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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования


Нижегородский государственный лингвистический

университет им. Н.А. Добролюбова


Факультет международных отношений, экономики и управления
Кафедра иностранных языков

Н.П. Кудрявцева

Учебно-методические материалы по развитию лексических навыков студентов II, III курсов ФМЭУ. Часть II

Нижний Новгород

2009

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ГОУ ВПО НГЛУ. Специальности: «Международные отношения», «Менеджмент организации». Дисциплина: «Профессиональный иностранный язык».


УДК 811.111 (075.8)

ББК 81.432.1-933

К 889
Н.П. Кудрявцева. Учебно-методические материалы по развитию лексических навыков студентов II, III курсов ФМЭУ. Часть II – Нижний Новгород: НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова, 2009 – 52с.
Настоящие учебно-методические материалы предназначены для работы над лексической стороной речи студентов II, III курсов ФМЭУ, а также может быть использовано всеми изучающими английский язык самостоятельно.
УДК 811.111 (075.8)

ББК 81.432.1-933


Составитель Н.П. Кудрявцева, канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ФМЭУ НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова
Рецензент О.А. Еремина, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ФМЭУ НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова

© ГОУ ВПО НГЛУ, 2009

© Кудрявцева Н.П., 2009

Unit 1

1. Learn the following words.

1. evidence [`evIdqns] that which makes clear the truth or falsehood of something

a. Each juror felt he needed more evidence before voting to convict the former football star.

b. Her many awards were evidence enough that Leona excelled in typing.

с. Our teacher ignored the evidence that Simon had cheated on the test.

2. solitary [`sOlItqrI] alone; single; only

a. Sid's solitary manner kept him from making new friendships.

b. There was not a solitary piece of evidence that Manuel had eaten the cheesecake.

с. The convict went into a rage when he was placed in a solitary cell.


3. vision [`vIZqn] power of seeing; sense of sight

a. With the aid of the binoculars, my vision improved enough to see the entire vicinity.

b. Ted Williams had perfect vision, and that helped to make him a great baseball player.

с. The glasses that Irma bought corrected her near-sighted vision.


4. frequent [`frJkwqnt] happening often; occurring repeatedly

a. We made frequent visits to the hospital to see our grandfather.

b. On frequent occasions Sam fell asleep in class.

с. Dr. Bonner gave me some pills for my frequent headaches.


5. glimpse [glImps] a short, quick view

a. This morning we caught our first glimpse of the beautiful shoreline.

b. One glimpse of the very feminine vision was enough to tell Romeo that he loved Juliet.

с. The tall shrubs kept us from getting a glimpse of the new people who inhabited the beach house.


6. recent [`rJsqnt] done, made, or occurring not long ago

a. At a recent meeting, the Board of Education provided the evidence we had been asking for.

b. Bessie liked the old silent movies better than the more recent ones.

с. Recent studies have concluded that more people are working than ever before.

7. decade [de`keId] ten years

a. After a decade of granting salary increases, my boss ended the practice.

b. Many people moved out of this city in the last decade.

с. I have a vision that this decade will be better than the last one.

8. hesitate [`hezIteIt] fail to act quickly; be undecided

a. Nora hesitated to accept the challenge.

b. When he got to the robbers' vicinity, he hesitated before going on.
с. The proverb tells us that he who hesitates is lost.
9. absurd [ab`sWd] plainly not true or sensible; foolish

a. It was absurd to believe the fisherman's tall tale.

b. The flabby boy realized that the suggestion to diet was not absurd.
с. Underestimating the importance of reading is absurd.
10. conflict [`kOnflIkt] direct opposition; disagreement

a. Our opinions about the company's success in the last decade are in conflict with what the records show.

b. There was a noisy conflict over who was the better tennis player.

с. The class mediation team was invited to settle the conflict.


11. minority [maI`nOrItI] smaller number or part; less than half

a. Only a small minority of the neighborhood didn't want a new park.

b. A minority of our athletes who competed in the Olympics were victorious.

с. Blacks are a minority group in the United States.


12. fiction [`fIkSqn] that which is imagined or made up

a. The story that the president had died was fiction.

b. We hardly ever believed Vinny because what he said was usually fiction.
с. Marge enjoys reading works of fiction rather than true stories.
2. Read the following passage to see how the new words are used in it.

The Famous Monster of the Lake

There seems to be more and more evidence that the enormous monster in Loch Ness, a solitary lake in Scotland, is more than a vision. Each year there are numerous glimpses of the monster by visitors and neighborhood people; also recent films, not easy to ignore, are making even scientists hesitate. The story of frequent visits by a monster once seemed absurd to them, but now they are not so sure.

Yet the conflict is far from over. Those who believe the monster exists are still in the minority, and they are constantly competing for more information to prove that the Loch Ness monster is not a fiction. Even now they are trying to get more and clearer moving pictures of what has become the famous inhabitant of the lake. Perhaps the question of whether the monster exists or not will be answered in this coming decade.

3. Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


  1. The old man had lived for seven ___.

  2. He had the ___ that some day there would be peace on earth.

  3. Only a ___ of the senators were against welfare.

  4. No one has ever had even a ___ of the future.

  5. People used to think it was an ___ idea that human beings could ever fly.

  6. We make ___ visits to Florida in the winter.

  7. If you have any questions, don't ___ to ask.

  8. There was only a ___ man on the beach.

  9. The ___ was over the high cost of bread.

  10. ___ studies have shown that the cost of living has gone up rapidly.

  11. The gun alone was ___ enough to convict the killer.

  12. The stories Henry told people about his adventures turned out to be merely.

4. Matching. Match the 12 new words in Column I with the definitions in Column II.

Column I Column II

____ 1. vision a. ten years

____ 2. fiction b. happening often

____ 3. frequent с alone

____ 4. absurd d. that which makes clear the truth or falsehood of

something

____ 5. minority e. occurring not long ago

____ 6. evidence f. a short, quick view

____ 7. conflict g. that which is imagined or made up

____ 8. decade h. sense of sight

____ 9. glimpse i. smaller number or part

____ 10. recent j. direct opposition

____ 11 solitary k. plainly not true or sensible

____ 12. hesitate l. fail to act quickly

Unit 2

1. Learn the following words.

1. ignite [ig`naIt] set on fire

a. Spark plugs ignite in an automobile engine.

b. One match can ignite an entire forest.

с. A careless remark helped to ignite the conflict between the brothers and the sisters.
2. abolish [q`bOlIS] do away with completely; put an end to

a. The death penalty has recently been abolished in our state.

b. We abolished numerous laws that didn't serve any purpose in this decade.

с. My school has abolished final exams altogether.


3. urban [`Wbqn] of or having to do with cities or towns

a. Many businesses open offices in urban areas.

b. I plan to exchange my urban location for a rural one.

с. Only a small minority of the people of the United States live far from any urban area.


4. population ["pOpju`leISqn] people of a city or country

a. China has the largest population of any country.

b. The population of the world has increased in every decade.

с. After the recent floods, the population of Honduras was reduced by 10,000.


5. frank [frxNk] free in expressing one's real thoughts, opinions, or feelings; not hiding what is in one's mind

a. Never underestimate the value of being frank with one another.

b. Eretha was completely frank when she told her friend about the sale.

с. People liked Duffy because they knew he would be frank with them.


6. pollute [pq`lHt] make dirty

a. The Atlantic Ocean is in danger of becoming polluted.

b. There is much evidence to show that the air we breathe is polluted.
с. It is claimed that soap powders pollute the water we drink.

7. reveal [rI`vJl] make known

a. Napoleon agreed to reveal the information to the French population.

b. The evidence was revealed only after hours of questioning.

с. General Motors revealed reluctantly that there were defects in their new Buicks.

8. prohibit [prq`hIbIt] forbid by law or authority

a. Elvin's manager prohibited him from appearing on television.

b. Many homeowners prohibit others from walking on their property.
с. The law prohibits the use of guns to settle a conflict.
9. urgent [`WGqnt] demanding immediate action or attention; important

a. An urgent telephone call was made to the company's treasurer.

b. The principal called an urgent meeting to solve the school's numerous problems.

с. When he heard the urgent cry for help, the lifeguard did not hesitate.


10. adequate [`xdIkwIt] as much as is needed; fully sufficient

a. Rover was given an adequate amount of food to last him the whole day.

b. A bedroom, kitchen, and bath were adequate shelter for his living needs.
с. Carlos was adequate at his job but he wasn't great.

11. decrease [dI`krJs] make or become less

a. As he kept spending money, the amount he had saved decreased.

b. In order to improve business, the store owner decreased his prices.

с. The landlord promised to decrease our rent.
12. audible [`LdIbql] able to be heard

a. From across the room, the teacher's voice was barely audible.

b. After Len got his new hearing aid, my telephone calls became audible.
с. Commands from Ann's drill sergeant were always easily audible.
2. Read the following passage to see how the new words are used in it.

The Electric Auto Is on Its Way

Ignite gasoline and you have noise and smoke; turn on an electric motor and you abolish two headaches that are dreaded by urban populations. Automobile manu­facturers are frank about the way their motors pollute the air, and that is why there are frequent hints that the big companies will soon reveal a practical electric car. So far, lack of knowledge of storing electricity in the car prohibits wide production of electric autos, but re­cently Congress called urgently for adequate research into the battery or fuel cell problem. Electric autos would be inexpensive to run and would decrease air pollution. It might be weird, however, to live in the quiet surround­ings of a city where autos that used to be noisily audible would be whisper-quiet.

3. Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.


  1. The doctor was completely ___ with the dying man.

  2. In an ___ whisper, Maria called for my attention.

  3. We didn't need any evidence to see that the poor man was in ___ need of money and food.

  4. All his life the child was used to living in ___ areas.

  5. Dry matches to ___ the campfire were sought by the boy scout.

  6. Smoking is ___ in the medical building.

  7. Gasoline fumes help to ___ the air.

  8. The ___ in the number of people voting in national elections is due to lack of interest.

  9. Some citizens believe that we will never be able to ___ war.

  10. The ___ of New York City is about eight million people.

  11. In the comics, Superman never ___ his true identity.

  12. They needed an ___ supply of water to last for the entire trip through the desert.


4. Which Word Means. From the list of 12 new words that follows, choose the one that corresponds to each definition below.

ignite

frank


urgent

abolish


pollute

adequate


urban

reveal


decrease

population

prohibit

audible





  1. having to do with cities or towns ________________________________

  2. make known ________________________________________________

  3. as much as is needed; sufficient _________________________________

  4. make dirty __________________________________________________

  5. do away with completely ______________________________________
  6. make or become less _________________________________________


  7. free in expressing one's thoughts ________________________________

  8. demanding immediate action ___________________________________

  9. set on fire __________________________________________________

  10. people of a city or country ____________________________________

  11. able to be heard ____________________________________________

  12. forbid by law or authority ____________________________________

Unit 3

1. Learn the following words.

1. journalist [`GWnqlIstX] one who writes for, edits, manages, or produces a newspaper or magazine

a. There were four journalists covering the murder story.

b. Barbara's experience working at a book store wasn't adequate preparation for becoming a journalist.

c. A journalist must have a comprehensive knowledge of the city where he or she works.
2. famine [`fxmIn] starvation; great shortage

a. Famine in India caused the death of one tenth of the population.

b. There has been a famine of good writing in the last decade.
с. The rumor of a famine in Europe was purely fiction.
3. revive [rI`vaIv] bring back or come back to life or consciousness

a. There is a movement to revive old plays for modern audiences.

b. The nurses tried to revive the heart attack victim.

с. Committees are trying to revive interest in population control.


4. commence [kq`mens] begin; start

a. Graduation will commence at ten o'clock.

b. Bella hesitated before commencing her speech.

с. The discussion commenced with a report on urban affairs.

5. observant [qb`zWvqnt] quick to notice; watchful

a. We were observant of the conflict between the husband and his wife.

b. Because Cato was observant, he was able to reveal the thief's name.

с. Milt used his excellent vision to be observant of everything in his vicinity.

6. identify [aI`dentItI] recognize as being, or show to be, a certain person or thing; prove to be the same

a. Numerous witnesses identified the butcher as the thief.

b. Mrs. Shaw was able to identify the painting as being hers.

с. With only a quick glimpse, Reggie was able to identify his girlfriend in the crowd.

7. migrate [maI`greIt] move from one place to another

a. The fruit pickers migrated to wherever they could find work.

b. Much of our population is constantly migrating to other areas of the country.

с. My grandfather migrated to New York from Italy in 1919.


8. vessel [`vesql] a ship; a hollow container; tube containing body fluid

a. The Girl Scouts were permitted a glimpse of the vessel being built when they toured the Navy Yard.

b. My father burst a blood vessel when he got the bill from the garage.

с. Congress voted to decrease the amount of money being spent on space vessels.


9. persist [pq`sIst] continue firmly; refuse to stop or be changed

a. The humid weather persisted all summer.

b. Would Lorraine's weird behavior persist, we all wondered?

с. Lloyd persisted in exaggerating everything he said.


10. hazy [`heIzI] misty; smoky; unclear

a. The vicinity of London is known to be hazy.

b. Factories that pollute the air create hazy weather conditions.

с. Although Cora had a great memory, she was unusually hazy about the details of our meeting on January 16th.

11. gleam [glJm] a flash or beam of light

a. A gleam of light shone through the prison window.

b. The only source of light in the cellar came in the form of a gleam through a hole in the wall.

с. My grandmother gets a gleam in her eyes when she sees the twins.

12. editor [`edItq] person who prepares a publication; one who corrects a manuscript and helps to improve it

a. The student was proud to be the editor of the school newspaper.

b. Meredith's journalistic knowledge came in handy when he was unexpectedly given the job of editor of The Bulletin.

с. It is undeniable that the magazine has gotten better since Ellis became editor.

2. Read the following passage to see how the new words are used in it.

Flying Saucers Again

Whenever journalists face a news famine they revive the undeniably interesting question: How can we explain UFOs—unidentified flying objects? The story usually commences with a description of the object by some observant night watchman who doesn't hesitate to identify the object as having migrated from outer space. The vessel, he persists, appeared over the hazy lake at about 30 feet. A greenish gleam prohibited him from seeing its exact shape, he admits. Newspaper editors love these stories because they keep the population interested in knowledge about UFOs and keep them buying newspapers.


3. Place one of the new words in each of the blanks below.

  1. The wedding will ___ at eight o'clock.

  2. When Abe lost his job, he had to ___ to a place where he could find work.

  3. We could tell Ira was happy by the bright ___ in his eyes.

  4. Because of the ___, people were dying in the streets.

  5. Many people claim to have seen a ghostly ___ sailing through the fog.

  6. Can you ___ the flags of all the states in the United States?

  7. He was ___ of all the rules of his religion.

  8. The ___ sent five reporters to cover the big story.

  9. They were trying to ___ interest in old movies.

  10. The travelers were stupid to ___ in eating the food after they were told it was spoiled.

  11. ___ weather kept the pilot from seeing the airfield clearly.

  12. The young ___ applied for his first job at a small newspaper.


Exercise

Now make up your own sentences, one for each of the new words you have just been taught.

Unit 4


1. Learn the following words.

1. unruly [An`rHlI] hard to rule or control; lawless

a. Unruly behavior is prohibited at the pool.

b. When he persisted in acting unruly, Ralph was fired from his job.

с. His unruly actions were a menace to those who were trying to work.
2. rival [`raIvql] person who wants and tries to get the same thing as another; one who tries to equal or do better than another

a. The boxer devised an attack that would help him to be victorious over his young rival.

b. Sherry didn't like to compete because she always thought her rival would win.

с. Seidman and Son decided to migrate to an area where they would have fewer rivals.


3. violent [`vaIqlqnt] acting or done with strong, rough force

a. Carefully, very carefully, we approached the violent man.

b. Violent behavior is prohibited on school grounds.

с. Vemon had a tendency to be violent when someone angered him.


4. brutal [`brHtl] coarse and savage; like a brute; cruel

a. Dozens of employees quit the job because the boss was brutal to them.

b. The brutal track coach persisted in making the team work out all morning under the hot sun.

с. Swearing to catch the murderer, the detectives revealed that it had been an unusually brutal, violent crime.


5. opponent [q`pqunqnt] person who is on the other side of a fight, game, or discussion; person fighting, struggling or speaking against another

a. The American chess player underestimated his opponent and lost.

b. He was a bitter opponent of costly urban reform.

с. Seeing his flabby opponent, Slugger was sure he would be victorious.

6. brawl [brLl] a noisy quarrel or fight

a. The journalist covered all the details of the brawl in the park.

b. Larry dreaded a brawl with his father over finding a job.

с. What started out as a polite discussion soon became a violent brawl.

7. duplicate [`djHplIkeIt] an exact copy; make an exact copy of; repeat exactly

a. Elliott tried to deceive Mrs. Held by making a duplicate of my paper.

b. We duplicated the document so that everyone had a copy to study.

c. The so-called expert did a mediocre job of duplicating the Van Gogh painting.


8. vicious [`vISqs] evil; wicked; savage

a. Liza was unpopular because she was vicious to people she had just met.

b. The vicious editor published false stories about people he disliked.

с. Mr. Voss was reluctant to talk about his vicious pit bull.


9. whirling [`wWlIN] turning or swinging round and round; spinning

a. The space vessel was whirling around before it landed on earth.

b. As they tried to lift the bulky piano, the movers went whirling across the living room.

с. Because Angelo drank too much, he commenced to feel that everything was whirling around the bar.


10. underdog [`AndqdOg] person having the worst of any struggle; one who is expected to lose

a. Minority groups complain about being the underdogs in this century.

b. I always feel sorry for the underdog in a street fight.

с. The Jets were identified as underdogs even though they had beaten the Rams earlier in the season.


11. thrust [TrAst] push with force

a. Once the jet engine was ignited, it thrust the rocket from the ground.

b. He had adequate strength to thrust himself through the locked door.

с. Eva was in a terrible rage when she thrust herself into the room.

12. bewildered [bI`wIldqd] confused completely; puzzled

a. The lawyer was bewildered by his client's lack of interest in the case.

b. His partner's weird actions left Jack bewildered.

с. Bewildered by the sudden hazy weather, he decided not to go to the beach.


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Настоящие учебно-методические материалы предназначены для работы над лексической стороной речи студентов II, III курсов ФМЭУ, а также может быть использовано всеми изучающими английский язык самостоятельно.
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