The government attitude has started to change towards encouraging local communities' participation in development interventions. The outcome of this is mainly reflected in the livestock Routes Delineation. According to the consultancy carried out by the technical consultant of ACRD-DS during the first year, eight main routes and thirty seven branches were targeted in Greater Darfur amounting to a total of 2299km. However the actual achievement was delineation of only six routes totalling 1443 km in length (equivalent to 62%) in addition to another route under construction (Buram19 route 250 km ), which will bring the total length to 1574 km (68.5%). Four hundred and seventy two coloured cement posts were used at intervals of 1-3 km. and farms that were encompassed within the routes (part or whole) were compensated in cash20.
Education: at the beginning of 2007 ten primary schools were established out of the twenty planned, whilst the remaining ones have been incorporated within the National 5 Year Action Plan.
Range protection: fire break grids were constructed through participation of Localities, local communities and State Range and Pasture Administration during 2006 at the end of the wet season to reduce fire hazards.
Range rehabilitation: green fodder production was carried out at the RAP nursery.
Other Services: to be implemented in the coming development budgets (2007-2011) as they have been incorporated within the Country 5 years Action Plan.
Article five – States, Infringement, Penalties and Sanctions
Revision and amendment of the Local Order No.1/96, which deals with protection and improvement of the range lands in Idd El Fursan Locality.
South Darfur Legislature Council issued the Decree No. (17/2005) that deals with coordination between MOA, the Committee (ACRD-sd), local authorities, Native Administration and Survey Department in routes delineation.
The Compensation applies to farmers whose land became part of the route or Sawani. The value of compensation was determined by locality committees and the Native administration (Omda or Sheikh) based on different criteria such as geographical location, type of the crop and productivity, soil type (clay or sandy soil). For example, one Mukhamus21 (1.25 Feddan) in sandy soil compensated was by 50,000SD (US%200), and one Mukhamus in clay soil is compensated by 70,000SD (US$ 280).
The compensation was made in the Kas Locality which is one of the places where the cattle route demarcation finished with the increase in the width of the route from 100m to 150m. The farmers who are compensated in cash then have to rent other land for farming (70,000 SD per feddan in clay soil, and 50,000 SD22 in sandy soil).
Lack of reliable means of transportation.
High expenses of the posts fixation.
Lack of harmony between technical and military teams.
Climatic problems (rains) led to delay in delineation of the eastern route.
Weak coordination between Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Physical Planning.
Insufficient financial support and incentives for compensation.
Lack of real partnerships between Government institutions and NGOs.
Lack of incentives for committees at Localities.
Insecurity especially in North and West Darfur.
Costs and Benefits
Although range management provides long-term benefits, it is a costly practice and the economic benefit is important to understand. The issue of proper valuation of all goods and services (products and other benefits) from rangeland has been debated for a very long time and has become an important aspect in the context of mobilizing resources for sustainable range management. It has been argued that benefits from rangelands are grossly undervalued which affects the willingness of society or government to allocate adequate resources for their management23. Rangelands provide a wide range of goods and services, some of which are public goods with no developed markets or indirect goods and services, and hence they are easily undervalued. Furthermore, a significant proportion of transactions take place in the informal sector, or goods are used in the subsistence economy, and hence these values are overlooked in national accounting.
Total Economic Costs (TEC)
The Total Economic Costs of an intervention can be classified into three categories: management costs; costs of the other economic activities; opportunity cost (Emerton, 1998). To measure the management costs, flows are accounted at their market price, e.g. equipment, maintenance and other inputs required for the interventions, and the value of land and staff, as shown in Table 9. Costs of the Other Economic Activities include damage and interference from the pre-existing situation, such as conflicts and human loss, trespassing on rangelands, compensation costs and human resource development as shown in Table 10. The Opportunity Costs24 include alternative uses of land, time, money, and other resources allocated to conservation of drylands environments by the pastoral sector which could generate income and profits elsewhere, for example the agricultural use of the protected area forgone, unsustainable utilization foregone and production processes foregone (ibid.). These costs, both direct and indirect, were valued at their shadow price25 which reflects the opportunity cost to society.
Table 9: Direct Costs of intervention (2005-2007)
Cost ($US)* 2005
Cost ($US) 2006
Cost ($US)** 2007
Fuel and lubricants
Provision of water
Range protection ( fire )
* Average Equivalent Official Rate of $US Dollar to Sudanese Dinar (2005, 2006) = 0.004.
** Average Equivalent Official Rate of $US Dollar to Sudanese Dinar (2007) = 0.005.