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CHAPTER 21: SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA

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CHAPTER 21: SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA


  1. ARRIVAL IN MANILA WITH SISTER

    1. Rizal and his widowed sister Lucia arrived in Manila

    2. Had an audience at Malacanang with Governor-General Despujol; Despujol agreed to pardon his father but not the rest of his family.

  2. FOUNDING OF THE LIGA FILIPINA

    1. Rizal attended a meeting of the patriots at the home of the Chinese- Filipino, Doroteo Ongjunco

    2. Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga Filipina, a civic league of Filipinos

    3. The patriots were favorably impressed and gladly approved the establishment of the Liga

  3. CONSTITUTION OF THE LIGA FILIPINA

    1. To unite the whole archipelago into one compact and homogenous body

    2. Mutual protection in every want and necessity

    3. Defense against all violence and injustice

    4. Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce

    5. Study and application of reforms

    6. Motto: One like All

  4. RIZAL ARRESTED AND JAILED IN FORT SANTIAGO

    1. Rizal resumes his series of interviews with the governor-general

    2. During this interview, governor-general Despujol suddenly showed him some printed leaflets which were allegedly found in Lucia’s pillow cases.

      1. These incriminatory leaflets were entitled Pobres Frailes

      2. They were a satire against the rich Dominican friars who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their monastic vow of poverty.

    3. Rizal denied having those leaflets in either his or Lucia’s baggage, which had been thoroughly searched upon their arrival from Hong Kong by the custom authorities who found nothing.
      1. Despite his denial and insistent demand for investigation in accordance with the due process of law, he was placed under arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago


    4. The following day, the Gaceta de Manila published the story of Rizal’s arrest which produced indignant commotion among the Filipino people, particularly the members of the newly organized Liga Filipina

  5. ARBITRARY DEPORTATION TO DAPITAN

    1. The same issue of the Gaceta contained Governor General Despujol’s decree deporting Rizal to one of the islands in the South

    2. The gubernatorial decree gave the reasons for Rizal’s deportation, as follows:

      1. Rizal had published books and articles abroad which showed disloyalty to Spain and which were “frankly anti-catholic” and “imprudently anti-friar”

      2. A few hours after his arrival in Manila “there was found in one of the packages… a bundle of handbills entitled Pobres Frailes”

      3. His novel El Filibusterismo was dedicated to the memory of three traitors (Gom-Bur-Za), and on the title page he wrote that in view of the vices and errors of the Spanish administration, “the only salvation for the Philippines was separation from the mother country.”

      4. The end which he pursues in his efforts and writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of our holy Catholic faith.

    3. He was exiled in Dapitan for a period of 4 years.

CHAPTER 22: EXILE IN DAPITAN

  1. BEGINNING OF EXILE IN DAPITAN

    1. Dapitan, is a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the Jesuits

    2. Rizal could live at the parish convent on the following conditions:

      1. That Rizal publicly retract his errors concerning religion, and make statements that were clearly pro-Spanish and against revolution.
      2. That he perform the church rites and make a general confession of his past life.


      3. That he conduct himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject and a man of religion

    3. Rizal did not agree with these conditions

      1. Consequently, he lived in the house of the commandant; Captain Carnicero (the warden) and Rizal (the prisoner) were warm and friendly.

  2. WINS IN MANILA LOTTERY

    1. The mail boat, Butuan, brought no Spanish official to Dapitan but the happy tidings that:

      1. the Lottery Ticket No. 9736 jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Rizal and Francisco Eqiulor (Spanish resident of Dipolog) won the second prize of P20,000

    2. Rizal’s share of the winning lottery ticket was P6,200

      1. He gave P2,000 to his father and P200 to his friend Basa in Hong Kong

      2. The rest he invested well by purchasing agricultural lands along the coast of Talisay

    3. Rizal never drank liquor and never smoked but he was a lottery ticket addict.

  3. RIZAL-PASTELLS DEBATE ON RELIGION

    1. Father Pastells sent Rizal a book by Sarda, with advice that Rizal should desist from his foolishness in viewing religion from the prism of individual judgment and self-esteem

    2. Rizal revealed his anti-catholic ideas which he had acquired in Europe and embitterment at his persecution by the bad friars

      1. It is understandable why he was bitter against the friars who committed certain abuses under the cloak of religion.

    3. Rizal’s Catholicism requires enlightenment, like the Catholicism of Terilhard de Chardin

  4. RIZAL CHALLENGES A FRENCHMAN TO A DUEL
    1. Mr. Juan Lardet, a businessman, purchased many logs from the lands of Rizal.


      1. It so happened that some of the logs were of poor quality

      2. Lardet , in a letter written to Antonio Miranda, a Dapitan merchant and friend of Rizal,

        1. expressed his disgust with the business deal

        2. and stated that “if Rizal was a truthful man, he would have told me that the lumber not included in the account were bad.

    2. Miranda indiscreetly forwarded Lardet’s letter to Rizal

      1. Jose’s weakness: sensitivity

      2. When he read Lardet’s letter, he flared up in anger, regarding the Frenchman’s unsavory comment as an affront to his integrity

    3. Carnicero told the Frenchman to apologize rather than accept the challenge

    4. Rizal accepted the Frenchman’s apology

  5. RIZAL AND FATHER SANCHEZ

    1. Father Pastells tried to persuade Rizal to discard his errors of religion

      1. He assigned Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez, Rizal’s favorite teacher at Ateneo

        1. Sanchez is the only Spanish priest to defend Rizal’s Noli in public

        2. Failed to persuade Rizal to discard his unorthodox views on the Catholic Religion

  6. RIZAL’S ENCOUNTER WITH THE FRIAR’S SPY

    1. Pablo Mercado posed as a relative, secretly visited Rizal at his house

      1. Strange visitor offered his services as a confidential courier of Rizal’s letter and writings for the patriots in Manila which might incriminate him in the revolutionary movement

    2. Rizal, being a man of prudence and keen perception became suspicious

      1. Rizal went to the comandancia and denounced the impostor to Captain Juan Sitges
        1. As commandant of Dapitan, Sitges ordered the arrest of Pablo Mercado and instructed Anastacio Adriatico to investigate him immediately


    3. The real name of Pablo Mercado was Florencio Namanan

  7. AS PHYSICIAN IN DAPITAN

    1. Patients are poor; he gave them free medicine

    2. Studied the medicinal plants and their curative values

      1. To poor patients, who could not afford to buy imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.

  8. WATER SYSTEM FOR DAPITAN

    1. Rizal held the title of expert surveyor which he obtained from Ateneo

    2. He applied his knowledge of engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the townpeople.

      1. Engineers marveled how Rizal could have built such a system of waterworks, for he had inadequate tools and his finances are limited

      2. Without aid from the government, he succeeded in giving a good water system

    3. Length of this aqueduct is several kilometers

  9. COMMUNITY PROJECTS FOR DAPITAN

    1. Aside from constructing the town’s first water system, he spent many months draining the marshes in order to get rid of malaria that infested Dapitan

    2. The P500 which an Englishman patient paid him was used by Jose to equip the town with its lighting system

      1. This lighting system consisted of coconut oil lamps

      2. Electric lighting was unknown then in the Philippines

      3. It was not until 1894 when Manila saw the first electric lights

    3. Another project was the beautification of Dapitan

      1. He remodeled the town plaza to enhance its beauty

      2. He wanted it to have the same standards as Europe

  10. RIZAL AS TEACHER
    1. His exile in Dapitan gave him the opportunity to put into practice his educational ideas


    2. Established a school; he applied the same system of education that he learned in Ateneo in his school

      1. Best is called the emperor and sat at the head of the bench

  11. CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE

    1. Was able to built a rich collection of concology

    2. Among these:

      1. Draco Rizali (a flying dragon)

      2. Apogonia Rizali (a small beetle)

      3. Rhacophorus Rizali (a rare frog)

  12. ARTISTIC WORKS IN DAPITAN

    1. Rizal made sketches of persons and things that attracted him in Dapitan

  13. RIZAL AS FARMER

    1. Rizal bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay, where he built his home, school, and hospital, and planted cacao, coffee, sugarcane, coconuts and fruit trees.

    2. He acquired more lands until his total holdings reached 70 hectares, containing 6,000 hemp plants 1,000 coconut trees, and numerous fruit trees, sugarcane, corn, coffee and cacao.

    3. Rizal introduced modern methods of agriculture which he had observed in Europe and America.

    4. He imported agricultural machinery from the U. S.

    5. He invited his friends and family to come to his projected agricultural colony

      1. Rizal wanted to establish a new Calamba in Dapitan

      2. This project did not materialize because he could not get the support of the government.

  14. RIZAL AS BUSINESSMAN

    1. In partnership with Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan Merchant, he made profitable business ventures in fishing, copra, and hemp industries, and lime manufacturing
    2. The most profitable business of Rizal was in hemp industry


    3. To break the Chinese monopoly on business in Dapitan, Rizal organized the Cooperative Association of Dapitan Farmers

      1. Helped the producers and workers by establishing a store wherein they can buy prime commodities at moderate prices.

  15. RIZAL’S INVENTIVE ABILITY

    1. While practicing medicine in Calamba, he invented a cigarette lighter which he sent as a gift to Blumentritt

      1. He called this sulpukan, which is made of wood

      2. Its mechanism is based on the principle of compressed air

    2. He invited a machine for making bricks

      1. This machine could manufacture about 6,000 bricks daily

  16. “MY RETREAT”

    1. Serene life as an exile in Dapitan

  17. RIZAL & JOSEPHINE BRACKEN

    1. The death of Leonor Rivera left a poignant void in Jose’s heart

    2. Josephine Bracken

      1. Came to Dapitan, an Irish, 18 y.o.

      2. Her mother died in childbirth and she was adopted by George Taufer, who later became blind

        1. No ophthalmic surgeon in Hong Kong could cure that is why they need to go to Manila to seek the services of the famous ophthalmic surgeon

        2. They heard in Hong Kong that Rizal was in Dapitan

    3. Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other at first sight

      1. They agreed to marry after a month

      2. But Fr. Obach, the priest of Dapitan, refused to marry them without the permission of the Bishop of Cebu

    4. When Mr. Taufer heard of their projected marriage

      1. He flared up in anger
      2. Unable to endure the thought of losing Josephine, he tried to commit suicide by cutting of his throat with a razor


      3. Rizal, however, grabbed his wrists and prevented him from killing himself

      4. To avoid the tragedy, Josephine went with Taufer to Manila by the first available steamer

        1. The blind man went away uncured because his ailment was venereal in nature, hence incurable

      5. Mr. Taufer returned alone to Hong Kong, Josephine stayed in Manila with Rizal’s family.

    5. Since no priest would marry them, Rizal and Josephine held hands together and married themselves before the eyes of God.

      1. Fr. Obach was scandalized and gossips circulated around

    6. Rizal was expecting a baby

      1. Unfortunately, Jose played a prank on her, frightening her so that she prematurely gave birth to an 8th month baby boy, who only lived for three hours

      2. This lost son of Rizal was named “Francisco” in honor of his father

  18. RIZAL AND THE KATIPUNAN

    1. Andres Bonifacio, the “Great Plebian,” was sowing the seeds of an unarmed uprising

      1. Founded the Katipunan, the secret revolutionary society

    2. Dr. Pio Valenzuela was named emissary to Dapitan

      1. To inform Rizal of the plan of the Katipunan to launch a revolution for freedom’s sake

      2. Dr. Valenzuela left Manila on board the steamer, Venus

      3. To camouflage his real mission, he brought with him a blind man named Raymundo Mata

    3. Rizal objected to Bonifacio’s audacious project to plunge the country in bloody revolution

      1. He was of the sincere belief that it was premature, for two reasons:

        1. The people are not ready for revolution
        2. Arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry for revolution


      2. He also disapproved of the other plan of the Katipunan to rescue him

        1. Because he had given his word of honor to the Spanish authorities

        2. And he did not want to break it

  19. VOLUNTEERS AS MILITARY DOCTOR IN CUBA

    1. Months before the Katipunan contacted Jose, Rizal had offered his services as military doctor in Cuba, which was then in the throes of a revolution and a raging yellow fever epidemic.

      1. There was a shortage of physicians to minister to the needs of the Spanish troops and the Cuban people.

    2. It was Blumentritt who told him of the deplorable health situation in war-ridden Cuba and advised him to volunteer as army physician there

    3. Rizal wrote to Gov.-Gen. Ramon Blanco, Despujol’s successor, offering his services as military doctor in Cuba

      1. Blanco notified him of the acceptance of his offer

  20. “THE SONG OF THE TRAVELER”

    1. Great was Rizal’s joy in receiving the gladsome news

    2. He knew that he was free and he can travel to Europe then Cuba

CHAPTER 23: LAST TRIP ABROAD (1896)

  1. RIZAL MISSES SHIP GOING TO SPAIN

    1. Letter to Blumentritt

      1. I did not catch the mail ship for Spain

      2. Fearing that my stay in Manila for a month might bring me troubles I made known to the governor general, while remaining on board, of my wish to be isolated from everybody, except my family.

    2. Rizal was transferred to another cruiser by the order of Ramon Blanco

      1. Was given good accommodation
      2. He was treated not a prisoner, but a guest detained on board in order to avoid difficulties from friends and enemies


    3. Rizal stayed on the cruiser for about a month, pending the availability of a Spain-bound steamer.

  2. OUTBREAK OF THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION

    1. The Katipunan plot to overthrow Spanish rule by means of revolution was discovered by Fray Mariano Gil

    2. This incident struck terror into the hearts of the Spanish officials and residents, producing a hysteria of vindicative retaliation against the Filipino patriots.

    3. The tumult produced by the discovery of the Katipunan plot was aggravated by the Cry of Balintawak which was raised by Bonifacio and his valiant Katipuneros

      1. The revolutionists led by Bonifacio and Jacinto attacked San Juan, but they were repulsed with heavy losses

      2. After the Battle of San Juan, Governor General Blanco proclaimed a state of war in the first eight provinces for rising in arms against Spain:

        1. Manila, BUlacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac

  3. DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN

    1. Rizal received from Governor General Blanco 2 letters of introduction for the Minister of War and the Minister of Colonies, with a covering letter which absolved him from all blame for the raging revolution

    2. Letter by Blanco to the Minister of War:

      1. His conduct during the 4 years that he was in exile in Dapitan has been exemplary

      2. He is the more worthy of pardon and benevolence as he is in no way involved either in the criminal attempt that we are lamenting these days or in any conspiracy or secret society that they have been plotting.

    3. Don Pedro Rozas and his son, Periquin

      1. Fellow passenger of Rizal

  4. RIZAL IN SINGAPORE
    1. Don Pedro, with his son, disembarked at Singapore


      1. He advised Rizal to stay too and take advantage of the protection of the British Law

      2. Rizal did not heed his advice

    2. Don Manuel Camus

      1. Boarded the steamer, urging Jose to stay in Singapore to save his life

      2. Jose ignored their appeal because he had given his word of honor to Governor General Blanco and he did not like to break it.

  5. VICTIM OF SPANISH DUPLICITY

    1. Without Jose’s knowledge, Gov. Gen. Blanco was secretly conspiring with the Ministers of War and the Colonies for his destruction

    2. One of Jose’s mistakes was to believe that Gov. Gen. Blanco was a man of honor and a friend because:

      1. He allowed him to go as a free man to Spain to become a physician-surgeon of the Spanish army in Cuba, where a bloody revolution was raging

      2. Blanco gave him 2 letters of introduction addressed to the Spanish Ministers of War

    3. Blanco and the Ministers of War and the Colonies were exchanging coded telegrams and confidential messages for his arrest upon reaching Barcelona

      1. That Jose was a deportee and was being kept under surveillance

  6. RIZAL ARRESTED BEFORE REACHING BARCELONA

    1. A passenger told Rizal the bad news that he would be arrested by order of Gov. Gen. Blanco and would be sent to prison in Ceuta (Spanish Morocco)

    2. Rizal belatedly realized that he was duped by the unscrupulous Spanish officials, particularly Blanco

    3. Letter to Blumentritt:

      1. I have offered to serve as a physician, risking life in the hazards of war and abandoning all my business

      2. I am innocent and now in reward they are sending me to prison
      3. I am communicating to you this news that you may appraise my situation.


  7. ARRIVAL IN BARCELONA AS A PRISONER (8 days)

    1. The trip from Manila to Barcelona lasted exactly 30 days

    2. Jose was kept under heavy guard in his cabin for three days

    3. Rizal was escorted to the grim and infamous prison-fortress named Monjuich

      1. He spent the whole morning in a cell

    4. Jose’s interview with Despujol

      1. Told Rizal that he would be shipped back to Manila

    5. Rizal was taken aboard on a ship full of soldiers and officers

CHAPTER 24: LAST HOMECOMING AND TRIAL

  1. A MARTYR’S LAST HOMECOMING

    1. Rizal knew he was facing the supreme test, which might mean the sacrifice of his life, but he was unafraid.

    2. He thanked God for giving him the chance to return in order to confront his slanderers and to vindicate his name

    3. Diary:

      1. Either they do me justice and recognize my innocence and then I will be rehabilitated or they sentence me to death

      2. Society will forgive me and later, without any doubt, justice will be done and I will one martyr

      3. Instead of dying abroad, I will die in my country

      4. I believe that what is happening is the best that can happen to me – God’s will be done

  2. CONFISCATION OF RIZAL’S DIARY

    1. It was known to the Spanish authorities that Rizal was keeping track of the daily events in his diary

      1. They were curious as to what were recorded in his diary
      2. Their suspicion was aroused, for they feared that the diarist might be writing something seditious or treasonable


    2. Rizal’s diary was taken away and was critically scrutinized by the authorities

      1. Nothing dangerous was found in its contents

      2. The diary was returned to him

  3. UNSUCESSFUL RESCUE IN SINGAPORE

    1. News of Rizal’s predicament reached his friends in Europe and Singapore

    2. They dispatched frantic telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore named Hugh Fort to rescue Rizal from the Spanish steamer when it reached Singapore by means of a writ of habeas corpus

    3. When the steamer arrived in Singapore,

      1. Atty. Fort instituted proceedings at the Singapore Court for the removal of Rizal from the steamer

      2. The crux of Mr. Fort’s legal contention was that Rizal was illegally detained on the Spanish steamer

    4. Chief Justice Loinel Cox denied the writ on the ground:

      1. That the steamer (Colon) was carrying Spanish troops to the Philippines

      2. Hence it is a warship of a foreign power, which under international law was beyond the jurisdiction of the Singapore authorities

  4. ARRIVAL IN MANILA

    1. Rizal was quietly transferred under heavy guard from the ship to Fort Santiago

    2. Spanish authorities fished for evidence against Rizal

      1. Many Filipino patriots were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal

      2. Rizal’s brother, Paciano, was arrested and cruelly tortured

  5. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    1. 2 kinds of evidence were presented against Rizal, namely documentary and testimonial

  6. RIZAL CHOOSES HIS DEFENDER
    1. The only right given to Rizal by the Spanish authorities was to choose his defense counsel


    2. This was highly restricted, for he had to choose only from a list submitted to him

    3. Don Luis Taviel de Andrade

      1. He name was familiar to Jose so that he chose the lieutenant to be his defender in court

      2. The brother of Luis Taviel de Andrade, Rizal’s bodyguard in Calamba

  7. READING OF INFORMATION OF CHARGES TO THE ACCUSED

    1. Jose was accused of being the principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion

    2. As the accused, Rizal raised no objection on the jurisdiction of the court, but pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion.

      1. He admitted that he wrote the Constitution of the Liga Filipina which was merely a civic association

      2. He waived the right to amend or make further statements already made, except that he had taken no part in politics since his exile to Dapitan.

    3. The withdrawal of Blanco from the gubernatorial office sealed Rizal’s fate, for he was more humane in character than the ruthless Polavieja

      1. Blanco believed that Rizal was not a traitor to Spain

      2. Had he remained in longer in office, Rizal would not have been executed

  8. RIZAL’S MANIFESTO TO HIS PEOPLE

    1. Rizal wrote a manifesto to his people appealing to them to stop the necessary shedding of blood and to achieve their liberties by means of education and liberty

    2. Contents:

      1. My name had been used as a war cry among some who were in arms

      2. When I had news of what was being planned, I opposed it and demonstrated its absolute impossibility
      3. I was convinced that the idea was highly absurd and would bring great suffering


      4. In spite of my counsels, the movement broke out

      5. I spontaneously offered not only my services, but my life, and even my name so that they might use them in the manner they saw fit to suppress the rebellion

      6. Liberty is desired by placing education as a premise – by means of education and of labor they might have a personality of their own and make themselves worthy of liberties

      7. In my writings I have recommended redemption

      8. I have written that reforms, to be fruitful, have to come from above, that those that come from below are irregular and unstable

      9. I condemn this absurd, savage uprising planned behind my back, which dishonors us

      10. I abhor its criminal methods and disclaim all participation therein.

    3. Rizal’s manifesto was not issued to the people

      1. Rizal was saved from the shame of his manifesto’s being misinterpreted and disobeyed by the Filipinos in arms

  9. THE TRIAL OF RIZAL

    1. His case was prejudged; he was considered guilty before the actual trial

    2. Rizal was not given the right (which any accused is entitled to have in a real court of justice) to face the witnesses against him in open court

    3. The prosecuting attorney urged the court to give the verdict of death to the accused

    4. Rizal proved his innocence by twelve points:

      1. He could not be guilty of rebellion, for he advised Dr. Pio Valenzuela in Dapitan not to rise in revolution

      2. He did not correspond with the radical, revolutionary elements

      3. The revolutionists used his name without his knowledge. If he were guilty he could have escaped Singapore

      4. If he had a hand in revolution, he could have escaped in a Moro vinta and would not have built a home, a hospital, and bought lands in Dapitan

      5. If he were the chief of revolution, why was he not consulted by the revolutionists?


      6. It was true that he wrote the by-laws of the Liga Filipina, but this is only a civic association – not a revolutionary society.

      7. The Liga Filipina did not live long, for after the first meeting he was banished to Dapitan and it died out.

      8. If the La Liga was organized 9 months later, he did not know about it.

      9. The La Liga did not serve the purpose of the revolutionists, otherwise they would not have supplanted it with the Katipunan.

      10. If it were true that there were some bitter comments in Rizal’s letters, it was because they were written in 1890 when his family was being persecuted

      11. His life in Dapitan had been exemplary as the politico-military commanders and missionary priests could attest

      12. It was not true that the revolution was inspired by one of his speech at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco, as alleged by witnesses whom he would like to confront. His friends knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why did the Katipunan send an emissary to Dapitan who was unknown to him?

    5. The military court unanimously voted for the sentence of death

  10. POLAVIEJA SIGNS RIZAL’S EXECUTION

    1. Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal o be shot at 7am of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field.

CHAPTER 25: MARTYRDOM IN BAGUMBAYAN

  1. LAST HOURS OF RIZAL

    1. Rizal gave to Trinidad the alcohol cooking stove instructing her that there is something inside

      1. This “something” was Rizal’s farewell poem


    2. 10PM 29 December 1896

      1. Rizal wrote his retraction, in which he abjured Masonry and his religious ideas which were anti-catholic

  2. MARTYRDOM OF A HERO

    1. He requested the commander of the firing squad, that he be shot facing the firing squad

      1. His request was denied, for the captain had implicit orders to shot him in the back

    2. Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo

      1. A Spanish military physician asked his permission to feel his pulse

      2. Castillo was amazed to find it normal, showing that Rizal was not afraid to die

    3. It was exactly 7:03 in the morning when he died in the bloom of manhood – aged 35 y. o.

  3. AFTERMATH OF A HERO-MARTYR’S DEATH

    1. After the hero’s execution, the Spanish spectators shouted “Viva Espana!” “Muerte a los Traidores” (Long live Spain! Death to the Traitors!)

    2. He proved that the pen is mightier than the sword





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