While going deep down into the qualities of the soul, very, vividly Acharya Kundakunda exposes the cause and effect theory, which does not occur in any other book. This is because, many more thinkers of Jainism did not attain that much vision to perceive the basic, permanent and uuderstructive nature of the soul as such is combined by; three basic-things They are called ¦ü¾µÖ-ÖãÖ-¯ÖµÖÖÔµÖ i.e. the basic phenomena, its qualities and the modes, that occur every moment. While keeping in mind these basic things of Jiva (soul) he explains that the cause of all the modes (¯ÖµÖÖÔµÖ) of knowledge, faith and conduct is the basic supreme nature of the soul i. e. ÃÖÆü•Ö ×ÃÖ¬¤ü úÖ¸üÖ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ the natural super status of the soul, which can not be deterred, from” its perfectly imbibed nature by whatever the sequences thpse arise outwardly or inwardly without changing its( original nature i. e. ÃÖÆü•Ö ¯Ö×¸üÖÖ×´Öú úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ.
And that fundamental source-is the main super cause of all the variations that occur in it, pure or impure from time to time: If arty soul attains îú¾Ö»µÖthe perfectness of knowledge, faith and conduct, it is due to that supernatural quality, as called by him Karan paramatma. And if Kaivalya is attained, that kind of state of soul is the effect úÖµÖÔ of Karana Paramatma. This type of description is only available in Kundakunda’s sacred books. It is also to be noted that all (úÖµÖÔ) are performed whefl mode takes (†¾Ö»ÖÓ²ÖÖ) help of úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ. Karana Paramatma means the natural attributes of bliss, joy, knowledge etc. It is called Sahaja (ÃÖÆü•Ö) naturally potent attributes Sahaja Jnana. Sahaj Ananda, Sahaja Sukha, Sahaja Samadhi. Parama Parinamika Bhava (Sahaja Bhava) is free from “subsidential thought-activity (Aupash-mika Bhava) Destructive Subsidential thought-activity (Kshayopashamika Bhava) and operative thought-activity (Audayika Bhava).
This is also very important to note that all the souls in the three Universe are divided as one of the most perfect and the purest soul called úÖµÖÔ ¿Öã¬¤ü•Öß¾Ö due to the attainment of ×ÃÖ«üŸ¾Ö, because of úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ. The pure and perfect state of soul the cause of which is the úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ. exists in all the souls permanently. Secondly, then there are souls who have accepted impurity due to their †–ÖÖÖ (ignorance), and †¿Öã¬¤ü•Öß¾Ö ( attachment to worldly things, ) That soul is called †¿Öã¬¤ü•Öß¾Ö (impure soul) and the third type of soul i. e. the Karana Paramatma-the root cause, of purity.
This is the basic thinking of KundaKunda who denounces any Foreign matter, cause or thing that obstructs the soul in becoming piker. ,On the one hind, he deals with the úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ the essential cause of all the faith, knowledge and conduct- He does not take into consideration any other worldy point for discussion. On the other hand he mentions ¾µÖ¾ÖÆüÖ¸üÖµÖ (outwardly -view-point ) which has been strongly propagated by many thinkers of his time.
He also states that the purity and supreme nature of the soul can not be challenged by any outwardly material which are basically , †“ÖêŸÖÖ ( non-living k matter.) ¯Ö¤ËüÖ»Ö. So his thinking is exceptionally basic, and is touching the very roots of the changes that occour in soul.
All the senses, mind, body, life-span, and breathing are called the outward causes of the living being, in this world But Kundakunda is not very eager to take into account all these causes and effects. If is because he minutely goes into the pure and super nature of cause and effect theory which very much remarkable.
Here one may ask ‘whether the úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ omnipresent in all the souls of the three worlds. Acharya accepts it in affirmations.
Wherever the soul exists with all its impurity, it is also imbibed with , úÖ¸üÖ ¯Ö¸ü´ÖÖŸ´ÖÖ. It is because qualities do not leave the things of which they part and parcel. And it is undoubtedly true that the basic, natural qualities do not die away. if t happens the ¦ü¾µÖ will not exist at ail The very existence (´ÖŸÖË) of the various qualities like knowledge faith conduct many others, do not go away from their original soul, though they are separate by are there. Changes are there but it is not that the qualities too diminish
The conclusion is that the soul in its purest form and status always exists in every soul. And that is called the Karana Paramatma, the eternal existence of the purest soul in every soul. If one can meditate and reach the main cause of the changes that take place from time to time, one should not think that there are other outwardly causes for attainment of Siddhatva.
THE HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION THE AGE OF KUNDAKUNDA(ELACARYA)
Sri Kundakundacarya. the author of our work, was a very famous Jaina philosopher and theologian. He as also a great organiser of Religious institutions. His name is held in great veneration especially by the Digambara Section of the Jainas. Many great religious teachers claimed it an honour to trace their lineage from the great teacher Kundakunda. Several inscriptions that are found in South India and Mysore relating to Jaina teachers begin with Kunda-kundanvaya-of the line of Kundakunda. Students of Jaina literature are familiar with such phrases as the following-
Sri-Kundakundakhya-muniddra-vamsa. These are some of the phrases claimed by Jaina writers such as Sakalabhusana author of Upadesar-atnamala. Vasunandi author of Upasakadhyayknam Brahmanemidatta of Aradhana Kathakosa. Instances may be multiplied without number, for showing the important place occupied by our author in the hierarchy of Jaina teachers.
Some of the epithets employed to characterise him are also significant of his great importance. Munindra-the Indra among the ascetics, Municakravarti-the emperor among the Munis, Kaundesa Lord Kunda are familiar designations of the great) teacher.
The personality of this great teacher, as is generally the case with world famour individuals, is lost in obscurity and shrouded with traditions. We have to depend upon so many written and oral; traditions to have a glimpse of this great person. The early history of India is but a string of speculations and even as such these are very cautious about the history of our author:
The one great landmark in the chronology of] India is Candragupta Maurya. This great emperor] of Magadha is not only referred to in the various literary works of India but is also mentioned by foreign historians especially the Greeks. This emperor Candragupta especially is of peculiar interest to the students of the early history of the Jainas.
LEWIS RICE & Dr. F. W. THOMAS have done considerable service to Indian History by cautiously interpreting several available facts, archaeological and epigraphically. relating to that period. The early faith of Asoka and the migration of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta are now accepted facts of history. The tendency among European scholars to post date the historical events and persons relating to India is a just antidote to the fantastic and legendary notions of indigenous writers who generally measure time by milleniums Nevertheless we have to point out that the orientalist have sometimes overreached their work. They generally proceed on the assumption that writing is a late acquisition in Indian civilization. The learned arguments put forward on panini by GOLDSTHCKER to undermine this assumption have been before the learned public for some decades, The excavations of Jaina Stupas at Mathura and Mr. K. P. JAYASWAL’S discovery of Konika’s Statue with the inscriptions try to set back the pendulum of Indian chronology to an earlier period Speaking about the Jaina Stupas Sir Vincent SMITH writes as follows :-
“The assumption has generally been made that all edifices in this Stupa form are Buddhist, When the inscription under discussion was executed not later than 157 A. D., the Vodva stupa of the Jainas at Mathura was already so ancient that it was regarded as the work of the gods. It was probably therefore erected as several centuries before the Christian era.”
Again says he,
“Assuming the ordinarily received date B. c.527 for the death of Mahavira to be correct the attainment of perfection by that saint may be placed about B. C. 55Q. The restoration of the stupa may be dated about 1300 Years later or A. D. 150. Its original erection in brick in the time of Parasavanatha. the predecessor of Mahavira, would fall at a date not later than B. C, 600 considering the significance of the phrase in the inscription “ built by the gods “ as indicating that the building at about the beginning of the Christian era was believed to date from a period of mythical antiquity, the date B. C. 600 for its erection is not too early. Probably therefore this Stupa of which Dr. FUHRER exposed the foundations is the oldest known buildings in India.”
When we take these historic discoveries with’, the Jaina traditions that a number of Tirthankaras preceded Lord Mahavira we may not be altogether wrong in supposing that adherents of Jaina faith in some form or other must have existed even interior) to Mahavira and that Mahavira himself was more a reformer than the founder of the fait. If there ware Jains influential enough to build Stupes in honour of their saints even anterior to 600 B. C. will it be too much to suppose that the followers; of this religion might have existed in South India even before Bhadrabahu’s migration to the soulh ? In fact it stands to reason to suppose that a large body of ascetics on account of a terrible famine in] the north migrated to a country where they would be welcomed by their devoted coreligionists. If the1 south were instead of a friendly territory waiting to receive the Sangha of learned ascetics a land populated with strangers and of alien faith, Bhadra-bahu would not have ventured to take with him into strange land a large body of ascetics who would depend entirely upon the generosity of the people; The Jaina tradition that the Pandya King of the South was a Jaina from very early times and that Bhadrabahu expected his hospitality might some historical background.
Up to the time of Bhadrabahu’s migration there was no split in the Jaina fold. That the schism of the Svetambaras arose about the time of Bhadrabahu I on account of the hardships of the famine is more than probable. This fact is evidenced by the complete absence of Svetambaras in the Deccan and South India. The Jainas be in the South and Mysorea always claim to be of Mulasangha, the original congregation.
One other interesting fact is the migration of the Digambaras from the south to the north for the purpose of religious propagandism. “One point of agreement comes out clearly and is note worthy, i. e. the direction of the Digambara migration.” It was from the south to the north from Bhadalpur to Delhi and Jaipur. This agrees with the opinion that the Digambara separation originally took place as a result of the migration southwards under Bhadrabeahu in consequence of a severe famine in Bihar the original home of the undivided Jaina Community (Prof. A. F. ) Rudolf Hoernle. Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI Three further Prattavails of the Digambaras, pp. 60 and 61.)
Professor HOERNLE says that the he has not been able to identify Bhadalpur. It is no other than Pataliputra of Patalipura which is the old name of Thiruppappuliyur or modern Cuddalore (Reports on the Archaeological Survey of India, Vol. 1906-07 Artcleon the Pallavas by V. VENKAYYA suggests that it is not the above place and identifies it with Tiruvadi a place near Panruti with many Jaina antiquities and remains. This is only a matter of detail. But the reason given by V. VENKAYYA is not quite sound. The fact that Pathiripuliyur is mentioned in Devaram as sacred to God Siva will not conflict with its being also the center of the Jainas
Now this Bhadalpur or Patalipura is associated with our author Sri Kundakunda as we shall show later on.
Before we proceed further, let us make sure about the age in which he lived and worked. For this we have clear evidence furnished in the several Pattavails preserved by the Jainas both Digambaras and Svetambaras, After Mahavira there had been a succession of teachers as shown below –