Rizal and his widowed sister Lucia arrived in Manila
Had an audience at Malacanang with Governor-General Despujol; Despujol agreed to pardon his father but not the rest of his family.
FOUNDING OF THE LIGA FILIPINA
Rizal attended a meeting of the patriots at the home of the Chinese- Filipino, Doroteo Ongjunco
Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga Filipina, a civic league of Filipinos
The patriots were favorably impressed and gladly approved the establishment of the Liga
CONSTITUTION OF THE LIGA FILIPINA
To unite the whole archipelago into one compact and homogenous body
Mutual protection in every want and necessity
Defense against all violence and injustice
Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce
Study and application of reforms
Motto: One like All
RIZAL ARRESTED AND JAILED IN FORT SANTIAGO
Rizal resumes his series of interviews with the governor-general
During this interview, governor-general Despujol suddenly showed him some printed leaflets which were allegedly found in Lucia’s pillow cases.
These incriminatory leaflets were entitled Pobres Frailes
They were a satire against the rich Dominican friars who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their monastic vow of poverty.
Rizal denied having those leaflets in either his or Lucia’s baggage, which had been thoroughly searched upon their arrival from Hong Kong by the custom authorities who found nothing.
Despite his denial and insistent demand for investigation in accordance with the due process of law, he was placed under arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago
The following day, the Gaceta de Manila published the story of Rizal’s arrest which produced indignant commotion among the Filipino people, particularly the members of the newly organized Liga Filipina
ARBITRARY DEPORTATION TO DAPITAN
The same issue of the Gaceta contained Governor General Despujol’s decree deporting Rizal to one of the islands in the South
The gubernatorial decree gave the reasons for Rizal’s deportation, as follows:
Rizal had published books and articles abroad which showed disloyalty to Spain and which were “frankly anti-catholic” and “imprudently anti-friar”
A few hours after his arrival in Manila “there was found in one of the packages… a bundle of handbills entitled Pobres Frailes”
His novel El Filibusterismo was dedicated to the memory of three traitors (Gom-Bur-Za), and on the title page he wrote that in view of the vices and errors of the Spanish administration, “the only salvation for the Philippines was separation from the mother country.”
The end which he pursues in his efforts and writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of our holy Catholic faith.
He was exiled in Dapitan for a period of 4 years.
CHAPTER 22: EXILE IN DAPITAN
BEGINNING OF EXILE IN DAPITAN
Dapitan, is a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the Jesuits
Rizal could live at the parish convent on the following conditions:
That Rizal publicly retract his errors concerning religion, and make statements that were clearly pro-Spanish and against revolution.
That he perform the church rites and make a general confession of his past life.
That he conduct himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject and a man of religion
Rizal did not agree with these conditions
Consequently, he lived in the house of the commandant; Captain Carnicero (the warden) and Rizal (the prisoner) were warm and friendly.
Great was Rizal’s joy in receiving the gladsome news
He knew that he was free and he can travel to Europe then Cuba
CHAPTER 23: LAST TRIP ABROAD (1896)
RIZAL MISSES SHIP GOING TO SPAIN
Letter to Blumentritt
I did not catch the mail ship for Spain
Fearing that my stay in Manila for a month might bring me troubles I made known to the governor general, while remaining on board, of my wish to be isolated from everybody, except my family.
Rizal was transferred to another cruiser by the order of Ramon Blanco
Was given good accommodation
He was treated not a prisoner, but a guest detained on board in order to avoid difficulties from friends and enemies
Rizal stayed on the cruiser for about a month, pending the availability of a Spain-bound steamer.
OUTBREAK OF THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION
The Katipunan plot to overthrow Spanish rule by means of revolution was discovered by Fray Mariano Gil
This incident struck terror into the hearts of the Spanish officials and residents, producing a hysteria of vindicative retaliation against the Filipino patriots.
The tumult produced by the discovery of the Katipunan plot was aggravated by the Cry of Balintawak which was raised by Bonifacio and his valiant Katipuneros
The revolutionists led by Bonifacio and Jacinto attacked San Juan, but they were repulsed with heavy losses
After the Battle of San Juan, Governor General Blanco proclaimed a state of war in the first eight provinces for rising in arms against Spain:
Manila, BUlacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac
DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN
Rizal received from Governor General Blanco 2 letters of introduction for the Minister of War and the Minister of Colonies, with a covering letter which absolved him from all blame for the raging revolution
Letter by Blanco to the Minister of War:
His conduct during the 4 years that he was in exile in Dapitan has been exemplary
He is the more worthy of pardon and benevolence as he is in no way involved either in the criminal attempt that we are lamenting these days or in any conspiracy or secret society that they have been plotting.
Don Pedro Rozas and his son, Periquin
Fellow passenger of Rizal
RIZAL IN SINGAPORE
Don Pedro, with his son, disembarked at Singapore
He advised Rizal to stay too and take advantage of the protection of the British Law
Rizal did not heed his advice
Don Manuel Camus
Boarded the steamer, urging Jose to stay in Singapore to save his life
Jose ignored their appeal because he had given his word of honor to Governor General Blanco and he did not like to break it.
VICTIM OF SPANISH DUPLICITY
Without Jose’s knowledge, Gov. Gen. Blanco was secretly conspiring with the Ministers of War and the Colonies for his destruction
One of Jose’s mistakes was to believe that Gov. Gen. Blanco was a man of honor and a friend because:
He allowed him to go as a free man to Spain to become a physician-surgeon of the Spanish army in Cuba, where a bloody revolution was raging
Blanco gave him 2 letters of introduction addressed to the Spanish Ministers of War
Blanco and the Ministers of War and the Colonies were exchanging coded telegrams and confidential messages for his arrest upon reaching Barcelona
That Jose was a deportee and was being kept under surveillance
RIZAL ARRESTED BEFORE REACHING BARCELONA
A passenger told Rizal the bad news that he would be arrested by order of Gov. Gen. Blanco and would be sent to prison in Ceuta (Spanish Morocco)
Rizal belatedly realized that he was duped by the unscrupulous Spanish officials, particularly Blanco
Letter to Blumentritt:
I have offered to serve as a physician, risking life in the hazards of war and abandoning all my business
I am innocent and now in reward they are sending me to prison
I am communicating to you this news that you may appraise my situation.
ARRIVAL IN BARCELONA AS A PRISONER (8 days)
The trip from Manila to Barcelona lasted exactly 30 days
Jose was kept under heavy guard in his cabin for three days
Rizal was escorted to the grim and infamous prison-fortress named Monjuich
He spent the whole morning in a cell
Jose’s interview with Despujol
Told Rizal that he would be shipped back to Manila
Rizal was taken aboard on a ship full of soldiers and officers
CHAPTER 24: LAST HOMECOMING AND TRIAL
A MARTYR’S LAST HOMECOMING
Rizal knew he was facing the supreme test, which might mean the sacrifice of his life, but he was unafraid.
He thanked God for giving him the chance to return in order to confront his slanderers and to vindicate his name
Either they do me justice and recognize my innocence and then I will be rehabilitated or they sentence me to death
Society will forgive me and later, without any doubt, justice will be done and I will one martyr
Instead of dying abroad, I will die in my country
I believe that what is happening is the best that can happen to me – God’s will be done
CONFISCATION OF RIZAL’S DIARY
It was known to the Spanish authorities that Rizal was keeping track of the daily events in his diary
They were curious as to what were recorded in his diary
Their suspicion was aroused, for they feared that the diarist might be writing something seditious or treasonable
News of Rizal’s predicament reached his friends in Europe and Singapore
They dispatched frantic telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore named Hugh Fort to rescue Rizal from the Spanish steamer when it reached Singapore by means of a writ of habeas corpus
When the steamer arrived in Singapore,
Atty. Fort instituted proceedings at the Singapore Court for the removal of Rizal from the steamer
The crux of Mr. Fort’s legal contention was that Rizal was illegally detained on the Spanish steamer
Chief Justice Loinel Cox denied the writ on the ground:
That the steamer (Colon) was carrying Spanish troops to the Philippines
Hence it is a warship of a foreign power, which under international law was beyond the jurisdiction of the Singapore authorities
ARRIVAL IN MANILA
Rizal was quietly transferred under heavy guard from the ship to Fort Santiago
Spanish authorities fished for evidence against Rizal
Many Filipino patriots were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal
Rizal’s brother, Paciano, was arrested and cruelly tortured
2 kinds of evidence were presented against Rizal, namely documentary and testimonial
RIZAL CHOOSES HIS DEFENDER
The only right given to Rizal by the Spanish authorities was to choose his defense counsel
This was highly restricted, for he had to choose only from a list submitted to him
Don Luis Taviel de Andrade
He name was familiar to Jose so that he chose the lieutenant to be his defender in court
The brother of Luis Taviel de Andrade, Rizal’s bodyguard in Calamba
READING OF INFORMATION OF CHARGES TO THE ACCUSED
Jose was accused of being the principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion
As the accused, Rizal raised no objection on the jurisdiction of the court, but pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion.
He admitted that he wrote the Constitution of the Liga Filipina which was merely a civic association
He waived the right to amend or make further statements already made, except that he had taken no part in politics since his exile to Dapitan.
The withdrawal of Blanco from the gubernatorial office sealed Rizal’s fate, for he was more humane in character than the ruthless Polavieja
Blanco believed that Rizal was not a traitor to Spain
It was true that he wrote the by-laws of the Liga Filipina, but this is only a civic association – not a revolutionary society.
The Liga Filipina did not live long, for after the first meeting he was banished to Dapitan and it died out.
If the La Liga was organized 9 months later, he did not know about it.
The La Liga did not serve the purpose of the revolutionists, otherwise they would not have supplanted it with the Katipunan.
If it were true that there were some bitter comments in Rizal’s letters, it was because they were written in 1890 when his family was being persecuted
His life in Dapitan had been exemplary as the politico-military commanders and missionary priests could attest
It was not true that the revolution was inspired by one of his speech at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco, as alleged by witnesses whom he would like to confront. His friends knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why did the Katipunan send an emissary to Dapitan who was unknown to him?
The military court unanimously voted for the sentence of death
POLAVIEJA SIGNS RIZAL’S EXECUTION
Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal o be shot at 7am of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field.
CHAPTER 25: MARTYRDOM IN BAGUMBAYAN
LAST HOURS OF RIZAL
Rizal gave to Trinidad the alcohol cooking stove instructing her that there is something inside
This “something” was Rizal’s farewell poem
10PM 29 December 1896
Rizal wrote his retraction, in which he abjured Masonry and his religious ideas which were anti-catholic
MARTYRDOM OF A HERO
He requested the commander of the firing squad, that he be shot facing the firing squad
His request was denied, for the captain had implicit orders to shot him in the back
Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo
A Spanish military physician asked his permission to feel his pulse
Castillo was amazed to find it normal, showing that Rizal was not afraid to die
It was exactly 7:03 in the morning when he died in the bloom of manhood – aged 35 y. o.
AFTERMATH OF A HERO-MARTYR’S DEATH
After the hero’s execution, the Spanish spectators shouted “Viva Espana!” “Muerte a los Traidores” (Long live Spain! Death to the Traitors!)