective strike is to pull the left hand in to the body while pushing the right hand out, striking the target with the right end. This can also be executed in the same fachion on the left side. By alternating, low right, middle left and high right, you can produce a fast combination of attacks. Always be sure to pull and push to gain maximum power. Target areas: legs, knees, arms, ribs, side of the neck, temporomandibular joint, ears, temples.
*Another technique is to move the left hand across to the right making the weapon become vertical on the right hand side. The right hand is then pushed upwards to perform an uppercut type move. From here, another strike can be executed by slightly lowering the right hand and placing the left hand so that the palm is facing the opposite wya to which it should. The right hand is then brought sharply down to the right hip and the left hand sharply brought down onto the target. Target areas: tip of the jaw, testes, nose, armpit. // clavicle, top of head.
*Another strike can be can be performed by moving the left end out to face away from the body on the right hand side, keeping the weapon parallel to the ground. Slide the right hand to the back of the right end. Step forward with the left leg and push with the right hand, allowing the weapon to slide through the left hand causing a 'stabbing' effect. This is useful when being charged at. Target areas: Groin, liver, spleen, throat, diaphragm, eyes.
*Use the same methods as those used for the eskrima stick. However, keep both hands in position and use the central part of the weapon to take the attack.
The knife is probably the most common weapon that will be incountered. Contrary to popular belief, the knife can be used as a method of attack and defense. More techniques will be discussed in -sentry removal.
Substitutes; Sharpe pieces of wood, glass, pens, small sticks, etc.
*There are two main methods to hold a knife. These will be discussed seperately.
*The first method is to take the knife, place it in the hand with the sharp edge facing across the body. Start with the hand flat out palm facing up. Place the knife across the base of the fingers, with the bottom of the handle facing you and the top pointing away, running just across the first bone sectionof the index finger. Curl the fingers in over the handle. Then place the thumb on top of the handle, nail facing up, and pointing in the direction of the blade.
*The straight thrust is performed by pushing the knife hand straight forwards into the target. Target areas; heart, diaphragm, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs.
*By performing a hook type motion, moving the knife to come into the target from the side, successful penetration and damage can be attianed. Target areas; Temples, jugular viens in the neck region, ears, mastoid, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs
*Performing a straight thrust with the blade facing upwards, and causing the knife to rise into the target, a fatal penetration can be attained. Target areas: Liver, spleen, kidneys, diaphragm, heart, lungs.
*There are not many defensive options using this method of handling the knife. The best ways to defened yourself against an attack is to use the blade to re-direct the attack, by pushing it out of the way.
*The second method of holding a knife is to adopt the ice pick grip. This can be seen as the method used by Steven Seagal in many of his films. Take the knife and place it in the hand exactly as before, however, this time the blade should be facing you as if you were about to stab yourself. The sharp edge must be gacing away from you so as to not cut your wrists during defensive moves.
*One method of attack is to move the knife in a clockwise, circular motion (if in right hand, anti-clockwise if in left hand) puching the blade out across the target causing a slicing effect. Target areas: Chest, face, neck area.
*A second method is as above, but rising up in an uppercut manner, slicing the target vertically rather than horizontally. Target areas: Chest, throat, face.
*Turn the hand palm up and perform a hook motion, digging the blade into the target from the side. Target areas: side of body, neck area, ears, mastoid, side of the head.
*The above method can aslo be executed from the opposite side. Bring the knife hand to the opposite side of the body, turn the palm to face down. Thrust the knife out into the target from the side. Target areas; as before.
*Use the blade to block any incoming attack by either, turning it to face away from the body and into the attack. Re-directing the attack away from your body and attacking it at the same time. This can be followed up by a strike as stated in point 3.
*If the attack comes from the other side, move the knife hand across the body to the opposite side, shifting the body weight to the knife hand side. A follow up can be executed as stated in point 4.
*By performing a basic low block, the blade can protect against a low section attack.
A Small Selection Of Other Weapons
The Glimmer Card
Based on the pocket weapon used by Steven Seagal in the film 'The Glimmer Man'. This weapon can be easily concealed and easily carried. The effects of the weapon can be fatal if used correctly. There are 3 ways to build an effective glimmer card. Number A is the most effective and, therefore, the most complex, number B is also very effective but less complex in construction, type C is the simplest to construct and is also effective:
A. Take an old credit card or pocket card of similar size and material. Using a very thin blade, cut a deep grove into the longest edge of the card. Now take two small razor blades (ie gillette sensor excel blades), and place into the grove blade pointing out. Secure with glue or by other appropriate means.