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CHAPTER 16: IN BELGIAN BRUSSELS


  1. LIFE IN BRUSSELS

    1. Two reasons impelled Rizal to leave Paris:

      1. The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition

      2. The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works

    2. Rizal was busy writing his second novel and writing articles for La Solidaridad

  2. NEW ORTOGRAPHY OF TAGALOG LANGUAGE

    1. The tagalong letters k and w should be used instead of the Spanish c and o.

      1. Salacot = salakot/ arao = araw

  3. RIZAL CRITICIZES MADRID FILIPINOS FOR GAMBLING

    1. Rizal’s letter to del Pilar:

      1. Luna in Paris complains of the gambling of the Filipinos in Madrid

      2. We are serving the friars’ scheme

      3. Filipinos do not come to Europe to gamble and to amuse himself but to work for his liberty and for the dignity of his race

      4. We in whom the poor people place their modest hopes.

    2. The gambling Filipinos in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing

      1. They derisively called him “Papa” (Pope) instead of “Pepe”

  4. BAD NEWS FROM HOME

    1. The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worse.

    2. The management of the Dominican Hacienda continually raised the land rents until such time that Rizal’s father refused to pay his rent.

      1. The Dominican Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba.

      2. Tenants were persecuted

    3. Jose’s letter to Soledad

      1. I have caused much harm to our family, but at least there remains to us the consolation of knowing that the motive is not disgraceful nor does it humiliate any body
      2. It raises us up and gives us more dignity in the eyes of our enemies themselves; to fall with the head high and the brow serene is not to fall, it is to triumph


      3. The sad thing is to fall with the stain of dishonor

  5. PRESENTIMENT OF DEATH

    1. He feared that we would not live long

    2. He was not afraid to die, but he wanted to finish his second novel before he went to his grave

    3. Letter to del Pilar:

      1. In my childhood I had a strange belief that I would not reach 30 years of age.

      2. I am preparing myself for death and for any eventuality. Laong Laan (Ever Ready) is my true name.

  6. PREPARATION TO GO HOME

    1. In the face of the sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home.

    2. He could not stay in Brussels writing a book while his family are persecuted

    3. Letter to Ponce:

      1. Graciano Lopez Jaena shold not got to Cuba but to our country to allow himself to be killed in defense of his ideals

        1. We have only once to die, and if we do not die well, we lose an opportunity which will not again be presented to us.

      2. I want to go back to the Philippines

        1. We are not making any progress by following prudence

  7. DECISION TO GO TO MADRID

    1. Rizal ignored the dire warning of his friends to return to the Philippines. No threat of danger could change his plan

    2. Something happened that suddenly made him change his plan.

      1. It was a letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila, but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain

      2. A lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid

    3. Rizal wrote to del Pilar retaining the latter’s services as lawyer.
      1. Jose informed del Pilar that he was going to Madrid to supervise the handling of the case


  8. TO MY MUSE

    1. A poem that represents Jose’s worries on the disasters experienced by his family

  9. ROMANCE WITH PETITE JACOBY

    1. Two things brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal, as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid

      1. FIRST: summertime festival in Belgium, which was celebrated in carnival style

      2. SECOND: romance with Petite Jacoby, niece of his landladies

CHAPTER 17: MISFORTUNES IN MADRID

  1. FAILURE TO GET JUSTICE FOR FAMILY

    1. Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal sought the help of the Filipino colony, The Associacion Hispano-Filipina, and Liberal Spanish Newspapers in securing justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants and his family

      1. Together with del Pilar (his lawyer) and Dr. Dominador Gomez (secretary of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina):

        1. Jose called on the Minister of Colonies (Señor Fabie) in order to protest the injustices committed by Gov.- Gen. Valeriano Weyler and the Dominicans against the Calamba Folks.

        2. Nothing came out of Rizal’s interview with Minister Fabie

      2. El Resumen (Spanish Newspaper)

        1. Sympathized with the Filipino cause

        2. Said: “To cover the ears, open the purse, and fold the arms – this is the Spanish colonial policy.”

    2. More terrible news:

      1. Ejectment order by the Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other Calamba tenants

        1. Their parents had been forcibly ejected from their home

      2. Deportation of some of his family members, including Paciano to Mindoro

    3. Rizal sought the aid of the liberal Spanish statesmen


      1. Jose was disappointed – the statesmen merely gave him honeyed words of sympathy and nothing else

    4. Blumentritt urged Jose to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina

      1. But Jose doesn’t have powerful friends to bring him to her nor gold to grease the palms of influential courtiers

  2. ABORTED DUEL WITH ANTONIO LUNA

    1. Luna was drunk in one of the social reunions of Filipinos in Madrid.

    2. Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead

      1. He was blaming Rizal for his failure to win her

      2. Although Rizal had previously explained to him that he had nothing to do about it

      3. Because of jealousy and the effects of alcohol, Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks about Nellie

    3. Rizal, with high sense of chivalry, could not tolerate any slur against the honor of any woman

      1. Angered by the slanderous remarks, he challenged Luna to a duel.

      2. Rizal was a better pistol shot than Luna and Luna was a superior swordsman

        1. Luna, as the challenged party, had the choice of weapons

        2. Logically, he would have to choose the sword; in which case, Rizal’s life would be in jeopardy

      3. Filipinos tried to pacify them pointing out that such a duel would damage their cause in Spain

    4. When Luna became sober

      1. He realized that he had made a fool of himself and apologized for his bad remarks

      2. Rizal accepted the apology

  3. RIZAL CHALLENGES RETANA TO DUEL

    1. Wenceslao Retana:
      1. A talented Spanish scholar, was then a press agent of the friars in Spain


      2. Used to attack the Filipinos, including Rizal in various newspapers in Madrid

        1. He wrote that the family and friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands

    2. Rizal

      1. Was insulted and challenged him to a duel

      2. Retana apologized in the newspapers for he believed that discretion is better part of valor, and, more so, to save his skin

        1. He knew that he had no chance against Rizal on a field of honor

        2. Because of the incident, Retana developed a deep admiration for Jose

          1. Years afterward, Retana wrote Jose’s biography and martyrdom

  4. INFIDELITY OF LEONOR RIVERA

    1. One night he and some friends attended a play at Teatro Apolo

      1. Jose lost his gold watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera

      2. The loss of the locket proved to be a bad omen

    2. Rizal received a letter from Leonor, announcing her coming marriage to an Englishman (the choice of her mother) and asking his forgiveness

  5. RIZAL-DEL PILAR RIVALRY

    1. Rizal tried to imbue his compatriots with his own idealism for

      1. He believed that to gain prestige for the Propaganda Movement and to win the respect of the Spanish people they must possess high standards of morality, dignity, and spirit of sacrifice

      2. Unfortunately, his idealism was not shared by others who loved wine, women, and cards

      3. Rizal’s leadership declined

        1. They resented Jose’s interference in their private lives

        2. They became supporters of del Pilar
    2. To prevent the break-up between Rizal and M.H. del Pilar


      1. Filipinos decided that a leader called “Responsable” be voted

        1. to direct the affairs of the Filipino community and to determine the editorial policy of the La Solidaridad

        2. To patch up their differences and to intensify the campaign for reform

      2. Del Pilar opposed the proposition

        1. That the periodical be placed under the control of the Responsible on the ground that it was a private enterprise

        2. However, he was willing to publish articles that would express the aspirations and demands of the Filipino people.

  6. RIZAL ABDICATES HIS LEADERSHIP

    1. The Filipinos were divided into two hostile camps: the Rizalistas and the Pilaristas

      1. Jose obtained the necessary 2/3 vote and became the Responsible

    2. But Jose graciously declined the coveted position

      1. He was a man of dignity and did not relish being a leader of a divided people

      2. He preferred to abdicate his leadership rather than be the cause of disunity and bitterness among his countrymen

  7. ADIOS, MADRID

    1. First stay in Madrid: happy

    2. Second stay in Madrid: unhappy/ last time he saw Madrid

CHAPTER 18: BIARRITZ VACATION AND ROMANCE WITH NELLY BOUSTEAD

  1. ROMANCE WITH NELLIE BOUSTEAD

    1. To seek solace for his disappointments in Madrid, Rizal took a vacation in the resort city of Biarritz on the fabulous French Riviera

      1. Jose was a guest of the rich Boustead Family at its winter Residence – Villa Eliada
      2. It was in Biarritz where he had a serious romance with Nellie and finished the last chapter of his 2nd novel, El Filibusterismo


    2. Jose proposed marriage to Nellie (rebound love from Leonor)

      1. Del Pilar:

        1. Teased him about changing the “o” in Noli to an “e” (Noli to Neli)

      2. Tomas Arejola

        1. By marrying her, I fear that instead of happiness, you would only find bitterness and trouble

      3. Antonio Luna:

        1. Who had previously loved and lost Nelly , encouraged Rizal to woo and marry Nellie

    3. Rizal’s marriage proposal failed for two reasons:

      1. He refused to give up his catholic faith and be converted to Protestantism, as Nelly demanded

      2. Nelly’s mother did not like Rizal as son-in-law

        1. Nelly’s mother , like the mother of Leonor Rivera, had no wish to entrust her daughter’s happiness to a man who was poor in material things,

        2. a physician without a paying clientele,

        3. a writer who earned nothing from his pen,

        4. and a reformer who was persecuted by the friars and government officials in his own country

  2. EL FILIBUSTERISMO FINISHED IN BIARRITZ

    1. Frustrated in romance, Rizal found consolation in writing

    2. The eve of his departure from Biarritz to Paris, he finished the manuscript of El Filibusterismo

  3. RETIREMENT FROM THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT

    1. Owing to the intrigues of his jealous compatriots, Rizal retired from the Propaganda Movement, or reform crusade

    2. He notified the Propaganda authorities in Manila to cancel his monthly allowance and devote the money to some better cause, such as the education of a young Filipino student in Europe

  4. RIZAL STOPPED WRITING FOR LA SOLIDARIDAD
    1. Simultaneous with his retirement from the Propaganda Movement, Rizal ceased writing articles for La Solidaridad


    2. Del Pilar himself realized the need for Rizal’s collaboration in both the Propaganda Movement and in the La Solidaridad newspaper

      1. because the enthusiasm for the reform crusade in Spain was declining

      2. he wrote to Rizal begging forgiveness for any resentment and requesting him to resume writing for the La Solidaridad

    3. Jose’s reply to del Pilar:

      1. Rizal denied any resentment

      2. Reasons of Rizal:

        1. More time to work on his novel

        2. He wanted other Filipinos to work also

        3. He considered it very important to the party that there be unity in the work

        4. It is better for del Pilar to leave him alone to direct the policy such as he understands it and Jose doesn’t want to meddle with it (they have their own personal ideas)

CHAPTER 19: EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT

  1. PRIVATIONS IN GHENT

    1. Reasons for moving to Ghent

      1. Cost of printing in Ghent was cheaper than in Brussels

      2. To escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne

  2. PRINTING OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO

    1. He pawned his jewels in order to pay the down payment and the early partial payments during the printing of the novel

  3. VENTURA, SAVIOR OF FILI

    1. Valentine Ventura in Paris learned of Rizal’s predicament and immediately sent him the necessary funds

    2. With his financial aid, the printing of the Fili was resumed

  4. THE FILI COMES OFF THE PRESS

  5. DEDICATED TO GOM-BUR-ZA

  6. SYNOPSIS OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO
    1. This novel is a sequel to the Noli


      1. It has little humor, less idealism, and less romance than the Noli Me Tangere

      2. It is more revolutionary, more tragic than the first novel

    2. Simoun

      1. The hero of the novel and is a rich jeweler

        1. He was Ibarra of the Noli

      2. He fled to Cuba where he became rich and befriended many Spanish officials

        1. He returns to the Philippines where he freely moved around

        2. He is a powerful figure not only because he is a rich jeweler, but also because he is a good friend and adviser of the governor-general.

      3. He is secretly cherishing a terrible revenge against the Spanish authorities

        1. 2 magnificent obsessions are:

          1. Rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery of Santa Clara

          2. To foment a revolution against the hated Spanish Masters

      4. A man of wealth and mystery, is a very close friend and confidante of the Spanish-Governor General.

        1. Because of his great influence in Malacanang, he was called the “Brown Cardinal” or the “Black Eminence”

        2. By using his wealth and his political influence, he encourages corruption in the government

          1. Promotes the oppression of the masses

          2. Hastens the moral degradation of the country so that the people may become desperate and fight

        3. He smuggles arms into the country with the help of a rich Chinese merchant, Quiroga, who wants very much to be Chinese consul of Manila

        4. His first attempt to begin the armed uprising did not materialize because at the last hour he hears the sad news that Maria Clara died in the nunnery

      5. Simoun perfects his plan to overthrow the government
        1. Beautiful lamp was given as wedding gift to Paulita Gomez and Julio Pelaez


        2. Only he and his confidential associate, Basilio, know that when the wick of his lamp burns lower the nitroglycerine, will explode, destroying the house where the wedding feast is going to be held and killing all the guests, including the governor general, the friars, and the government officials.

        3. Simultaneously, all the government buildings in Manila will be blown by Simoun’s followers.

    3. The story of El Fili begins on board the steamer, Tabo

    4. Basilio

      1. Medical student, whose medical education was financed by his patron, Capitan Tiago

    5. Isagani

      1. Rejected by Paulita because of his liberal ideas

      2. Was watching outside the house

      3. Basilio, his friend, warns him to go away because the lighted lamp will soon explode

      4. Realizes that Paulita was in grave danger

        1. To save her life, he rushes into the house, seizes the lighted lamp, and hurls into the river, where it explodes

    6. Padre Florentino

      1. Home refuge of Simoun when he escaped the soldiers who are in pursuit of him

      2. The Spanish authorities learns of his presence in the house

      3. Lt. Perez of the Guardia Civil informs the priest by letter that he would come to arrest Simoun

    7. Arrest was eluded by Simoun

      1. Took a poison

      2. As he is dying, he confessed to Padre Florentino, revealing his true identity, his dastardly plan to use his wealth to avenge himself, and his sinister aim to destroy his friends and enemies

    8. Cabesang Tales

      1. Dispossessed of his land by the friars like that of Rizal’s father.
      2. In desperation, becomes a bandit chieftain named Matanglawin


  7. NOLI AND FILI COMPARED

    1. Noli

      1. A romantic novel

      2. Work of the heart, a book of feeling

    2. Fili

      1. A political novel

        1. Work of the head, a book of the thought

        2. Contains bitterness, hatred, pain, violence, and sorrow

      2. The original intention of Rizal was to make the Fili longer than the Noli

        1. Rizal had to cut the Fili drastically owing to lack of funds

      3. Rizal himself considered the Noli as superior to the Fili

  8. RIZAL’S UNFINISHED THIRD NOVEL

    1. Letter to Blumentritt

      1. A novel in which politics will not find much space in it

      2. Ethics will play the principal role which deals mainly with the habits and customs of the Filipinos

      3. Jose wishes to be there; he wishes to be humorous, satirical and witty, to laugh and cry

    2. While he was bound for Hong Kong:

      1. He continued writing it but did not finish it

      2. To be written in Tagalog, intended for Tagalog readers

    3. Story:

      1. Sultan Zaide

        1. with his royal family and retainers, was taken prisoner by the Spaniards during the wars in the Moluccas and brought to Manila

        2. The old sultan, his children, and followers were promised good treatment, but the Spaniards forgot their promise and let them die one by one in misery

      2. Kamandangan

        1. The hero of the novel

        2. Descendant of Lakandula, last king of Tondo

        3. Plotted to regain the lost freedom of his fathers
      3. It is said that Rizal was fortunate not to have finished this novel, because it would have caused greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance on him.


  9. RIZAL’S OTHER UNFINISHED NOVEL

    1. “Makamisa”

    2. “Dapitan”

      1. Wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs

    3. A novel in Spanish about the life in Pili, a town in Laguna is also unfinished

    4. Another unfinished novel of Rizal, also without a title, is about Cristobal, a youthful Filipino student who was returned from Europe

    5. A novel that describes the deplorable conditions of the Philippines

CHAPTER 20: OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG

  1. FAREWELL TO EUROPE

    1. Reasons for leaving Europe

      1. Life was unbearable in Europe because of his political differences with M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain

      2. To be near his country

  2. RIZAL AND THE GERMAN LADIES

    1. The fast running steamer encountered a heavy squall and the door of the dining room was blown open

      1. Nobody among the passengers who were busy eating stood up to close the door

      2. A lady said to her companions in German: “If this man in front of us were a gentleman he would close the door

      3. Upon hearing her remark, Rizal, without saying a word, rose and closed the door

      4. He conversed with the German ladies in perfect German, and the ladies were very much embarrassed

  3. FAMILY REUNION IN HONG KONG

    1. The Christmas in Hong Kong was one of the happiest Yuletide Celebrations in Rizal’s life

      1. He had a happy family reunion

  4. OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG
    1. To earn a living for himself and for himself, Rizal practiced medicine


    2. A Portuguese physician, Dr. Lorenzo Marques, became his friend and helped him to build a wide clientele

  5. BORNEO COLONIZATION PROJECT

    1. In the face of the bleak outlook of the Calamba folks under Governor Valeriano Weyler’s terroristic regime, Rizal conceived the establishment of a Filipino colony in North Borneo (Sabah)

      1. He planned to move the landless Filipino families to that rich British-owned island and carve out its virgin wildness a “New Calamba.”

      2. He went to Sandakan to negotiate with the British authorities for the establishment of a Filipino colony.

      3. Bengkoka River in Maradu Bay

        1. Was offered by the British Borneo Company

        2. His mission was successful

      4. The British authorities of Borneo were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100, 000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor, and a good government for 999 years, free of all charges.

    2. Hidalgo (Rizal’s brother in law)

      1. Objected to the colonization project

      2. Why should we go to a foreign land without first exhausting all means for the welfare of the country which nurtured us from our cradles?

    3. New trends of events in the Philippines gave Rizal a new hope for realizing his Borneo project.

      1. Weyler was relieved of his gubernatorial office

      2. Eulogio Despujol, the new governor, announced to the Filipino people a fine program of government

        1. In the belief that Governor Despujol was sincere in his beautiful promises of a better government, Rizal sent him a letter of felicitation and offering his cooperation.

        2. The governor-general, violating the simple rule of Spanish courtesy, did not even acknowledge receipt of his letter.
        3. In his second letter, he requested the governor-general to permit the landless Filipinos to establish themselves in Borneo


          1. Despujol did not give Rizal the courtesy of a reply

          2. Despujol notified the Spanish consul general in Hong Kong to tell Rizal that he could not approve the Filipino immigration to Borneo, alleging that the Philippines lacked laborers and it was not very patriotic to go off and cultivate foreign soil

  6. WRITINGS IN HONGKONG

    1. Rizal wrote “A Visit to Victoria Gaol”

      1. An account of his visit to the colonial prison in Hong Kong

      2. In this article he contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system with the moderm and more humane British prison system

    2. Constitution of the La Liga Filipina

      1. Most important writing made in Hong Kong

  7. DECISION TO RETURN TO MANILA

    1. Reasons:

      1. To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project

      2. To establish the Liga Filipina in Manila

      3. To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid

        1. Lete’s attack, which was printed in La Solidaridad, portrayed Rizal as cowardly, egoistic, opportunistic – a patriot in words only

        2. Protest of Rizal to del Pilar:

          1. Why did del Pilar permit Lete to write in the article?

          2. It could harm more the interests of the whole country

  8. LAST HONG KONG LETTERS

    1. FIRST LETTER: ADDRESSED TO HIS PARENTS AND FRIENDS

      1. I realized how much suffering I have caused you yet I do not regret what I have done in pursuit of my duty

      2. Lived the examples he preached

      3. A man ought to die for duty and his principles
      4. To advance the future of the country, and shall willingly die for it, and even more willingly sacrifice all to secure justice and peace for you


      5. I risk life to save so many innocent persons

      6. There are many persons, filled with hope and ambition, who perhaps might be happier if I were dead

      7. Should fate go against me, you will all understand that I shall die happy in the thought that my death will end all your troubles.

    2. SECOND LETTER: ADDRESSED TO THE FILIPINOS

      1. I cannot live on seeing so many suffer unjust persecution on my account

      2. I prefer death and cheerfully shall relinquish life to free so many innocent persons from such unjust persecution

      3. I appreciate the fact that at present the future of our country gravitates in some degree around me, that at my death many will feel triumphant; many are wishing for my fall

      4. I hold duties of conscience above all else

      5. I am all my parents have, but our country has many more sons who can take my place and even do my work better.

      6. Besides I wish to show those who deny us the boon of patriotism that we know how to die for duty and principles

      7. What matters death, if one dies for what one loves, for native land and beings held dear?

  9. RIZAL FALLS INTO SPANISH TRAP

    1. After Rizal’s departure from Hong Kong, the Spanish-consul general, who issued the government guarantee of safety, sent a cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim “is in trap.”

      1. A secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers “for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation.”

    2. The deceitful Despujol ordered his secretary, Luis de la Torre, to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen, as was rumored, so that he might take proper action against one “who had the protection of a strong nation.”




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