Human Settlements Discussion Paper – Climate Change 2



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56 Breman, J, MS Alilio, A Mills (2004) “Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what’s new, what’s needed: a summary”, American Journal of Tropical. Medicine and. Hygiene, 71(2 suppl) 1-15

57 Breman, J, MS Alilio, A Mills (2004) “Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what’s new, what’s needed: a summary”, American Journal of Tropical. Medicine and. Hygiene, 71(2 suppl) 1-15

58 Breman, see previous note


59 WHO (2002) Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Lives; World Health Report 2002, WHO: Geneva

60 Snow, R W, EL Korenromp, E Gouws (2004) “Pediatric mortility in Africa: Plasmodium Falciparum malaria as a cause or risk?”, American Journal of Tropical. Medicine and. Hygiene, 71(2 suppl) 16-24

61 Holding, PA and Snow, RW (2004) “ Impact of Plasmodium Falcipraum malaria on performance and learning: review of the evidence”, American Journal of Tro
pical. Medicine and. Hygiene, 71(2 suppl) 68-75

62 Chuma, Jane M, Michael, Thiede, Catherine S Molyneux (2006) “Rethinking the economic costs of malaria at the household level: Evidence from applying a new analytical framework in rural Kenya”,

Malaria Journal, 5:76 http://www.malariajournal.com/content/5/1/76

63 Breman, J, MS Alilio, A Mills (2004) “Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what’s new, what’s needed: a summary”, American Journal of Tropical. Medicine and. Hygiene, 71(2 suppl) 1-15

64 Breman, J, MS Alilio, A Mills (2004) “Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what’s new, what’s needed: a summary”, American Journal of Tropical. Medicine and. Hygiene, 71(2 suppl) 1-15


65 Kemble, Sarah, Jennifer C Davis, Talemwa Nalugwa, Denise Njama-Meya, Heidi Hopkins, Grant Dorsey, and Sarah G Staedke (2006) “Prevention and treatment strategies used for the community management of childhood fever in Kampala, Uganda”, American. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74(6), 999-1007

66 Breman et al

67 World Health Organization. Health and environment in sustainable development: 5 years after the Earth summit. Available at: http://www.who.int/archives/inf-pr-1997/en/pr97-47. html.


68 Confalonieri, U, B Menne, R Akhtar , K Ebi,.,M Hauengue, RS Kovats, B Revich, and A Woodward, (2007) Human Health, in Parry, ML, OF Canziani, JP Palutikof, PJ van der Linden and CE Hanson (eds) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK pp 391-431


69 Bunyavanich, S, C Landrigan, A J McMichael, P R Epstein (2003). “The Impact of Climate Change on Child Health.” Ambulatory Pediatrics 3(1): 44-52

70 World Health Organization (2006) Asthma Fact Sheet N 307, August 2006, WHO: Geneva

71 Maynard, RL (2001) “Asthma and air pollution (editorial)”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 31, 518-20


72 Ko, FWS, W. Tam, TW Wong, C KW Lai_, GWK. Wong, T F. Leung, S S.S Ng_ and DSC Hui_(2007) “Effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization rates in different age groups in Hong Kong”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 37 (1312-1319)

73 Mott, Joshua A, David M Mannino, Clinton J Alverson, Andrew Kiyu, Jamilah Hashim, Tzesan Lee, Kenneth Falter and Stephen C Redd (2005) “Cardiorespiratory hospitalizations associated with smoke exposure during the 1997 Southeast Asian forest fires”, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 208(1-2)75-85

74 Bunyavanich, S, C Landrigan, A J McMichael, P R Epstein (2003). “The Impact of Climate Change on Child Health.” Ambulatory Pediatrics 3(1): 44-52

75 J. Hardoy, D. Mitlin and D. Satterthwaite (2001). Environmental Problems in Third World Cities, London: Earthscan Publications

76 Pandey, M.R, RP Neupane and AG Gautam (1987) “Domestic smoke pollution and acute respiratory infection in Nepal”,. in Seifert, B, H Esdorn, M Fischer et al Fourth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate , vol. 4, Berlin, Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene.

77 Bytomski JR, Squire DL (2003) “Heat illness in children”,
Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2003 Dec;2(6):320-4

78 Lam, LT (2007) “The association between climatic factors and childhood illnesses presented to hospital emergency among young children”, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 17 (1) 1-8


79 Gouveia, Nelson, Shakoor Hajat and Ben Armstrong (2003) “Socioeconomic differentials in the

temperature–mortality relationship in São Paulo, Brazil”, International Journal of Epidemiology 32:390–397



80 Kovats, R S and R Akhtar (2008) “Climate, climate change and human health in Asian cities”, Environment and Urbanization, in press

81 Harlan SL, Brazel AJ, Prashad L, Stefanov WL, Larsen L.(2006) “Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress”, Social Science and Med.icine 63(11):2847-63

82 Gouveia, Nelson, Shakoor Hajat and Ben Armstrong (2003) “Socioeconomic differentials in the

temperature–mortality relationship in São Paulo, Brazil”, International Journal of Epidemiology 32:390–397



83 Keatinge, WR and Donaldson GC (2004) “The impact of global warming on health and mortality”, South Medical Journal (11) 1093-99

84 Kovats, R S and R Akhtar (2008) “Climate, climate change and human health in Asian cities”, Environment and Urbanization, in press

85 Lechtig, A and B Doyle (1996) “The impact of water and sanitation on malnutrition and under 5 mortality rates”, WATERfront (8): 5-19.

86 Solomon, N W, M Mazariegos, K H Brown and K Klasing (1993), “The underprivileged developing country child: environmental contamination and growth failure revisited”, Nutrition Reviews 51(11) 327–332.


87 Magkos F, F Arvaniti, I Piperkou , S Katsigaraki, K Stamatelopoulos, M Sitara, A Zampelas (2004) “Identifying nutritionally vulnerable groups in case of emergencies: experience from the Athens 1999 earthquake”, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 55(7):527-36

88 Del Ninno, Carlo and Matthias Lundberg (2005) “The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh”, Economics and Human Biology 3(1) 67-96

89 Del Ninno, Carlo and Matthias Lundberg (2005) “The long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh”, Economics and Human Biology 3(1) 67-96

90 Hoddinot, J and Kinsey, B (2001) “Child growth in the time of the drought”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 63, 409-436

91 Jayatissa R, A Bekele , CL Piyasena , S Mahamithawa (2006) “Assessment of nutritional status of children under five years of age, pregnant women, and lactating women living in relief camps after the tsunami in Sri Lanka”,,Food and Nutrition Bulletin 27(2):144-52.

92Barrios RE, Stansbury JP, Palencia R, Medina MT.(2000) “Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in three hurricane-affected areas of Honduras”, Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública.8(6):380-4


93 Pryer, J. (1993). “The Impact of Adult Ill-Health on Household Income and Nutrition in Khulna, Bangladesh,” Environment and Urbanization 5(2): 35-50.

94 Caldwell, Pat (1996) “Child survival: physical vulnerability and resilience in adversity in the European past and the contemporary third world”, Social Science and Medicine 43(5) 609-619

95 IFE Core Group (2006) Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies: Operational Guidelines for Emergency Relief Staff and Programme Managers, available from http://ennonline.net

96 Sullivent EE 3rd, CA West , RS Noe , KE Thomas, LJ Wallace, RT Leeb (2006) “Nonfatal injuries following Hurricane Katrina – New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005”, Journal of Safety Research 37(2):213-7.

97 Bartlett, Sheridan (2002) “The problem of children’s injuries in low-income countries”, Health Policy and Planning, 2002, 17: 1-13.

98 Keenan, Heather T Stephen W. Marshall, Mary Alice Nocera, Desmond K. Runyan (2004) “Increased incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injury in children after a natural disaster”, American Journal of Preventive Medicine 26(3) 189-9

99 See for instance Brandenburg MA, MB Ogle , BA Washington , MJ Garner ,SA Watkins , KL Brandenburg (2006) " ‘Operation Child-Safe’: a strategy for preventing unintentional pediatric injuries at a Hurricane Katrina evacuee shelter”, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 21(5) 329-65


100 Bartlett, Sheridan (2002) “The problem of children’s injuries in low-income countries”, Health Policy and Planning, 2002, 17: 1-13

101 Berger LR and D Mohan (1996) Injury Control: a Global View, New Delhi: Oxford University Press

102 Cairncross, S and E A R Ouano (1990) Surface water drainage in low-income communities, Geneva, WHO.

103 Butchart, A, J Kruger and R Lekoba (2000) “Perceptions of injury causes and solutions in a Johannesburg township: implications for prevention”, Social Science and Medicine 50, 331-44


104 Berger LR and D Mohan (1996) Injury Control: a Global View, New Delhi: Oxford University Press


105 Walker, Susan, Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff , Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter, and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007) “Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries”, The Lancet, 369 (145-157)

106 Walker, Susan, Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff , Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter, and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007) “Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries”, The Lancet, 369 (145-157)



107 Grantham-McGregor S, YB Cheung, S Cueto, P Glewwe, L Richter, B Strupp (2006) “Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries”, Lancet 369: 60–70.

108 Engle, P (1996) Combating malnutrition in the developing world, in Carr SC and J F Schumaker (eds) Psychology and the Developing World. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger.

109 Walker, Susan, Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff , Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter, and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007) “Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries”, The Lancet, 369: 145-157

110 Chang SM, Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor S, Powell CA (2002) “Early childhood stunting and later behaviour and school achievement”, Journal of Child Psychoogy andl Psychiatry 2002; 43: 775–83.

111 Engle, P, S Castle and P Menon (1996) “Child development: vulnerability and resilience”, Social Science and Medicine, 43(5) 621-635

112 Walker, Susan, Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff , Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter, and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007) “Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries”, The Lancet, 369 (145-157)


113 King S, DP Laplante (2005) “The effects of prenatal maternal stress on children's cognitive development: Project Ice Storm”, Stress 8(1):1-3.

114 Oberhelman RA, ES Guerrero, ML Fernandez, M Silio, D Mercado, N Comiskey, G Ihenacho, and R Mera (1998) ”Correlations between intestinal parasitosis, physical growth, and psychomotor development among infants and children from rural Nicaragua”, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58: 470–75.

115 Niehaus MD, SR Moore, PD Patrick, LL Derr, B Lorntz, AA Lima, et al.(2002) “Early childhood diarrhea is associated with diminished cognitive function 4 to 7 years later in children in a northeast Brazilian shantytown”, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66: 590–93.

116 See for instance Boivin MJ (2002) “Eff ects of early cerebral malaria on cognitive ability in Senegalese children”. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 23: 353–64; Carter JA, V Mung’ala-Odera, BG Neville, et al. “Persistent neurocognitive impairments associated with severe falciparum malaria in Kenyan children”,. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 76: 476–81.

117 Valsiner, J. (1987) Culture and the Development of Children's Action. New York, Wiley; Rogoff, B. (2003) The Cultural Nature of Human Development. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press; Vygotsky, L S (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes. Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press.



118 Wohlwill, J. and H. Heft (1987) “The physical environment and the development of the child”, In D Stokols and I Altman (eds).Handbook of Environmental Psychology. New York, Wiley.

119 Wachs, T and F Corapci (2003) “Environmental chaos, development and parenting across cultures”, in C. Raeff and J. Benson (eds.), Social and cognitive development in the context of individual, social, and cultural processes (pp. 54-83). New York: Routledge.

120 Stansfield, S., M. Haines, et al. (2000). “Noise and health in the urban environment”. Review of Environmental Health 15(1-2): 43-82.


121 Evans, G W, S J Lepore, Sejwal, B and Palsane, M N . (1998). “Chronic residential crowding and children's well-being: an ecological perspective”, Child Development 69(5): 1514-1523.


122 Author’s field visits in Tamil Nadu

123 Walker, Susan, Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff , Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter, and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007) “Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries”, The Lancet, 369: 145-157

124 Engle, P, S Castle and P Menon (1996) “Child development: vulnerability and resilience”, Social Science and Medicine, 43(5) 621-635



125Chawla, Louise and Harry Heft (2002) “Children’s competence and the ecology of communities: a functional approach to the evaluation of participation”, Journal of Environmental Psychology 22, 201-216


126 Evans, J. (1993) “Early childhood care and development: issues from the developing country perspective”. Handbook of Research on the Education of Young Children. B. Spodek. New York, Macmillan

127 Diagne, Khady (2007) “Governance and natural disasters: addressing flooding in Saint Louis,Senegal”,,,Environment and Urbanization 19(2) 552-562

128 Boyden, Jo and Gillian Mann (2005) “Children’s risk, resilience, and coping in extreme situations”, in Ungar, Michael (ed) Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience across Cultures and Contexts, London: Sage Publications pages 3-27

129 Palmer, O J (1983) The psychological assessment of children (2nd ed.) New York: John Wiley.

130 Boyden, Jo and Gillian Mann (2005) “Children’s risk, resilience, and coping in extreme situations”, in Ungar, Michael (ed) Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience across Cultures and Contexts, London: Sage Publications pages 3-27

131 Chawla, Louise and Harry Heft (2002) “Children’s competence and the ecology of communities:

A functional approach to the evaluation of participation”, Journal of Environmental Psychology 22, 201-216


132 This psychiatric diagnosis is based on a number of criteria including such factors as flashbacks, intrusive thoughts and memories, hypervigilance, nightmares and intense anxiety occurring at levels that disrupt daily functioning. American Psychiatric Society (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)

133 For example, over 30 percent of sample children in Orissa, India a year after a super-cyclone, 18 percent in Poland 28 months after flooding, 12 percent in Korea following a typhoon. See Kar N, PK Mohapatra , KC Nayak , P Pattanaik , SP Swain ,HC Kar .(2007) “Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors”, BMC Psychiatry. 14;7:8; Bokszczanin A (2007) “PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents 28 months after a flood: age and gender differences”, Journal of Traumatic Stress20(3) 347-51; Lee I, YS Ha , YA Kim ,YH Kwon (2004). “PTSD symptoms in elementary school children after Typhoon Rusa”,, Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 34(4):636-45.

134 Batniji, Rajaie, Mark van Ommeren and Benedetto Saraceno (2006) “Mental and social health in disasters: relating qualitative social science research and the Sphere standard”, Social Science and Medicine 62(8) 1853-1864; Boyden, Jo and Gillian Mann (2005) “Children’s risk, resilience, and coping in extreme situations”, in Ungar, Michael (ed) Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience across Cultures and Contexts, London: Sage Publications


135 Batniji, Rajaie, Mark van Ommeren and Benedetto Saraceno (2006) “Mental and social health in disasters: relating qualitative social science research and the Sphere standard”, Social Science and Medicine 62(8) 1853-1864

136 Kar N, PK Mohapatra , KC Nayak , P Pattanaik , SP Swain ,HC Kar .(2007) “Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors”, BMC Psychiatry. 14;7:8.

137 See Boyden, Jo and Gillian Mann (2005) “Children’s risk, resilience, and coping in extreme situations”, in Ungar, Michael (ed) Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience across Cultures and Contexts, London: Sage Publications, pages 3-27. In support of this contention, research in Nepal in the context of conflict found that,parents and teachers perceived children as being relatively unaffected by the situation and unaware of the dangers. Children, on the other hand, reported a sophisticated awareness of the threats and a much higher level of anxiety than was recognized by adults. Bartlett, S (2007) Finding Hope in Troubled Times; Education and Protection for Children in Nepal, Save the Children USA and Norway, Kathmandu, Nepal

138 Engle, P, S Castle and P Menon (1996) “Child development: vulnerability and resilience”, Social Science and Medicine, 43(5) 621-635

139 Boyden, Jo and Gillian Mann (2005) “Children’s risk, resilience, and coping in extreme situations”, in Ungar, Michael (ed) Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience across Cultures and Contexts, London: Sage Publications, pages 3-27.


140 Batniji, Rajaie, Mark van Ommeren and Benedetto Saraceno (2006) “Mental and social health in disasters: relating qualitative social science research and the Sphere standard”, Social Science and Medicine 62(8) 1853-1864

141 Becklund, A, W. Wheaton and M Wessels (2005) “Rapid child protection assessments in emergency contexts”, Responses to young children in post-emergency situations, Early Childhood Matters, Number 104, 12-15, Bernard van Leer Foundation.



142 Prabhu, Nina (2007) International Donor Agencies Guidelines for Responding to Children in Emergencies, Ryerson University , downloaded from http://www.ineesite.org/ineedownloads/viewall.asp?pid=1387&cp=21

143 Tolfree, David (2005) “Community-based care for separated children”, Responses to young children in post-emergency situations, Early Childhood Matters, Number 104, 40-46, Bernard van Leer Foundation.

144 Tolfree, David (2005) “Community-based care for separated children”, Responses to young children in post-emergency situations, Early Childhood Matters, Number 104, 40-46, Bernard van Leer Foundation.


145Prabhu, Nina (2007) International Donor Agencies Guidelines for Responding to Children in Emergencies, Ryerson University , downloaded from http://www.ineesite.org/ineedownloads/viewall.asp?pid=1387&cp=21,

146 Mann, G (2000). “Networks of support: A literature review of care issues for separated children.” unpublished paper.

147 See for instance Save the Children and UNICEF (2006) “Watermarks” Child Protection during Floods in Bangladesh, Save the Children and UNICEF; Bartlett, S (2007) Finding Hope in Troubled Times, Save the Chjildren US: Kathamndu

148 Personal communications

149 Save the Children (2007) Legacy of Disasters: The Impact of Climate Change on Children, Save the Children UK, London

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