Some of my entries are not THAT historically important….some were added to make sure I had several entries for each date. One of the reasons I tried to find at least one entry for so many different tribes is to make the book appealing to people who are interested in those different tribes. Who knows, that one entry about an obscure tribe might mean the sale of a book to someone from that tribe...
I wrote every tribal name in a BOLD typeface. This seems to be missing from the copy I received. I originally had them with every letter capitalized. Ted Sava said to make them bold instead of Capitalized. A couple of entries are unclear because it is not apparent that a name is a tribe and not a town, city, river or some other object. AQ115 is a good example of this.
AQ1: This law affects all Presidents, not just the one presently in office. Previously, the council did not need presidential approval.
AQ2: Treaty with the Seminole signed on 9/18/1823: 1823: Thirty-one Seminole signed a treaty with the United States (7 Stat. 224) on Moultrie Creek in Florida. Six chiefs were given large estates to get them to agree to the treaty. Those chiefs were: John Blunt, Eneah Emathla, Emathlochee, Tuski Hadjo, Econchattemicco, and Mulatto King. The Seminole gave up lands north of Tampa Bay and returned runaway black slaves. They received an annuity of $5,000. The lands set aside for the Seminole were poor at best. The Americans were represented by James Gadsden.
AQ3: This reservation in Washington was enlarged in acreage, by the president.
AQ4: This group oversees some tribal environmental programs.
AQ5: All tribal names can be listed in the singular form, (without an s) if you feel this is important. I intentionally changed it from time to time just to vary the flow of the material.
AQ6: This was the title he gave himself. There was no such position before he created it. I do not care if you put it in quotes, but the title belays the arrogance of Bowles & I think it is important to list the entire title.
AQ7: correct according to original documents
AQ8: President R.B. Hayes expanded the lands set aside for the Navajo reservation:
It is hereby ordered that the following-described country lying within the boundaries of the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, viz: Commencing in the middle of the channel of the San Juan River, where the east line of the Navajo Reservation in the Territory of New Mexico, as established by the treaty of June 1, 1868 (15 Stat., 667), crosses said river; thence up and along the middle channel of said river to a point 15 miles due east of the eastern boundary line of said reservation; thence due south to a point due east of the present southeast corner of said reservation; thence due south 6 miles; thence due west to the one hundred and tenth degree of west longitude; thence north along said degree to the southwest corner of said reservation in the Territory of Arizona, as defined by Executive order dated October 29, 1878, be, and the same is hereby, withdrawn from sale and settlement and set apart as an addition to the present Navajo Reservation in said Territories.
AQ9: Lakota (or the incorrect, but commonly used Sioux) are trying to avoid going to a reservation. A large group is captured, and forced to march from Poplar to Fort Buford.
AQ10: I am having some problems locating my notes on this one, so, either delete it, or add the following.
Of all of the recorded attacks by Indians on wagon trains crossing the western half of the United States, the very last one happened today.
AQ11: OK with me. I was told to change everything to present tense…I wasted several months doing it, it appears..
AQ12: As a part of what would be called the Yazoo Fraud, where State Legislators were bribed by land developers, the state of Georgia sells large sections of Indian land to settlers and speculators.
AQ13: OK by me if you revise it. The language of the quote is not critical.
AQ14: OK by me if you revise it. The language of the quote is not critical.
AQ15: I have seen bot spellings. I have no objections to changing it to McDermitt
AQ16: Commissioner W.S. Jones, of the Department of the Interior - Office of Indian Affairs, sends out notification to federal agencies that Indian males should no longer be allowed to have long hair. He states that it will be a great step in advance and will certainly hasten their progress towards civilization.
AQ17: OK by me if you revise it. The language of the quote is not critical.
AQ18: This is how the treaty spelled the name
AQ19: Many of the plains Indians have left their reservations. The move has been fostered by the Ghost Dance religion. Today the army issues orders for all Indians to return to their reservations.
AQ20: Crazy Horse and his band of followers are camped on Prairie Dog Creek in Montana. They are hoping to avoid the army troops under Colonel Miles. Today, Sitting Bull will arrive at the camp. According to some sources, he will suggest a peaceful solution to the conflict.
AQ21: Jack C. Montgomery is a Cherokee, and a First Lieutenant with the 45th Infantry Division Thunderbirds. On February 22, 1944, near Padiglione, Italy, Montgomery's rifle platoon was under fire by three echelons of enemy forces when he single-handedly attacked all three positions, taking prisoners in the process. As a result of his courage, Montgomery's actions demoralized the enemy and inspired his men to defeat the axis troops. He is awarded the Medal of Honor today.
AQ22: The tribe added an amendment to their constitution. It was not a major item, but it did allow me to mention this group.
AQ23: How Lewis & Clark spelled the tribe’s name. I thought you deleted the L & C entries.
AQ24: Go ahead and change it to Shoshone.
AQ25: I cannot find my notes on this one, so delete it.
AQ26: The Sioux survivors of Wounded Knee arrive back at their reservation.
AQ27: An executive order from President Franklin Pierce modifies the Nisqually Reserve. It will allow the Oregon territory Governor to move the Indian tribes to more suitable lands. This changes is allowed under the treaty signed on December 26, 1854
AQ28: OK, Nisqually
AQ29: Hawaiian King Kalakaua dies. He will be one of the last native Hawaiian rulers.
AQ30: Their correct name is Jicarilla Apache, not just Apache. It is acceptable to call them Jicarilla.
AQ31: paraphrasing the quote is OK.
AQ32: Zaldivar is correct. One of these days I will learn how to type…
AQ33: Sitting Bull decides to leave Crazy Horse’s camp in Montana. He will return to Canada in hopes to find a home there.
AQ34: It can be changed to Chiricahua.
AQ35: You can change “almost” to “up to”. The original documents disagree on the exact number. You are right, almost is a bad choice of words.
AQ36: specific quote from original military report. You can delete it if you wish.
AQ37: Susquehanna is an area of Pennsylvania, in this case. The Delaware was the tribe. The spelling is from the original documents.
AQ38: Official governmental recognition is a big deal in Indian country. OK, try this: The U.S. government officially recognized the Everglades Miccosuke Tribe of Seminole Indians as an independent tribal group.
AQ39: OK, try this:
The Associate Commissioner of Tribal Affairs (a title which is normally capitalized) approves a plan which will distribute assets to individual members of the Rumsey Indian Rancheria. This list of individuals will also be used as an official roll of the tribal members.
AQ40: Demand for lands in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) keep increasing. In response to this, the Secretary of the Interior officially recommends that what he calls surplus Indian lands to be opened up to settlers..
AQ41: names as listed in the original documents
AQ42: quotes are not required, paraphrasing is OK
AQ43: its better than what I had….
AQ44: quotes are not required, paraphrasing is OK
AQ45: This is the name of the event. It features people from many different tribes. OK, try this.
Tribal members from across the United States join other activists in a march across the country to Washington D.C. This demonstration to protest the treatment of American Indians is called the Longest Walk.
AQ46: names as listed in the original documents
AQ47: names as listed in the original documents
AQ48: names as listed in the original documents
AQ49: Mackensie River delta…. This is an acceptable spelling, although it occasionally is spelled with a Z
AQ50: name on original document
Check it out: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/pa01.htm
OK, try this:
The charter for the Province of Pennsylvania was issued by King Charles the Second. It included mostly lands claimed by Indian tribes.
AQ51: yes, he was impeached…OK, try this:
William W. Belknap, t he Secretary of War was impeached for taking bribes to make political appointments.
AQ52: names as listed in the original documents
AQ53: Yes, Mendocino County
AQ54: Yes, that is how his name is spelled…
AQ55: names as listed in the original documents
AQ56: names as listed in the original documents
AQ57: names as listed in the original documents
AQ58: Kiawah is the name of this tribe which no longer exists. It is not a misspelling of Kiowa
AQ59: this is this tribe’s name
AQ60: correction: Black Rocks
AQ61: this is this tribe’s name. There is a national park in Canada with the same name
AQ62: this is the name of this tribe which no longer exists.
AQ63: correct spelling. Both spellings were used, Hiwassee is more in use now…I referred back to original documents on both entries.
AQ64: I cannot find my notes on this one, so just delete the cite number, please.
AQ66: correction: Paiute
AQ68: small town between Spokane & Seattle Washington
AQ69: In Indian country, Ishi is a pretty famous person. Graham Greene played him in the movie “Ishi, the last of his tribe.” He said he was the last surviving member of the Yahi tribe.
AQ70: spelled right. His first name was Lief.
AQ71: Northwest Mounted Police
AQ72: still spelled that way & in Mass. See their website: http://www.town.rehoboth.ma.us/
AQ73: it is OK, but you might add it is in Michigan.
AQ87: this can be paraphrased. You can also delete the 102 Stat. 130. Change “was” to “were” just before the quote
AQ88: this is the correct spelling of their name according to them...do NOT change this to Shoshone
AQ89: Big Wichita River
AQ90: the L can be deleted 24 Stat. 388
AQ91: his name for his country
AQ92: Mohegan is correct. Mohegans are not the same as Mohicans... Change to singular
AQ93: what is what name? Chief Placido and 111 Tonkawa warriors fought Buffalo Hump and his Comanche warriors.
AQ94: normally, it would be Lipan, but this document listed it as Lepan. You can change it, if you like...
AQ95: Yes, while I have seen it spelled Joilet, you can change it to the more common Joliet.
AQ96: old tribe which no longer exists...this is the common spelling, although it is occasionally spelled Woronoco.
AQ97: I cannot add more to this. The army records did not say which tribe (or tribes) were involved. You can blame General Phillip Sheridan.
AQ98: I have seen this spelled both ways…this is the spelling from the original document
AQ99: A law is passed which makes all American Indians born in the United States full citizens, if previous treaties had not already done so.
AQ100: Mackenzie’s expedition reaches the Mackenzie River delta. The river will eventually be named after him.
AQ101: This is the exact quote as it appeared in official army records from the 1800s.
AQ102: There were two wars between the US and the Seminole. The are commonly called the First Seminole War and the Second Seminole War. This peace conference was held during the 2nd war.
AQ105: Good question. They were the Yakima for a long time. Recently they changed the spelling to Yakama...
AQ106: This is referring to the meeting held on the previous day. You could add this at the beginning:
After the confusion of yesterday's meeting, with Ely...
Also, the full name is:
Secretary of the Interior Jacob Cox
AQ107: every document I recall having seen has called it a conference... It is held in Oregon Territory
AQ109: Limhi is how it is spelled. It occasionally appears as Lemhi., but the original docs said Limhi.
AQ110: I have seen it spelled both ways. You can use Joliet, if you prefer
AQ111: the operative phrase here is "what they believed to be the headwaters..." I will admit that I do not know exactly where they were when they thought they were at the headwaters. If you have that information, please add it. You could also add the phrase “Today they first reach what they believed…”
AQ112: Tribal membership requirements are full of googledy-gook. This is why they are such a source of contention among Indians. This entry makes sense if you are familiar with the subject...
AQ113: the Wallamette was also the name of the river in this area, but you can change it to the Willamette...the name was copied fro the original documents...
AQ114: OK< try this:
The Indian Education Act is passed It funded supplementary programs to help American Indian students both on and off reservations. In so doing, it recognized that 50% of all Indians lived in urban areas and 75% lived off reservations.
AQ115: This makes much more sense when you see the tribal names are in a bold type face:
1719: A peace conference is held in Conestoga, Pennsylvania. Colonel John French, representing Pennsylvania, meets with the "Kings" of the local tribes: Winninchack of the Canawage, Civility and "Queen" Canatowa of theConestoga, Wightomina of the Delaware, and Sevana of the Shawnee. The subject of the conference is fighting among the tribes. Although all involved promised to end their warfare, the fighting continues. Much of the fighting in the area is blamed on Iroquois war parties.
AQ116: change: and three miles to about three miles. The fighting starts today and continues until the third. For further clarification, this is part of the Nez Perce Campaign. I did not mention this for every battle because that would have been very repetitive. You may add this when you think it is appropriate.
AQ117: The fighting started on July 1st and continued until today.
AQ118: 500,000 (original document says “half million”
AQ119: how it is spelled, these are several different events in different
parts of the country on the same day…not the same as Kootenay
AQ120: Original Army records list it as “Beale’s Springs, Arizona.” You can change it to Beale Springs, Arizona, if you prefer.
AQ123: I have seen it spelled both ways. You can use Joliet, if you prefer
AQ124: add Indians after Piankashaw, Your version is incorrect and changes the meaning of the entry. OK try this:
At Portage du Sioux, in Missouri, Potawatomi and Piankashaw Indians sign a treaty (7 Stat. 123.) with the United States. William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards represent the United.States. Prisoners taken by both sides during the War of 1812 are exchanged. Twelve Indians sign the treaty.
AQ125: name as listed in the original documents
AQ126: you could change “tribal lands to Europeans” to “tribal lands to non-Indians” or “tribal lands to whites”. I tried to vary the words I used to describe people who are not Indians.
AQ127: there were two CREEK factions: the White Sticks (pro whites) and the Red Sticks (anti-whites). This seems correct to me. What specifically did you want clarified?
AQ128: the treaty says: “in the Territory of Michigan”, so you could change Michigan to Michigan Territory (which may have later become Wisconsin)
AQ129: delete captured
AQ130: This tribe spells it with an I
AQ131: how it is spelled
AQ132: just delete the phrase: “during the war of 1776”. This is part of the revolutionary war…
AQ133 the treaty says: “in the Territory of Michigan”, so you could change Michigan to Michigan Territory (which may have later become Wisconsin)
AQ134: spelled correctly
AQ135: how it is spelled in the treaty
AQ136: I am open to some other phraseology. Fort Pierre was abandoned. Fort Randall was built from the remains of Fort Pierce. Extra info (if you wish to include it):
Fort Randall was named for Colonel Daniel Randall, who also served as Deputy Paymaster General of the Army. General William S. Harney chose the site.
AQ137: yes, a river
AQ138: it is spelled that way in the original documents. If you prefer, you can change it to Fort McKenzie.
AQ139: spelled correctly
AQ140: I spelled it the only way I have every seen it spelled.
AQ141: Yahi. The continuing reference is because of the well known book and movies of the same name “Ishi, the last of his tribe.”
AQ142: that is OK
AQ143: you can change it to Deputy Assistant Secretary FOR Indian Affairs
AQ144: according to the original documents, he reached the Konzas tribe. This is most likely the Kanza .
AQ145: you can delete the S, but that is how it is spelled
AQ146: yes it is…The ** in the mss refer to a picture I submitted for that date. I sent them about 300 pictures, most of which were to be included with a certain date. The Winnebago picture dated 8/29 should actually go with the 8/1 entry which mentions the Winnebago.
AQ147: the Indians…that is badly worded, thanks
AQ148: still correctly spelled
AQ149: delete the second entry….it is a duplicate
AQ150: OK, try this:
The Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Revolutionary War. It left many Indian tribes without their British allies. The American government considered this a victory over those tribes and soon would attempt to get reparations from the tribes.
AQ151: looks much better
AQ153: Two Indians were killed, and one soldier was wounded.
AQ154: the British
AQ155: nope, this involved stage coaches. They used the southern route across the desert. The word mail should be Mail. They did carry passengers, from time to time. It only lasted a few years because the Civil War closed its routes through Texas. OK, try this addition:
Contrary to many story lines in film and elsewhere, and unlike the Pony Express, the Mail was attacked by the Apaches only once.
AQ157: correct spelling, named for the settlements along the Saline River. The county is still Saline, unlike the town of Salina.
AQ158: correct spelling, occasionally listed as Peigan, too.
AQ159: This is not a name for any one tribe or group of tribes. It was the title given all of the Pottawatomie (spelling from the treaty) by the authors of the treaty. OK, just the quotation marks.
AQ160: this is exactly as printed in the London newspaper
AQ161: Santa Fe, New Mexico.
AQ162: OK, try this:
The Tundra Times, a statewide paper based in Anchorage, which served the Eskimo, Indian and Aleut communities of the state, was first published.
AQ164: replace 10/3 with day
AQ165: a quote from the beginning of the Canadian “treaty”. The agreement is signed on this date. You can paraphrase, if you wish
AQ166: You could make it Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. The army kept units on or near the boarding school,
AQ167: in favor. Yeah votes listed first unless specifically noted otherwise…
AQ168: correct spelling
AQ169: Delete this entry. I cannot find my notes on my sources
AQ170: The constitution does not list John’s title…
AQ171: spelling from the original documents
AQ172: spelling from the original documents
AQ173: While it is an accurate quote, I have added a bit of punctuation, You can delete the quotation marks, if you wish…
“Department of Education, a Presidential advisory committee, entitled the President's Board of Advisors on Tribal Colleges and Universities.”
AQ174: In 1889, Catherine Weldon traveled to the Sioux’s Standing Rock Agency in the Dakotas. She eventually became a secretary for Sitting Bull, helping him with matters in English. She ardently supported the Sioux in their efforts to keep their lands. However, due to a disagreement with Sitting Bull over the Ghost Dance religion, which she felt would denigrate the Indians in the eyes of the US government, she left the reservation on this date.
AQ175: at this time it was called Camp Robinson.
AQ176: spelling from original documents
AQ177: the second cite should be 14 Stat. 747, instead of 7 Stat. 747
AQ178: Should be:
The fighting began on October 13.
AQ179: it should be 24 Stat. 388-389
AQ180: It is spelled Prophet’s Town and Prophetstown. I do not care which one you wish to use… Prophetstown is probably the better choice.
AQ181: this is OK and you can drop the quotation marks…
AQ182: It is spelled Prophet’s Town and Prophetstown. I do not care which one you wish to use… Prophetstown is probably the better choice.
AQ183: the A is capitalized
AQ184: I do not like your version. I have never seen anti-white or pro-white ever spelled this way. I would perfer anti white over antiwhite and pro white over prowhite. However, I really prefer to use my original spelling. Additionally, regardless of the spelling of these two words, there is a gramatical error in your version.
About 1,000 of them had surrounded to a ……… should be
About 1,000 of them had surrounded a … delete the …. to
AQ186: This was the word used in the document. It is a more English term, than an American term.
AQ187: OK, try this
The Pine Ridge Indian Agent is becoming more concerned about the way the Ghost dance religion is affecting his charges. Among other things, the Ghost Dance religion says the Indians will return to their old glories, and the white man’s bullets will be useless against them. The Agent sends out a request to Indian Affairs to get more help in dealing with the dancers.
AQ189: It is a title, I think it should be capitalized, but I will not make a big deal out of it.
AQ190: not really redundant..Instead of waiting until the middle of the month to do it, he could have be about to make December the official month. You could change November to this.
AQ191: The President could declare November to officially be “John Taylor Howard Month” if he wanted to. Just like a certain day is Columbus Day, a certain week is "“at more potatoes week,” or a certain month is Black History Month, etc. This is all done to glorify or honor the event, object, person or group that is being mentioned. A proclamation is issued, some governmental groups will hold special events, school have special displays, etc., etc.
AQ192: This special recognition is an annual thing. The president can issue the proclamation whenever they want, or not at all. The one in October was for 1991. The November one was for 1990. I added both because I was trying to get as many entries as I could for the book….
AQ193: same as AQ187.. This time the Agent asks the Army for help, instead of Indian Affairs.
AQ194: I have lost the notes for this entry…….
AQ195: it should be changed to article . Sitting Bull discussed his life, Custer, and other matters with a New York herald reporter. It appeared as an article.
AQ196: The Native American Grave protection Act is enacted.
AQ197: Pine Ridge Indian Agents are becoming more concerned about the way the Ghost dance religion is affecting the local Indians. Among other things, the Ghost Dance religion says the Indians will return to their old glories, and the white man’s bullets will be useless against them. A special Indian agent, James McLaughlin is sent to help in dealing with the problem. Today, he sees his first ghost dance. The Ghost dance religion and the governments’ reactions lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee.
AQ198: the Northwest Territory Treaty is a Canadian document.
AQ199: John “Big Leggings” Brughier is part white and part Hunkpapa. General Miles is looking for someone to contact Sitting Bull and the other Sioux to try to arrange a peace. Big Leggings made a deal with Niles and worked as an intermediary between Miles and the Sioux.
AQ200: the administrative part of the BIA was called the Indian Bureau
AQ201: The Indians of All Tribes proclamation is released by the activists who have seized Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The occupants state they now consider Alcatraz to be a reservation for all tribes.
AQ202: Shawanoese is the way I wrote it. That is how the name is spelled in the treaty.
AQ203: they = Arkansans
. The Mississippi newspaper is talking about how the people in Arkansas are disparaging the Cherokee. When Arkansas becomes a state, they would have more authority and could force the Cherokee out of the Arkansas, too.
AQ204: it is an annual thing. Every president for about 25 years does this each year……the fact there is an official appreciate American Indian’s month is important. The fact that I listed several of the dates when the proclamation was made was just to add more material to the book…….
AQ205: is enacted
AQ206: spelling from original documents
AQ207: spelling from original documents
AQ208: spelling from original documents
AQ209: is enacted
AQ210: I, not me ….
AQ211: OK, a new ending:
some outstanding debts. It is signed by the Potawatomi Indians and William Marshall.
AQ212: the quote is verbatim
AQ213: yes, it should be hourS, but I copied the quote exactly as it was written. You can make the appropriate changes using the proper technique, if you desire (sic)
AQ214: OK, how about this:
According to the Mesa Verde National Park Service in Colorado, “Richard Wetherill and his brother-in-law, Charles Mason, rode out on what is now Sun Point in search of lost cattle and first saw Cliff Palace. That afternoon, Richard found Spruce Tree House, and the next day, the two men discovered Square Tower House. Al Wetherill, Richard's brother, saw Cliff Palace sometime the year before, but he did not enter the dwelling, so the credit for "discovering" the dwelling has been given to Richard Wetherill and Charles Mason.” Thus, the most famous of the Anasazi ruins was discovered.