I chose to present you a work concerning cars because it is about my biggest passion and because my dream is a day to be able to have in my ownership a sports car



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Introduction:


I chose to present you a work concerning cars because it is about my biggest passion and because my dream is a day to be able to have in my ownership a sports car. It is also a subject about which we hear every day which sometimes stirs up controversy or dramas but also miracles. The car is an integral part of our daily life we can say in statistic-term that every person old enough to drive in Belgium possesses at least a car and without her, we would have a great deal of difficulty in living a normal life and without any major trouble. We generally go on holidays with, are going to make shopping or still visit the family, without car it would set a lot of time.

During this work , I chose to talk about the wheel, how and when it appears. About the history of the car, inventions and progresses. The different types of motorisations. And the car is not only an object to move but also to have fun, to make races and it became an international sport, incredible technology can be set in a racing car. And to finish I decided to give some informations about the fastest cars the world that the world knew.

1.The wheel:

The wheel is at the origin of any biggest inventions never created, it is moreover a part of one of the most important and bigger discovery than the man have never made. The wheel in completely changed the universe of transport. And is the most important part of an automobile.

The wheel is invented in the Sumerian world, in the South of Mesopotamia, between the Tiger and the Euphrates, probably towards 3500 BC. A pictogram of this period shows clearly a trolley on wheels. The oldest known wheels are full disks formed all in one piece. They evolue then, at the end of the IIIth millennium, towards full wheels constituted by three parts assembled between them. The discovery and the identification of rests of trolleys with full wheels dating 2500 BC confirm certain representations of the wheel on funeral vases. Wheels with shelves appear by 2000 BC, relieving the vehicle while strengthening the wheel. In any event, the history(story) of the origins of the wheel is still badly known.


Some examples of what looked like first wheels:



2.The main lines of the automobile history:

2.A)The first vehicle able of driving:

The first motored vehicle, car, functional was invented in 1789 by Joseph Cugnot under the name of "Fardier de Cugnot". This vehicle worked by means of a steam boiler placed in front. Thanks to the pressure which developed this boiler, it allowed a travel:



The first tries to replace horses by a driving strength date from the XVIIth century. The vapor appeared to be the most promising solution but it is only at the end of the XVIIIth century when it had a real success. The vehicle creates by Cugnot was put on sale in 1770. However, it had one limited use. Afterward, other steam less practical vehicles, any time, were built by French, American and British engineers, among whom William Murdoch, James Watt and William Symington

It will be necessary to wait for the inspiration of a textile engineer French to see being born gasoline engine as we know them today. In 1883 this person of Edouard Delmare-Debouteville's name, he put a small engine two cylinders on a frame called "Break de Chasse ":


2.B)Of the vapor to the internal combustion engine:

2.B.a)The vapor engine:

In 1789 the American Olivier Evans applied for a patent for a steam car. In 1803, he built the first steam amphibian automobile. Having to look for vainly financial supports for his project of steam wagon, Oliver Evans gives up, but not for a long time. He took back his studies and builds a funny steam hybrid vehicle, middle-trailer, the flat-bottomed middle-barge, on four wheels and as well on ground as in the water, with which he circulates in the city of Philadelphia. It is named: "Orukter Amphibolos":



In Europe, the engineer of British mines Richard Trevithchic built in 1801 the first steam car which he calls: "London Steam Carriage":


In Great-Britain, years 1820-1840 were the golden age for the steam power-driven road vehicles. These automobiles were built by engineers as Crung, Hancock or Macerone. However, this young industry was only short-lived. Indeed, the succession of the railroad puts an end to the progress of the steam.

This tradition was reconsidered only when certain inventors and French engineers developed more successful machines in the 1870-80s .And it is in France in 1873 that the Bollée family (family of very good inventors and French engineers) created the first steam car rather compacts, in a concept rather as that nowadays and not as the London Carriage. And it was the Obéissante, it had the look of a little train:


Since the appearance of the car, the relation of the man in the space and in time is going to be completely upset. From then on, the competition bursts out and the inventors on the lookout for new techniques, explore new ways as that some gas, the petrol or still of electricity.



2.B.b)Internal combustion engine:

The first gas engine was realized by the German Nicolaus Otto in 1876. Then, came the gasoline engine in 1889, the first one built to be mass-produced was invented by Gottlieb Daimler, and the first car with a gasoline engine invented to be mass-produced was born thanks to the association of René Panhard and Emile Levassor under the Bachelor's degree of production of Daimler in 1891. This car was the Panhard-Levassor.



In the XXth century, France is really at the forefront of the car industry. A large number of car industries are born as Delahaye, Mors and Gladiators, Renault, Darracq, Rochet Sneider... Not less than 600 manufacturers is divided the world market. On the eve of the World War I, there is two trends.

The luxury automobile, the custom-made car according to the desires of the customer and the popular car, made in series and in the chain as the automobile giant Ford who produced his model T in several million copies. This event is really going to contribute to the democratization of this means of transportation.

Carl Benz is the founder with Daimler of who exists under the name of Mercedes today, is as a father for the automobile such as we know it nowadays because he made the first one to install an internal combustion engine on a frame, what is going to allow in the future to replace the steam boilers or the gas engines. He installed this engine (created by Daimler) on the Benz Patent which becomes the Benz Patent Motorwagen nummer 1. It is a tricycle from 1885, back wheels of which undergo the driving strength of the engine to allow the vehicle to move forward. This automobile is at the origin of all the practical inventions which we arrange on the current cars such as the electric starter of the engine, the ordered inlet valves, the gearbox and the differencial as well as the water cooling of the engine. Today we use a liquid more adapted for the driving cooling which is called cooling liquid, it is generally pink.

In fact, we built some internal combustion engines from the beginning of the XIXth century, before the oil becomes a product of common use. We used then for these engines vapors of turpentin or some hydrogen. But it was only with the gasoline, the only liquid vaporizing easily, at the same time combustible and available in great quantities. The first usable internal combustion engine was built in 1860 by the French inventor Étienne Lenoir, who took up it in a small cart, a first car without horses. In 1876, the German technician Nikolaus August Otto, who had heard about the engine Lenoir, built a four-stroke engine. In the first time, a piston closely adjusted in a cylinder is pulled towards the outside, so as to inhale a mixture of gasoline and air in the empty cylinder. Then the valve is pushed away in the cylinder to compress gases. In the point of maximal compression, gases are fired and explode. The explosion pushes away the valve, and it is this movement which makes turning the engine. It pulls a wheel which puts back again the valve to expel from the cylinder the residues after combustion or the exhaust gas, the fourth and last time of the cycle. The wheel again makes take out the piston it establishes the beginning of the following cycle. A Scottish engineer, Dugald Clerk, found almost immediately an improvement in the four-stroke engine.

He added the second cylinder, arranged so that his piston is pulled by the explosion as the other one was in the time of admission: this arrangement returned the much more regular flow of energy. Later, the addition of the other cylinders (four is a current number today) increased the regularity and the power of this internal combustion engine.

Such an engine turned out essential in the practical realization of automobiles, but auxiliary inventions were also imperative. The ignition of the mixture of gasoline and air at the right time raised a difficult problem. We used for it any sorts of ingenious devices. By 1923 he became common to recover to it to an electric system. The food results from a battery which supplies the electricity resulting from a chemical reaction.

But here we can reload drum kits by making them cross by an electric current of sense opposite to that of their discharge; this current knocks down the sense of the chemical reaction and chemicals can then supply with the electricity.

The current opposite is brought by a small generator which pulls the engine. The most common type of storage drum kit has an alternation of lead plates and lead oxide, soaking into a solution relatively concentrated by sulphuric acid. It was invented by the French physicist Gaston Planté in 1859 and put under his modern shape by the American electrical engineer Charles Francis Brush in 1881.

We invented since more strong and more compact accumulators, for example an accumulator nickel-iron realized by Edison by 1905, but from an economic point of view, none can compete with the lead-ion battery. The voltage supplied by the drum kit is stored in the magnetic field of a transformer called induction coil, and the rough fall of this field supplies the headland of tension producing the spark between the electrodes of the spark plugs which are familiar to us.

When an internal combustion engine started, the slowness maintains it in movement between driving times. But it is necessary to supply it with the energy to make it start. At the beginning, it was made in the hand (with the crank of the automobile), and we again make start in the hand outboard motors and lawn mowers by firing at a thread. The crank of the automobile, it, required a well developed arm muscle. When the engine began to turn, it was rather frequent to see the crank escaping the hand which held it, to turn and to break the arm of the operator.




2.B.c)Improvements and modifications:

In 1912, the American Charles Franklin Kettering invented a starter which allowed to finish it with the crank. The starter is fed by the drum kit which supplies the energy necessary for the first tours of the engine. It was two German engineers, Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz that built independently in 1885 the first automobiles of practical use. But what made of the automobile a usual means of transportation, it was the invention of the mass production. The first one to implement this technique was Eli Whitney, who deserves more fame for it than for its most famous invention of the machine to shell the cotton. In 1789, Whitney signed a contract with the American federal government for the supply of rifles to the army.

Until this period, rifles had been made one by one, each with the own rooms. Whitney designed standard spare parts, so that a given part, can adapt itself to any rifle. This simple and only innovation, a standard of manufacturing, exchangeable spare parts for a type given by product, was maybe so important as any other factor in the creation of the modern industry of mass production. When powerful machines were available, they allowed to make parts standardized in practically unlimited number.

The American engineer Henri Ford, the first one, went up to the end of this concept. He had built his first automobile (one two cylinders) in 1892, then had gone to work for Detroit Automobile Company in 1899 as chief engineer. The company wanted to produce custom-made cars, but Ford had other intentions. He resigned in 1902 to produce automobiles in his account, in quantity. In 1909, he began to produce the model T, and by 1913, to make it according to the method of Whitney: a car after the other one, each identical to the previous one, and all with the same spare parts. Ford understood that he could accelerate the production by using workers human as we used machines, to make the even small work in a repetitive way continuously.


The American Samuel Colt (who had invented the revolver or "six-shot gun") had put the first ranging-poles of the method in 1847, and the car manufacturer Ransom E. Olds had applied the system to the engine of automobile in 1900. However, Olds lost its financial supports, and he thus fell to Ford to bring to a successful conclusion the project. Ford designed the chain, with workers adding parts to the assembly while this one passed in front of them on bands of transport, until the ended car leaves the chain by driving. Two economic progresses resulted from this system: of high salaries for the workers, and cars which we could sell to strangely low prizes.

By 1913, Ford built one thousand T models a day. When the chain was stopped in 1927, we had produced fifteen million cars and the prize had fallen to 290 dollars. The craze for the change of vehicle every year took it then, and Ford was forced to join the upholders of the variety and the superficial novelty, which made increase enormously the prize of automobiles and lose to the motorists a big part of the advantages of the mass production.

2.C)The arrival of the Diesel:

In 1892, the German mechanical engineer Rudolf Diesel introduced a modification in the internal combustion engine, which was simple and economic by running. He(it) carried(wore) the mixture high-pressure fuel-air, so that the heat of the only compression was enough to fire him(it). The diesel engine makes possible the use of fractions of distillation of the oil with higher boiling point which doesn’t rattle. Because of the highest used compression, the engine must be more solid. That’s why diesel engines are heavier than those with gasoline.


When an adequate system of injection of the fuel was worked out in the twenties, it began to stand out for trucks, tractors, coaches, boats; he is now undisputed king of the heavy transport. Improvements of the gasoline still increased the efficiency on the internal combustion engine.

The gasoline is a complex mixture of molecules made by atoms of carbon and by hydrogen (hydrocarbons), of which some burn faster than with others. A speed of too fast combustion is to be avoided, because then the mixture gasoline-air explodes too places at the same time, producing the jingle. A lower speed of combustion produces an equal dilation of the vapor, which pushes the piston regularly and effectively.


The rate of jingle of a given gasoline is measured by its octane rating, compared with the jingle of one hydrocarbon conscript iso-octan, which produces very few jingles, mixed in the normal heptan, which produces it a lot. One of the main purposes of the refining of the gasoline is to make a mixture of hydrocarbons with a high octane rating. We designed engines of automobiles with more and more raised compression ratios, it means that the mixture gasoline-air is compressed in bigger densities before the ignition. This compression allows more extracted energy of the gasoline but also encourages the jingle, so that it is necessary to make some gasoline with more and more raised octan rating. To simplify the task, we use chemicals which, when we add them in small quantity to the gasoline, it reduce the jingle. The most effective of these compounds anti-jingle is the lead tetraethyl, a compound of the lead the properties of which had been noticed by the American chemist Thomas Midgley and which we used for the first time in 1925. The gasoline which contains it is called high-octan petrol. If there was only some lead tetraethyl, lead oxides formed during the combustion of the gasoline would dirty and would destroy the engine. This is why we add some bromide of ethylene.


The lead atom of the lead tetraethyl harmonizes with the atom of bromine of the bromide of ethylen to form some lead bromide which, in the temperature of combustion of the gasoline, vaporizes and is expelled with exhaust gases. Diesel fuels are tested, as regards time passing by between compression and ignition (to avoid a too long time), compared with one hydrocarbon conscript cetan, the molecule of which contains sixteen atoms of carbon, while that of iso-octane contains only eight. For diesel fuels, we thus speak about index of cetan.

The improvements continued. In 1923, it was tires low pressure, at the beginning of the fifties tires without inner tube, that returned the less frequent explosions. In the forties, cars had air conditioning in the United States, then the automatic transmissions were introduced and gear changes began to be less used. Towards the fifties appeared the direction and the assisted brakes system (ABS). The automobile became a so intrinsic part of the modern life as in spite of the increase of the cost of the gasoline and the atmospheric pollution, it seems impossible, with the exception of a disaster destroying the humanity, as it disappears.


  • Gasoline engine cycle (four-stroke):



*The stage (d) is not a part of the cycle but we simply use it to show at which moment the power is given to the wheels, and it’s from the stage (c) that the piston begins to go down in the cylinder.

  • Diesel engine cycle (four-stroke):

The difference between gasoline and diesel engines is that gasoline need a spark from a spark plug to catch fire and to give an explosion, unlike the diesel wich just need a high temperature due to the high pressure caused during the compression and air wich allow an inflammation by mixing with this fuel.


2.D)Electric and hybrid vehicles:

2.D.a)Electric engines on cars:

We cannot really define a date for the first electric motor car having existed but would be it in surroundings of the 1830s thanks to the genius of a Scottish engineer of Robert Anderson 's name as first electric motor car been born. At that time, the work of the latter corresponded more to a cart than to a vehicle. This vehicle worked with a battery, what means that it is not the drum kit and that we cannot reload it, fortunately it was only a prototype this day and far from being produced to run on the road.

In 1859, Gaston Planté invented the first rechargeable battery in the acid lead, a find which will be very useful for the future electric motor cars.

This person designed the first car of this kind but also the instrument capable of reloading the drum kit of the vehicle. An invention which will be questioned by Thomas Parker in 1884, which asserts that he is the author of the first electric motor car and proves it with a supporting photo. Other searches assert that an American while bearing William Morrison 's name which, in 1891, was the precursor in the sector. In reality, he is the inventor of the first battery-driven vehicle intended for the marketing.

The first electric automobile to exceed the 100 kilometer speed per hour was called "La Jamais Contente" and was built in Belgium in 1899. She was equipped with tires Michelin and adopted the form of a torpedo.


In the 1900s, more than a third of the existing vehicles in the world were electric and it is also the time from the revival of the gasoline engines that was translated by the introduction on the market of Ford Model T. Near 1912, the sale of battery-driven vehicles was in decline because of the accessibility of the gasoline, of the very high price of these types of car with regard to those gas and especially the low autonomy and the speed of the latter.

It is only in the late 80's debuts of the 90’s when the electric motor car known an important rise considering of the important decrease of natural resources as the oil besides its more and more expensive price, besides the growing pollution as well as besides the impact that one the enormous releases of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by humans, the electric motor car seemed to be a very interesting option to continue to move and at the same time to have one borrows less important on the planet but also of saved its money. Unfortunately, this last reason was doubtless the most rewarding to buy an electric motor car. Even if they were more expensive to buy, these cars were very long-trem profitable and that’s interesting. For cars of this period, they had a lot of potential and had been well conceived. These cars had an autonomy of 200 kilometers on average what is enormous for these times. Even today, 200 kilometers can turn out to be a good average for an electric car.

These cars were essentially produced and sold in the United States by the American giant “General Motors(GM)” who produced them, who during the 80s and 90s, formed one associated group with brands like Mercedes, Opel, Toyota or still Chevrolet but also many others. Unfortunately, this giant in summer strongly weakens during the economic crisis of 2008 and the years which followed. (All the financials deficits that knew GM is due to the fact that he produced especially that we call Pick-up, very big cars with enormous engines which consumed a lot, these cars brought beautiful taxes in mailboxes. The brands having talked so much deficits are brands as Chevrolet with these mythical Corvettes or Camaro, Dodge with his famous Ram 1500 and Viper, but also GMC, Cadillac and so many others but especially American brands).


Unfortunately for those little electric cars, any biggest oil chains and even certain big automobile brands lodged a complaint with the United States to order General Motors to arrest the production of these cars which did not consume gasoline or diesel. The USA naturally lined up against GM because, the sale of these cars lowered the income of taxes brought by the oil. This is the way the development of electric motor cars was again perturbed. Until the arrival of the hybrid motorisations.

2.D.b)Hybridisation of cars:

The history of the hybrid car goes back to the end of the 19th century, at the beginning of the 20th. In 1905, sir H. Pipper asked the granting of a licence for an engine diesel oil-electricity. According to him, the electric engine allowed to increase the performances of the engine in the diesel, to allow a car to pass from 0 till 40km / hour in only ten seconds, much more than the thermal engines of those times.

Unfortunately for this man, the time his licence toke to be approved, better thermal engines had been developed.

Thanks to or because of fast technological breakthroughs in the classic engines, the popularity of an electric motor car or hybrid disappeared until 1970s, during the first oil crises. At this moment, numerous automobile companies invested in the development of electric hybrid vehicles. However, the oil price came down again and the interest for this kind of vehicle disappeared again.

Two decades later, the European and Japanese brands tried to reduce the production costs of the “green” vehicles, and in so to make them more saleable. Companies as Honda, Toyota, Volkswagen, Mitsubishi invested themselves to reduce emissions and consumption of their vehicles.




Finally, the first hybrid car to be massively marketed is famous Toyota Prius, whose launch on the market took place in 1997. The success is enormous, because more than a million models was worldwide sold, Toyota describing this car as a "clean(green) family car ". Afterward, plenty of other big brands began to produce hybrid vehicles as Lexus (luxury brands of Toyota), Honda, Mercedes, Audi, Nissan, Infinity (luxury brand of Mazda), and even brands of sport cars as Porsche, Ferrari, Mc Laren or Lamborghini. All those companies are worried about the environment today and that’s why they are producing much more cars of this kind, and also because the hybrid automobile market becomes much more interesting.

2.D.c) Two types of motorization that use electricity:


  • The full electric transmission:



  • Electric combined to diesel or gasoline:



*The difference between plug-in(Boosted hybrid) and conventional hybrid is that the conventional(Standard) cannot be reload whereas plug-in well. That’s why plug-in hybrid cars generally have a lower consumption and are more interesting. And for the companies, if they have a company car, these cars are very deductible!

2.D.d)Working of electric motorisation:




Drum kits serving to supply electric engines are reloaded via transformers. Those devices get back the energy as soon as wheels turn and as soon as the car makes a trip, drum kits are therefore continuously powered. The transformers can also get back the kinetic energy produced by the car during deceleration and during braking. Once the energy arrived in the drum kit, it is sent to the electric engine of the car which is going to transfer its power to the wheels to help the thermal engine to produce fewer efforts and to consume less of running, what is obviously going to decrease the consumption and the emissions of CO.

It is about a very different conduct compared to a simple thermal engine because some systems, when the car stops, the combustion engine go out and when the car starts, it uses its electric engine only and when the car reaches a speed of more or less 20 kilometers per hour, the system restarts the gasoline or diesel engine, it allows to save a lot of fuel. During a normal acceleration from 0 to 30 km/h for example, an engine increases its consumption of almost 400 % and it can be more, instead of consuming on average 6 liters per 100kilometers, the engine will spend about 15-20 liters in immediate consumption. Those actions bring a lot of gas releases and we have to avoid this as more as possible today. We can particularly find this kind on system with Lexus, a well known Japanese brand.

A hybrid car generally offers several driving styles like: “Eco” mode, “Normal” and “Dynamic” (or sport). The “Eco” mode generally use a full electric conduct what means that the car isn’t using any fuel or the system limits the power of the car and uses more the electric engine to avoid as more as possible of gas releasing. Moreover, the system searches the best moment to engaging different gears to perfectly use the engine. The brands are recommending this mode during urban trips, because cars have a higher consumption when they are traveling in a city or during a traffic jam.


The “Normal” mode doesn’t have any particularity, the system just use the two engines and have a moderate consumption, it is generally recommended to set this mode on highways and for long trips.

The “Dynamic” mode isn’t really useful except when you want to enjoy yourself and re-wing up your car and have a bit fun if you like the speed. Then the system will rev up the engine at high RPMs (rotors per minutes) to give the best of the power of the car and reach good performances.

3.What about Formula ONE ? :

The Formula 1 finds its origin in the motor racing competition in Europe in the 1920s and 30s. It really begins in 1946 with the standardisation of rules wanted by the international sports Committee of the international Federation of the automobile and the creation of the "International Racing Formula n°1 ", to indicate the optimal quality, compressed in Formula 1. A world championship of Formula 1 is created in 1950 then a cup of the manufacturers in 1958 (which becomes the World championship of the manufacturers from 1982). The evolution of the discipline is closely linked to that of the performances of cars and technical regulations of the competitions. Although the earnings of the World championship stay the main objective, numerous races of Formula 1 took place without being included in the World championship (races out of competition). The latest, competed to Brands Hatch (Racing track in UK), took place in 1983. National championships organize in South Africa and in the United Kingdom in the 60s and 70s.


The Formula 1 in known so much change since 1950, many stables one goes bankrupt or withdrew of championship, rules and the regulations are so complex compared to 65 years ago. The technology goes farther and farther and security measures are ceaselessly renewed and cars possess more and more complexity and performances.


This car seems very archaic with compared to F1 which we know today. Nevertheless, the formula 1 is known to be the state-of-the-art of automobile nowadays and it was already the case in 1950 because this car had a 8cylinders in-line engine accompanied with a compressor, the whole developed 425 horsepower and this car weighed only 710 kilograms who allowed in this single-seater racing car to reach 305 KPH, what is enormous. This car possessed also a very big gasoline tank of 350 liters and consumed up to 175 liters per 100 km, it is monstrous!

At that time, Formula 1 didn’t have any assistance braking service (ABS) or anti-skid system (ASR) and many others drive assistances systems that makes the conduct no easy.

This is the F1Exoto Alfa Romeo Alfetta 159 from 1951 who wins the first championship:

This Alfa Romeo was driven by the well known Argentinian driver Juan Manuel Fangio. He won his first Formula ONE championship with her.


The Formula 1 known lots of changes since 1950 in particular with the invention of the back spoiler and then in front, to help the car to have a better adhesion during the corners, to be able to take them more quickly and go always faster. Engines became more and more powerful and capable and the cars lighter. According to time, F1s went faster and faster.


In 1982, the manufacturers had developed a new engine with a turbo. This turbo was coupled with an engine V6 of 1.5litres and the whole had a power furthermore of 1400 horsepower. In 1986, the power during the race was limited at 850hp only. All the power of a F1 was attributed during qualifications (to establish the starting grid for the race).

This is a BMW F1 BT52 of 1983



In 1991, the power of the turbo engine in summer judged too much dangerous with all the sometimes mortal accidents caused by a too high speed. In 1992 F1 thus separated from the turbo to take back an atmospheric engine (without turbo). But in 2014, the racing team world champion "Mercedes AMG" used a hybrid turbo engine of 1.6 liters but much less powerful, she possesses only 900Hp what is still not nothing.

This is theMercedes AMG F1 w06 Hybrid” of 2014


With the technology which we have today, cars reach performances we still have never seen and it will never stop because we progress and that is why, to avoid a maximum of accidents, the international federation of the automobile (FIA) impose a regulation more and more strict in the development of F1. Today, the development for a new engine, if racing teams want to have a powerful but which respects rules, costs a few 100 million Euros. For the biggest teams like Ferrari, Mercedes or William, this sum does not raise big problems because during races, they are generally good classified and earn a lot of money thanks to their possible victory or places on the podium but also thanks to the sponsors who give millions Euros for the advertising on cars. So, we meet the principle of: the rich become more and more rich and the more and the poor more and more poor because teams which finish at the end of the ranking do not really earn a lot of money compared to the others. That is why some teams went bankrupt in the past. But today, another problem results from the fact that the regulation is too strict, it is that several of the biggest F1 racing teams threatened to withdraw if cars have to continue to be restrained more and more. It might be the case of Ferrari or still RED BULL.


4.Establishing of speed records from 1990 to 2015 of road cars:


  • In 1990, it is Lamborghini with the Diablo which has the speed record.

Her characteristics are a frame and a body in aluminium, an engine V12 of 5,7 L of capacity, 492HP , couple of 580 Nm in 5 500 rpm and a complete transmission, the whole for a vacuous 1 600 kg weight. With 325 kph, she meets the challenge to become the fastest supercar of the world at the beginning of 1990s, in front of Ferrari F40 and Porsche 959. The Lamborghini Diablo was produced to 3 000 copies between 1990 and 2001.




  • In 1991, it is Bugatti with the EB 110 which go faster.

The Bugatti has a V12 3.5 liters engine with 4 turbos. The whole developed 560HP and brings the car at 336kph. The frame is made in carbon fiber strengthened by plastic.


  • Then, in 1992 Jarguar with the XJ220 names the first place


Originally propelled by the engine V12, which shows itself far too heavy and cumbersome, this jaguar will be finally equipped with a V6 bi-turbo, developing a power of 549HP for a weight contained by 1 470 kg. With such a power, this Jaguar could reach 341,6 kph top speed and carried out the exercise of 0 in 100 kph in 3,9 seconds.



  • Then, in 1993 comes the F1 of the road to caches the speed record. The McLaren F1.

The car welcomes an engine BMW of architecture V12 of 6,1 liters which has 627HP and achieves 386,7kph



  • In 2005 only it is the Swedish Koenigsegg CCR that makes a new speed record.

This car has a 4.7 liter V8 of 806HP with a whole carbon fiber chassis. She break the record with a maximum speed of 386,4 kph.



  • Unfortunately for Koenigsegg, Bugatti breaks again the record two months later With the Veyron.

The insane Veyron has a W16 8.0 liters which has 1001HP. She is the first Hyper-car in the world because she was the first to go to 400kph, her exactly speed is about 408,47kph.




  • For the first time in the automobile history, an American car, the Shelby Super Car (SSC) Ultimate Aero Twin Turbo (TT) makes a new speed records in 2007. This car has a V12 6.3liters which develop 1046HP and has a speed of 412,28 kph



  • Against all expectations, Bugatti with the Veryon Super Sport this time, takes back the place of the fastest car of the world in 2010.

Bugatti kept the same engine but boosted it. In place of 1001hp, from now on this engine has 1200HP which bring the car to 430,99kph.



  • But American hadn’t yet said them last word because, in 2014 a little band named Hennessey has designed the all new Venom GT.

Propelled by V8 of 7 liters of the Corvette Z06 endowed with two turbos and with a 6gers box, Venom GT can develop until 1 244HP. She realizes 0 in 100 in 2,6 seconds and reaches(affects) a maximal speed of more than 435,31 kph.




  • And at the moment, in January 2015 it is a Swedish car from the brand Koenigsegg which breaks the record with a maximum speed of 440kph. That car is the ONE:1.

She names like this because she has the same number of horsepower as she weight, 1360kgs for 1360HP. Her engine is a V8 5 liters with two turbos. We call Hyper cars , car which reache more than 400kph but the electric power which develop her engine is about 1000kw (1 mega watt) so we can considerate that it is the first Mega car in the world.



Conclusion:

Since the arrival of the Fardier de Cugnot from the all new Koenigsegg ONE:1, the automobile world has known lots of changements and progresses, from the weak performances of vapor to the powerful internal combustion engines. The world entered in a new era when came those engines. Then the car changes our relationship with the time and profoundly reposition us in the relation to distance. Having become one of the most important invention of the world, the car very quickly became a daily object which was necessary to have and also became almost essential. The car had been very democratized thanks to techniques like assembly-line production work invented in the USA by Henry Ford. The automobile created many jobs worldwide. The car also became a subject of entertainment thanks to races. Today cars races are one of the most famous and mediatized sport in the world. It is the case of the Formula 1 for example, it is a part of the biggest international competition of the world. And since the beginning of cars, like for all, men always want to do better and it is why we have so incredible cars on our earth.

END .






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