Human Settlements Discussion Paper – Climate Change 2


Wamsler, C (2007) “Bridging the gaps: stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and financing for the urban poor”, Environment and Urbanization, 19(1)115 - 142



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177 Wamsler, C (2007) “Bridging the gaps: stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and financing for the urban poor”, Environment and Urbanization, 19(1)115 - 142.

178 Engle, P, S Castle and P Menon (1996) “Child development: vulnerability and resilience”, Social Science and Medicine, 43(5) 621-635


179 http://www.speakout.org.za/about/child/child_childprostitution.htm

180 Engle, P, S Castle and P Menon (1996) “Child development: vulnerability and resilience”, Social Science and Medicine, 43(5) 621-635

181 Engle, P, S Castle and P Menon (1996) “Child development: vulnerability and resilience”, Social Science and Medicine, 43(5) 621-635

182 Avotri, YA, Wakters, V (1999) “ ‘You just look at our work and see if you have any

freedom on earth': Ghanaian women's accounts of their work and their health”, Social Science & Medicine 48, 1123-1133, p 1126



183 Revi, A (2008) “Climate change risk: an adaptation and mitigation agenda for Indian cities, Environment and Urbanization, in press.

184 Hugo, G. (2002) “Effects of international migration on the family in Indonesia”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 11 (1): 13-46

185 Castle, S., and Diarra, A., (2003) The International Migration of Young Malians: Tradition, Necessity or Rite of Passage?, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London; Hashim, I. M. (2003) Child Migration: Pathological or Positive?, Paper Presented at the Conference on Child Abuse and Exploitation: Social, Legal and Political Dilemmas, Onati, Spain, 29-30 May 2003


186 Satterthwaite, David, Saleemul Huq, Mark Pelling, Hannah Reid and Patricia Romero-Lankao (2007)Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-income Nations, London: International Institute for Environment and Development

187 Myaux JA, Ali M, Chakraborty J, de Francisco A (1997) “Flood control embankments contribute to the improvement of the health status of children in rural Bangladesh”., Bulletin of World Health Organization. 1997;75(6):533-9.

188 Satterthwaite, David, Saleemul Huq, Mark Pelling, Hannah Reid and Patricia Romero-Lankao (2007)Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-income Nations, London: International Institute for Environment and Development

189 Ibid page 46

190 Del Ninno, Carlo and Matthias Lundberg (2005) “The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh”, Economics and Human Biology 3(1) 67-96

191 Renzaho, A (2007) “Mortality rates, prevalence of malnutrition, and prevalence of lost pregnancies among the drought-ravaged population of Tete province, Mozambique”, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 22(1) 26-34.


192 Bartlett, Sheridan (2003) “Water, sanitation and urban children: the need to go beyond “improved” provision”, Environment and Urbanization 15(2) 57-70

193 Gilman, R H, G S Marquis, G Ventura, M Campos et al. (1993), “Water cost and availability: key determinants of family hygiene in a Peruvian shanty town”, American Journal of Public Health 83 (11) 1554–1558.; Curtis, V, B Kanki et al. (1997) “Dirt and diarrhoea: formative research in hygiene promotion programmes”, Health Policy and Planning 12( 2) 122–131.

194 http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,2150475,00.html

195 Kemble, Sarah K, Jennifer C. Davis, Talemwa Nalugwa, Denise Njama-Meya, Heidi Hopkins Grant Dorsey, and Sarah G Staedke (2006) “Prevention and treatment strategies used for the community management of childhood fever in Kampala, Uganda”, American Journal of Tropical. Medicine and Hygiene 74(6) 999–1007

196 Butchart, A, Kruger J and Lekoba R (2000) “Perceptions of injury causes and solutions in a Johannesburg township: implications for prevention”, Social Science and Medicine 50, 331-44

197 Tursz A (1986) “Epidemiological studies of accident morbidity in children and young people: problems of methodology”, World Health Statistics Quarterly 39(3): 257-68


198 Satterthwaite, David, Saleemul Huq, Mark Pelling, Hannah Reid and Patricia Romero-Lankao (2007)Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-income Nations, London: International Institute for Environment and Development; Wamsler, C (2007) “Bridging the gaps: stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and financing for the urban poor”, Environment and Urbanization 19(1)115 - 142

199 Gordon, David, Shaileen Nandy, Christine Pantazis, Simon Pemberton and Peter Townshend (2003) Child Poverty in the Developing World, Bristol, The Policy Press

200 See http://www.sdinet.org/rituals/ritual2.htm

201 Satterthwaite, David, Saleemul Huq, Mark Pelling, Hannah Reid and Patricia Romero-Lankao (2007)Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-income Nations, London: International Institute for Environment and Development

202 For example, see,Douglas, Ian, Kurshid Alam, MaryAnne Maghenda, Yasmin Mcdonnell, Louise McLean and Jack Campbell (2008) Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa, Environment and Urbanization 20 (1) in press; Wamsler, C (2007) “Bridging the gaps: stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and financing for the urban poor”, Environment and Urbanization 19(1)115 - 142



203 Chatterjee, Sudeshna (2007). “Children’s Role in Humanizing Forced Evictions and Resettlements in Delhi. Children, Youth and Environments 17(1) 198-221; Chawla, L. (ed) (2001) Growing Up in an Urbanizing World, London, Earthscan/UNESCO.

204 See West, Andy. (2007). "Power Relationships and Adult Resistance to Children’s Participation ." Children, Youth and Environments 17 (1): 123-135 for an account of the resistance on the part of adults and organizations to involving children

205 See for instance , Kruger, Jill Swart and Louise Chawla (2002) " ‘We know something someone doesn’t know’: children speak out on local conditions in Johannesburg”, Environment and Urbanization, 10 2002; vol. 14: pp. 85 - 96.


206 Hart, R. (1997) Children's Participation: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care, London, Earthscan/UNICEF

207 Peter H Kahn Jr (2002) "Children's affiliations with nature: structure, development, and the problem of environmental generational amnesia," in Kahn and Kellert, Children and Nature, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press 93-116.

208 Morley, D (1993) “The very young as agents of change”, World Health Forum 14(1) 23-24


209 Lansdown, R (1995) “Learning and teaching : Child to child”, Dialogue Diarrhoea, 60, 6; also Mohapatra SC, Sankar H, Mohapatra P (1993) “Child to child: the programme in survival and development of children”, Indian Journal of Maternal and Child Health.4(4):118-21

210 For a recent description and evaluation of the child-to-child approach, see Pradhan, Uma (2007) “The Child-to-Child approach to community and health development in South Asia, Children, Youth and Environments 17(1): 257-268.



211 Douglas, Ian, Kurshid Alam, MaryAnne Maghenda, Yasmin Mcdonnell, Louise McLean and Jack Campbell (2008) “Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa”, Environment and Urbanization 20 (1) in press

212 Johnston, Carden and Irwin Redlener (2006) “Critical concepts for children in disasters identified by hands-on professionals: summary of issues demanding solutions before the next one, Pediatrics 117 (5) S458-S460

213 Douglas, Ian, Kurshid Alam, MaryAnne Maghenda, Yasmin Mcdonnell, Louise McLean and Jack Campbell (2008) “Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa”, Environment and Urbanization 20 (1) in press


214 Wamsler, C (2007) “Bridging the gaps: stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and financing for the urban poor”, Environment and Urbanization 19(1)115 - 14 2


215 Diagne, Khady (2007) Governance and natural disasters: addressing flooding in Sanit Louis, Senegal, Environment and Urbanization 19(2): 552-562


216 Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP) Philippines: Mainstreaming Community-Based

Mitigation in City Governance Community-Based Disaster Risk Management & Local Governance

Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP) (In partnership with ADPC) Http://www.prevention.net/files/736_Philippines-good-practices.pdf



217 Plan International (2005) Children and the Tsunami: Engaging with children in Disaster Response, Recovery and Risk Reduction, Learning from Children’s Participation in the Tsunami Response, Bangkok: Plan International, page 29

218 Ibid, page 7

219 Roberts, L, Y Chartier et al. (2001), “Keeping water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial”,Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79 (4) 280–287.

220 Goodyear, L and M Hynes (2001) “Integrating reproductive health into emergency response assessments and primary health care”, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 16(4):223-30


221 Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project,

Geneva. Earlier versions of this handbook did not include attention to mental health because of the lack of expert consensus on this area.



222 Batniji, Rajaie, Mark van Ommeren and Benedetto Saraceno (2006) “Mental and social health in disasters: relating qualitative social science research and the Sphere standard”, Social Science and Medicine 62(8) 1853-1864


223 Field visits by author in Indonesia and Thailand, and discussion with CODI and Save then Children staff

224 Williams, JRA, Tina Hyder and Susan Nicolai (2005) “Save the Children’s experience: ECD in emergencies”, Responses to Young Children in Post-Emergency Situations, Early Childhood Matters, Number 104, 16-21, Bernard van Leer Foundation

225 Nicolai, S and C Triplehorn (2003 ) The Role of Education in Protecting Children in Conflict, HPN Network Paper #42, ODI, London;


226 Interagency Network for Education in Emergencies (2004) Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction , www.ineesite.org/standards/MSEE_report.pdf

227 The criteria for these are described, for instance, in Prabhu, Nina (2007) International Donor Agencies Guidelines for Responding to Children in Emergencies, Ryerson University , downloaded from http://www.ineesite.org/ineedownloads/viewall.asp?pid=1387&cp=21


228 Mann, G. (2000). “Networks of support: A literature review of care issues for separated children.” unpublished paper.


229 Plan International (2005) Children and the Tsunami: Engaging with children in disaster response, recovery and risk reduction, learning from children’s participation in the tsunami response, Bangkok: Plan International, p 11

230 Guyot, Julie (2007). “Participation: Children and Youth in Protracted Refugee Situations” Children, Youth and Environments 17(3): 159-178, page 162


231 Bartlett, Sheridan and Iltus Selim (2007) Making Space for Children; Planning for Post-disaster Reconstruction with Children and their Families,, Chennai, Save the Children India

232 Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, Sphere Project, Geneva

233 See for instance Hasan, Arif (2007), "The Urban Resource Centre, Karachi", Environment and Urbanization, 19(1) 275–292;  Boonyabancha, Somsook (2005), "Baan Mankong; going to scale with 'slum' and squatter upgrading in Thailand", Environment and Urbanization 17 (1) 21–46

234 Burra, S., S. Patel and T. Kerr (2003.) “Community-Designed, Built and Managed Toilet Blocks in Indian Cities.” Environment and Urbanization 15(2): 11-32.


235 Jayaraj, Annie (2003) “Post-disaster reconstruction experiences in Andra Pradesh, India,” PreventionWeb document DRR8040,http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/publications/v.php?id=554

236 Chatterjee, Sudeshna (2007). “Children’s role in humanizing forced evictions and resettlements in Delhi.” Children, Youth and Environments 17(1): 198-221.

237 See for instance Saegert, S (1982) “Environment and children's mental health: residential density and low income children”, in Baum, A and JE Singer (eds) Handbook of Psychology and Health. Hillsdale N. J., Erlbaum; also Oda, M, K Taniguchi, et al. (1989). Effects of high rise housing on physical and mental development of children. Journal of Human Ergology 18(2): 231-35.

238 Discussions with resettled women and children in Mumbai

239 In Mumbai again, efforts have been made by the NGO SPARC to change building regulations to permit wider hallways and common spaces on each floor.

240 Conversations with rehoused families in Tamil Nadu, Mumbai, Sri Lanka.

241 Wells, N M (2000) “At home with nature: effects of “greenness” on children’s cognitive functioning.” Environment and Behavior 32(6): 775-795; Kuo, F. E., W. C. Sullivan, et al. (1998).“Fertile ground for community: Inner city neighborhood common spaces.” American Journal of Community Psychology 26: 823-851.


242 Chawla, L. (ed) (2001) Growing Up in an Urbanizing World, London, Earthscan/UNESCO; Kruger, Jill Swart and Louise Chawla. (2005). ‘We Know Something Someone Doesn’t Know’… Children Speak Out on Local Conditions in Johannesburg.” Children, Youth and Environments 15(2): 89-104.

243 Author’s field visits

244 Kruger, Jill Swart and Louise Chawla. (2005). ‘We Know Something Someone Doesn’t Know’… Children Speak Out on Local Conditions in Johannesburg.” Children, Youth and Environments 15(2): 89-104.

245 Varney, Darcy and Willem van Vliet--. (2005). “Local Environmental Initiatives Oriented to Children and Youth: A Review of UN Habitat Best Practices”, Children, Youth and Environments 15(2): 41-52.

246 Malone’s comment is part of a “conversation” presented in Chawla, Louise, Natasha Blanchet-Cohen, Nilda Cosco, David Driskell, Jill Kruger, Karen Malone, Robin Moore and Barry Percy-Smith. (2005). “Don’t Just Listen- Do Something! Lessons Learned about Governance from the Growing Up in Cities Project” Children, Youth and Environments 15(2): 53-88.

247 Hart. Roger (1992) Children's participation: from tokenism to citizenship UNICEF Innocenti Essays, No. 4, UNICEF/International Child Development Centre, Florence, Italy.


248 For a description of such a process, see Bartlett, Sheridan and Selim Iltus (2007) Making Space for Children; Planning for Post-disaster Reconstruction with Children and their Families, Save the Children, Chennai, India

249 Chawla, Louise, Natasha Blanchet-Cohen, Nilda Cosco, David Driskell, Jill Kruger, Karen Malone, Robin Moore and Barry Percy-Smith. (2005). “Don’t Just Listen- Do Something! Lessons Learned about Governance from the Growing Up in Cities Project” Children, Youth and Environments 15(2): 53-88.


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