Humble isd – elar department 3rd Grade Glossary of Academic Language



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Humble ISD – ELAR Department

3rd Grade Glossary of Academic Language



Academic English Words

1) Words used in the learning of academic subject matter in a formal schooling context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study.

2) Words used during instruction, exams, and in textbooks. These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).
Fiction

Refers to a story that is made up. In every fiction story, there is at least one character, at least one setting and a plot.



  • Fables: a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events; a short moral story (often with animal characters).

  • Folktale: a collection of fictional tales about people and/or animals. A story passed down through generations, mainly by re-telling. Folktales describe how the main character copes with the events of everyday life, and the tale may involve crisis or conflict. Superstitions and unfounded beliefs are important elements in the folklore tradition.

  • Legend: a story, handed down. A story, sometimes of a national or folk hero, which has a basis in fact but also includes imaginative material. Often the legend is romanticized, growing in scope until the figure appears larger than life in the retelling.
  • Myth: A myth is a traditional story, which may describe the origins of the world and/or of a people. A myth is an attempt to explain mysteries, supernatural events, and cultural traditions. Sometimes sacred in nature, a myth can involve gods or other creatures.



conclude – A conclusion is something that you have figured out about the story by using your own knowledge and clues that the author has given.

conflictThe problem, usually introduced at the beginning of the story.

context clues – Words that help you determine the meanings of unknown words and phrases. Sometimes, context clues appear in the same sentence as the unknown word or phrase. They can also be in another sentence or paragraph.

elements of fiction – Narrative elements including setting, characters, plot, and theme.

figurative language – Figurative language describes something or someone using vivid and unusual comparisons. These comparisons try to create images in the mind of the reader for impact, interest, and clarity.

inference – Connecting bits of information to make a logical guess. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

metaphor – A figure of speech that compares two ideas or things by equating them without using like
or as.

simile – A comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like
or as.

graphic organizer – A tool that uses a “picture” to organize information and connect ideas. Outlines, charts, word webs, and timelines are examples of organizers.

imagery – Refers to pictures we form in our minds as read. The use of language to create mental images and sensory impressions.

inference – Connecting bits of information to make a logical guess. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference – Is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.


main idea – Tells what the passage is mostly about. You can use supporting details to figure out what the main idea is.


  • supporting details: Clues that tell about the main idea. Details can answer questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how.

moral lesson – Usually gives advice on how you can be a better person

multiple-meaning words – Words with more than one meaning

narrator – The person who tells, or narrates, a story.

  • First-person narrator: When a character tells a story. A first-person narrator uses the words I
    and we to tell the story.

  • Third-person narrator: tells the story using words such as he, she, and they.

plot – The basic sequence of events in a story-what happens in the story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action.

realistic fiction – Made-up story that could take place in real life.

resolution – The solution to the problem or how the problem is solved.

setting – The place and time in which the story happens. “Where and when does this story take place?”

sensory detail – A detail in writing that describes what is seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched.

sensory language – Words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory words are descriptions of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

summary – Restates and connects the main idea and the important details.

theme – The message or lesson of a story-the deeper meaning. It usually centers on a big issue that explores the nature of people or the meaning of life. It often suggests the way in which people should live. Some examples of themes are the importance of family, the dangers of dishonesty, or the way to behave toward others.


traditional literature – Stories that were originally oral and later became written text.
Poetry

A form of writing, often in rhyme, that tells a story or describes a person, place, feeling, or event. Poems are often divided into stanzas, or units with a fixed number of lines. Some poems have narrative structures like stories. These poems may also have characters that interact and develop. Some poems may also have a theme, or an underlying message that teaches the reader a lesson.



Forms of poetry:

        • free verse – Poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter-free from most structural elements

        • lyrical poetry – A short poem expressing personal feelings and emotions that may be set to music and often involves the use of regular meter.

        • narrative poetry – tells a story. Like other fiction, a narrative poem has characters, setting, and a plot with a sequence of events. In narrative poetry, the story is told by a speaker.

figurative language – Figurative language describes something or someone using vivid and unusual comparisons. These comparisons try to create images in the mind of the reader for impact, interest, and clarity.

  • metaphor: A figure of speech that compares two ideas or things by equating them without using “like” or “as.”

  • simile: uses the words like
    or as to compare two things

imagery – Refers to pictures we form in our minds as read. The use of language to create mental images and sensory impressions (e.g., the imagery of the phrase such sweet sorrow). Imagery can be used for emotional effect and to intensify the impact on the reader.

rhythm – The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line: BEAT the DRUM, and BLOW the HORN. A poet may use a pattern of line lengths, or line breaks, to create rhythm in a poem.


sensory language – Words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory words are descriptions of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

sound devices – add a musical quality to poetry. A poem rhymes when two or more lines end with the same sound. A poet can use a pattern of line lengths, or line breaks, to make the poem sound a certain way.


Drama

Tells a story through the words and actions of characters. Like a fiction story, it has characters, setting, and plot.


A drama has a cast of characters. A character’s name, followed by a colon, tells you who is speaking. There is very little description in a drama. Almost all of the information is given through speech.

Characters’ names appear at the left margin followed by what they say to other characters. Be sure to read carefully italicized words placed in parentheses because only in these stage directions playwrights state the setting for the action and how characters really think and feel about events and other characters. The page layout and the format are different from a story or a poem.


dialogue – The lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play. Dialogue in a play is the main vehicle in which plot, character, and other elements are established.

scenes – Acts may be divided into smaller sections called scenes. The setting may change in each scene.

stage directions – Provide information such as the time and place of the story or a description of the setting. They may describe a character’s feelings and actions. Stage directions are given from the point of view of an actor on the stage. For example, stage right means to the actor’s right, which is the audience’s left.

Nonfiction

Expository Text

Gives facts and information about a topic such as baseball, dinosaurs, or worms. All expository text has a main idea, or central topic, upon which the text is focused. Additional information about the main idea is given through supporting. Authors write expository text for a certain purpose, or reason. They might write to give information about a topic or to explain how to do something. An expository text might include causes and effects.

concluding sentences – Provide summaries of paragraphs or of whole texts

cause-and-effect: a cause is an event that makes something else happen and an effect is an event that happens because of an earlier action or event.


  • comparison: how things are alike or similar

  • sequence/logical order: the chronological order of events

graphic features - May include features such as maps, charts, illustrations, and diagrams.

headings – Headings and subheadings visually show readers how ideas are organized within the text. Each heading should accurately tell readers what each section covers.

main idea – Tells what the passage is mostly about. You can use supporting details to figure out what the main idea is.

supporting details: Clues that tell about the main idea. Details can answer questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how.

text features – The he use of bold print, headings, captions, key words, and italics.

topic – the subject of the selection
Informational/Procedural Text

A type of informational text that is written with the intent to explain the steps in a procedure, which includes directions or steps in a process such as a recipe. The author organizes the steps in a process in a specific sequence.


graphic features – Features used in informational/procedural text such as maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

Literary Nonfiction

Tells about people who really lived and events that really happened. Authors often use photographs and captions to help readers learn more about the people and events in a story.


  • Autobiography: A type of literary nonfiction that tells the story of a person’s life, written by that person. An author tells the most meaningful events in his or her life. The author might also include lessons he or she has learned over time. Written using the first-person point of view. Uses words such as I, me, we, and our.


  • Biography: A literary nonfiction that tells the story of a person’s life, written by someone else. A good biography creates a full, accurate picture of its subject. Written using the third-person point of view. Uses words such as he, she, it, and they.


chronological order – The time order in which the events of a person’s life happened

multiple-meaning words – Words with more than one meaning

sensory language – Words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory words are descriptions of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste. Sensory language includes similes and metaphors.

  • metaphor: A figure of speech that compares two ideas or things by equating them without using “like” or “as.”

  • simile: Uses the words like or as to compare two things



Persuasive Text

A form of writing that tries to convince you to do something or to think a certain way. The authors of persuasive text have a strong purpose, or reason, for writing. This type of writing includes text such as articles, letters, editorials, advertisements, and posters. Persuasive text uses both facts and opinions. Persuasive text often uses opinions to try to persuade the reader. Persuasive text is sometimes organized by cause and effect. Usually, authors of persuasive text will describe either a positive or negative effect in the process of arguing for or against a cause.

cause-and-effect – An organizational structure in which the author must make it clear that one event causes one event causes another event, or a series of events. A cause is an event that makes something else happen and an effect is an event that happens because of an earlier action or event.



Glossary
affix – A word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable).

alliteration – The repetition of the same sounds at the beginning of two or more adjacent words or stressed syllables (e.g., furrow followed free in Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner).

antonym – Words with opposite meanings.

autobiography – The life story of a person, as told by himself or herself.

conflict – In literature, conflict is the opposition of persons or forces that brings about dramatic action central to the plot of a story; conflict may be internal, as a psychological conflict within a character, or external (e.g., man versus man, man versus nature, or man versus society).

context clues – Words that help you determine the meanings of unknown words and phrases. Sometimes, context clues appear in the same sentence as the unknown word or phrase. They can also be in another sentence or paragraph.

Design techniques – used in media to influence the message (e.g., shape, color, sound)



dialogue – The lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play. Dialogue in a play is the main vehicle in which plot, character, and other elements are established.

drawing conclusions – A form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

elements of fiction – Narrative elements including setting, characters, plot, and theme.

expository text – A type of informational text that clarifies or explains something.


fable – a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events; a short moral story

(often with animal characters)



fact and opinion:

  • fact: a verifiable truth- A statement that can be checked against an objective source to determine if it is true or false.

  • opinion: someone’s thoughts, feeling, or belief about a topic. An opinion cannot be proved true because it tells how a person feels about something.

figurative language – Language layered with meaning by word images and figures of speech, as opposed to literal language. Figurative language describes something or someone using vivid and unusual comparisons. These comparisons try to create images in the mind of the reader for impact, interest, and clarity.

folktale – A collection of fictional tales about people and/or animals. Folktales describe how the main character copes with the events of everyday life, and the tale may involve crisis or conflict. Superstitions and unfounded beliefs are important elements in the folklore tradition.

genre – The type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content. Some examples of literary genres are epic, tragedy, comedy, poetry, novel, short story, and creative nonfiction.

graphic organizer – A tool that uses a “picture” to organize information and connect ideas. Outlines, charts, word webs, and timelines are examples of organizers.

homograph – A word that is spelled the same as another word but that has a different meaning, e.g., read (present tense) and read (past tense); in Spanish, vino (la bebida) and vino (del verbo venir), saco (del verbo sacar) and saco (la vestimental).

homonym – A word that is pronounced and usually spelled the same way as another word but that has a different meaning, e.g., fair (unbiased) and fair (light-colored).


homophone – A word that is pronounced the same, but not spelled the same, as another word and that has a different meaning (e.g., bear and bare, week and weak; in Spanish, tubo and tuvo, deshecho and desecho).

hyperbole – An intentionally exaggerated figure of speech for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton).

idiom – An expression that has a different meaning from the literal meaning of its individual words (e.g., have the upper hand or under the weather). Idioms are particular to a given language and usually cannot be translated literally.

imagery – The use of language to create mental images and sensory impressions (e.g., the imagery of the phrase such sweet sorrow). Imagery can be used for emotional effect and to intensify the impact on the reader.

inference – Connecting bits of information to make a logical guess. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

informational text – Text that presents information, including expository, persuasive, and procedural text.

internal rhyme – A rhyme within the same line of verse (e.g., dreary and weary in Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven: Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary).

legend – A legend is a story, handed down. Often the legend is romanticized, growing in scope until the figure appears larger than life in the retelling.

literary device – A specific convention or structure that is employed by the author to produce a given effect, such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing. Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.


literary nonfiction – The use of literary styles and techniques to create narratives based on actual persons, places, and things. In literary nonfiction, a writer may construct text in any number of ways and is not limited to the organizational patterns normally associated with nonfiction texts.

literary technique – The conscious choice of words or construction by an author to convey meaning; an author’s style.

metaphor - A subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations).

myth - A myth is a traditional story, which may describe the origins of the world and/or of a people. A myth is an attempt to explain mysteries, supernatural events, and cultural traditions. Sometimes sacred in nature, a myth can involve gods or other creatures.

onomatopoeia – The use of words that sound like what they mean (e.g., buzz and purr): a poetic device to produce this effect

palindromes – words such as the word "radar", read the same both ways

personification – Figurative language in which nonhuman things or abstractions are represented as having human qualities (e.g., Necessity is the mother of invention).

persuasive text – Text written with the intent to persuade or convince the reader of something.

plot – The basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action.

point of view – The perspective from which the events in the story are told. The author may choose to use any of the following:

1) Omniscient/third-person omniscient: The narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The knowledge is not limited by any one character’s view or behavior, as the narrator knows everything about all characters.

2) Omniscient/third-person limited: The narrator restricts his knowledge to one character’s view or behavior.

3) Objective: The narrator reveals only the actions and words without the benefit of the inner thoughts and feelings.

4) First person/subjective: The narrator restricts the perspective to that of only one character to tell the story.

5) Limited: a narrative mode in which the story is told through the point of view of a single character and is limited to what he or she sees, hears, feels, or is told.


problem-and-solution – An organizational structure in which the author introduces the situation or conflict and then proceeds to explain how to correct the situation or resolve the conflict.

procedural text – A type of informational text that is written with the intent to explain the steps in a procedure, as in a recipe.

purpose – The intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes.

resolution – The point in a literary work at which the story’s problem is worked out.

rhyme scheme – The pattern of rhyming lines (e.g., ABAB, ABBA).

script - A written version of a play or other dramatic composition.

sensory detail – A detail in writing that describes what is seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched.

sensory language – Words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory words are descriptions of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

setting – The time and place in which a narrative occurs. Elements of setting may include the physical, psychological, cultural, or historical background against which the story takes place.

simile – A comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose).

story line – The plot of a story or drama.

structural element – The basic form of a poem, including its visual presentation (e.g., line, stanza, or verse).

structural elements of poetry:


  • meter: The basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables.
  • stanza: A stanza is a set of lines in a poem, set apart from other sets of lines by space.


  • line break: Line break is the place where a line of poetry ends, unguided by traditional punctuation conventions. Line breaks are important in poetry because they so often affect meaning.

  • rhyme: Two or more lines end with the same sound.

structural pattern – The pattern that emerges when the various literary parts (i.e., character, setting, theme, and plot) come together to form the whole.

summarize – To reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main ideas.

To combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole.



synonym – A word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word.

theme – The central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. A universal theme transcends social and cultural boundaries and speaks to a common human experience. A theme may be explicit or implicit. In a work with an explicit theme, the author overtly states the theme somewhere within the work. Implicit theme refers to the author’s ability to construct a piece in such a way that through inference the reader understands the theme.

tone – The author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing.
Reference: Standards for Ensuring Student Success from Kindergarten to College and Career ©2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency 12 | Glossary



2/2012






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