A poem that represents Jose’s worries on the disasters experienced by his family
ROMANCE WITH PETITE JACOBY
Two things brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal, as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid
FIRST: summertime festival in Belgium, which was celebrated in carnival style
SECOND: romance with Petite Jacoby, niece of his landladies
CHAPTER 17: MISFORTUNES IN MADRID
FAILURE TO GET JUSTICE FOR FAMILY
Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal sought the help of the Filipino colony, The Associacion Hispano-Filipina, and Liberal Spanish Newspapers in securing justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants and his family
Together with del Pilar (his lawyer) and Dr. Dominador Gomez (secretary of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina):
Jose called on the Minister of Colonies (Señor Fabie) in order to protest the injustices committed by Gov.- Gen. Valeriano Weyler and the Dominicans against the Calamba Folks.
Nothing came out of Rizal’s interview with Minister Fabie
El Resumen (Spanish Newspaper)
Sympathized with the Filipino cause
Said: “To cover the ears, open the purse, and fold the arms – this is the Spanish colonial policy.”
More terrible news:
Ejectment order by the Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other Calamba tenants
Their parents had been forcibly ejected from their home
Deportation of some of his family members, including Paciano to Mindoro
Rizal sought the aid of the liberal Spanish statesmen
Jose was disappointed – the statesmen merely gave him honeyed words of sympathy and nothing else
Blumentritt urged Jose to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina
But Jose doesn’t have powerful friends to bring him to her nor gold to grease the palms of influential courtiers
ABORTED DUEL WITH ANTONIO LUNA
Luna was drunk in one of the social reunions of Filipinos in Madrid.
Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead
He was blaming Rizal for his failure to win her
Although Rizal had previously explained to him that he had nothing to do about it
Because of jealousy and the effects of alcohol, Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks about Nellie
Rizal, with high sense of chivalry, could not tolerate any slur against the honor of any woman
Angered by the slanderous remarks, he challenged Luna to a duel.
Rizal was a better pistol shot than Luna and Luna was a superior swordsman
He fled to Cuba where he became rich and befriended many Spanish officials
He returns to the Philippines where he freely moved around
He is a powerful figure not only because he is a rich jeweler, but also because he is a good friend and adviser of the governor-general.
He is secretly cherishing a terrible revenge against the Spanish authorities
2 magnificent obsessions are:
Rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery of Santa Clara
To foment a revolution against the hated Spanish Masters
A man of wealth and mystery, is a very close friend and confidante of the Spanish-Governor General.
Because of his great influence in Malacanang, he was called the “Brown Cardinal” or the “Black Eminence”
By using his wealth and his political influence, he encourages corruption in the government
Promotes the oppression of the masses
Hastens the moral degradation of the country so that the people may become desperate and fight
He smuggles arms into the country with the help of a rich Chinese merchant, Quiroga, who wants very much to be Chinese consul of Manila
His first attempt to begin the armed uprising did not materialize because at the last hour he hears the sad news that Maria Clara died in the nunnery
Simoun perfects his plan to overthrow the government
Beautiful lamp was given as wedding gift to Paulita Gomez and Julio Pelaez
Only he and his confidential associate, Basilio, know that when the wick of his lamp burns lower the nitroglycerine, will explode, destroying the house where the wedding feast is going to be held and killing all the guests, including the governor general, the friars, and the government officials.
Simultaneously, all the government buildings in Manila will be blown by Simoun’s followers.
The story of El Fili begins on board the steamer, Tabo
Medical student, whose medical education was financed by his patron, Capitan Tiago
Rejected by Paulita because of his liberal ideas
Was watching outside the house
Basilio, his friend, warns him to go away because the lighted lamp will soon explode
To earn a living for himself and for himself, Rizal practiced medicine
A Portuguese physician, Dr. Lorenzo Marques, became his friend and helped him to build a wide clientele
BORNEO COLONIZATION PROJECT
In the face of the bleak outlook of the Calamba folks under Governor Valeriano Weyler’s terroristic regime, Rizal conceived the establishment of a Filipino colony in North Borneo (Sabah)
He planned to move the landless Filipino families to that rich British-owned island and carve out its virgin wildness a “New Calamba.”
He went to Sandakan to negotiate with the British authorities for the establishment of a Filipino colony.
Bengkoka River in Maradu Bay
Was offered by the British Borneo Company
His mission was successful
The British authorities of Borneo were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100, 000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor, and a good government for 999 years, free of all charges.
Hidalgo (Rizal’s brother in law)
Objected to the colonization project
Why should we go to a foreign land without first exhausting all means for the welfare of the country which nurtured us from our cradles?
New trends of events in the Philippines gave Rizal a new hope for realizing his Borneo project.
Weyler was relieved of his gubernatorial office
Eulogio Despujol, the new governor, announced to the Filipino people a fine program of government
In the belief that Governor Despujol was sincere in his beautiful promises of a better government, Rizal sent him a letter of felicitation and offering his cooperation.
The governor-general, violating the simple rule of Spanish courtesy, did not even acknowledge receipt of his letter.
In his second letter, he requested the governor-general to permit the landless Filipinos to establish themselves in Borneo
Despujol did not give Rizal the courtesy of a reply
Despujol notified the Spanish consul general in Hong Kong to tell Rizal that he could not approve the Filipino immigration to Borneo, alleging that the Philippines lacked laborers and it was not very patriotic to go off and cultivate foreign soil
WRITINGS IN HONGKONG
Rizal wrote “A Visit to Victoria Gaol”
An account of his visit to the colonial prison in Hong Kong
In this article he contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system with the moderm and more humane British prison system
Constitution of the La Liga Filipina
Most important writing made in Hong Kong
DECISION TO RETURN TO MANILA
To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project
To establish the Liga Filipina in Manila
To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid
Why did del Pilar permit Lete to write in the article?
It could harm more the interests of the whole country
LAST HONG KONG LETTERS
FIRST LETTER: ADDRESSED TO HIS PARENTS AND FRIENDS
I realized how much suffering I have caused you yet I do not regret what I have done in pursuit of my duty
Lived the examples he preached
A man ought to die for duty and his principles
To advance the future of the country, and shall willingly die for it, and even more willingly sacrifice all to secure justice and peace for you
I risk life to save so many innocent persons
There are many persons, filled with hope and ambition, who perhaps might be happier if I were dead
Should fate go against me, you will all understand that I shall die happy in the thought that my death will end all your troubles.
SECOND LETTER: ADDRESSED TO THE FILIPINOS
I cannot live on seeing so many suffer unjust persecution on my account
I prefer death and cheerfully shall relinquish life to free so many innocent persons from such unjust persecution
I appreciate the fact that at present the future of our country gravitates in some degree around me, that at my death many will feel triumphant; many are wishing for my fall
I hold duties of conscience above all else
I am all my parents have, but our country has many more sons who can take my place and even do my work better.
Besides I wish to show those who deny us the boon of patriotism that we know how to die for duty and principles
What matters death, if one dies for what one loves, for native land and beings held dear?
RIZAL FALLS INTO SPANISH TRAP
After Rizal’s departure from Hong Kong, the Spanish-consul general, who issued the government guarantee of safety, sent a cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim “is in trap.”
A secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers “for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation.”
The deceitful Despujol ordered his secretary, Luis de la Torre, to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen, as was rumored, so that he might take proper action against one “who had the protection of a strong nation.”