1. In his dissent from Plessy v. Ferguson, Justice John Harlan claimed that Plessy would become as notorious as this case. Benjamin Curtis' dissent from this case questioned the Supreme Court's jurisdiction, and Roger Taney's majority opinion noted that the defendant's Fifth Amendment right to property could not be infringed by (*) entering a free state. Noted for declaring the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, name this 1857 Supreme Court case that ruled that slaves did not possess constitutional rights.
ANSWER: Dred Scott v. Sanford (or Sandford)
2. This modern nation was the former site of the Etruscan civilization. Home to the 1860 Expedition of the Thousand and the 1823 Piedmont uprising, the coal burners influenced the Risorgimento process of this modern country, and Victor Emmanuel II was its first unified king. After being exiled to South America, one leader from this nation organized the (*) Redshirts. Home to revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi, name this country, led in World War II by the fascist Blackshirts of Benito Mussolini.
ANSWER: Italy (accept Italian Republic)
3. This region's outer edge, a namesake "cliff," is home to the twotinos (two-TEEN-o's) named as they are in one-to-two resonance with a planetary orbit; objects in this region that aren't in a resonance pattern are known as cubewanos. This region was once hypothesized to be the origin of short-period comets, which are now thought to originate in the more distant (*) Oort Cloud. The home of Eris and Pluto, name this "belt" of space beyond Neptune, named for a Dutch astronomer.
ANSWER: Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt
4. One work by this author predicted the birth of a "miraculous child,” and is sometimes called the Bucolics; another includes the passage "Praises of Italy" and concerns rural agriculture. Those works are the Eclogues and Georgics, and his most famous work is about a man who escapes with Anchises (an-KI-seez) and Ascanius, opens, (*) "of arms and the man I sing,” and sees a man leave Troy to found Rome. Name this Roman poet of the Aeneid (uh-NEE-id).
ANSWER: Virgil [accept Publius Vergilius Maro]
5. This man used the stones Urim and Thummim for scrying and translation, and organized the first Quorum of the Twelve. He claimed to have found religious documents in the hill Cumorah, and he was killed in Carthage along with his brother Hyrum. After being expelled from (*) Missouri, this man founded Nauvoo, and in Illinois, he denied charges of polygamy. His golden plates went on to constitute the book of Mormon. Name this founder of the Latter Day Saint movement.
ANSWER: Joseph Smith, Jr
6. He described that one can never be certain the sun would rise as inductive reasoning, and he also wrote a six volume history of England. In one work, Cleanthes, Demea and Philo exalt religious toleration; in addition to Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, another work by this philosopher challenges religion in the essay "On Miracles.” His namesake "fork" awoke Immanuel (*) Kant from his "dogmatic slumber" in a work revised from A Treatise of Human Nature. Name this Scottish skeptic philosopher of An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
ANSWER: David Hume 7. This leader against the French during the Pastry War lost a catastrophic battle because his soldiers were napping, after which he was forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco. In addition to that loss at San Jacinto, this user of a prosthetic (*) leg resigned the presidency before his county signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The victor over Davy Crockett at the Alamo, name this Mexican leader who lost the Mexican-American war.
ANSWER: Antonio de Padua María Severino Lopez de Santa Anna y Perez de Lebron
8. One composer from this nation composed Sinfonia Antarctica while another is famous for the Enigma Variations and the Pomp and Circumstance marches. This nation's king saw the performance of a set of three suites, including the famous "Air" and "Boureé" movements, that are often paired today with the Music for the Royal Fireworks. The home of composers (*) Ralph (RAFE) Vaughan Williams and Sir Edward Elgar, name this nation, the second home of George Frederic Handel, who composed Water Music to serenade King George I as he sailed down the Thames (TEHMS) River.
ANSWER: England [accept word forms; accept Great Britain, accept United Kingdom]
9. One law named for this scientist states that the amount of mass altered during electrolysis is proportional to the electric charge. An object named for him consists of a wire frame that blocks electromagnetic fields, his namesake (*) cage. This physicist also discovered that the time derivative of magnetic flux in a circuit is proportional to the induced electromotive force, which he stated in his law of induction. Name this British physicist who discovered electromagnetic induction, the namesake of the unit of capacitance.
ANSWER: Michael Faraday
10. The Weakerthans' "One Great City" notes hatred for a city in this country. It's home to a city whose airport code is played in Morse Code on crotales (kro-TALL-ays) to open an instrumental track; it's also home to "Birchmount Stadium, Home of the Robbie.” Another band from this country included four "Neighborhood" songs on their debut album Funeral. Home to the artists of songs like (*) "YYZ" and "One Week,” name this "home and native land" to Rush, Barenaked Ladies, and Arcade Fire, our neighbors to the north.
ANSWER: Canada [accept Winnipeg or Manitoba before "this country"]
11. This author has written short story collections like The Elephant Vanishes and after the quake, as well as the novel Wild Sheep Chase. One of his works concerns Watanabe Toru in 1960s Japan. In addition to Norwegian Wood, this author wrote about the intertwined fates of Tamura and Nakata, as well as a man who searches for his (*) wife and cat in a magical underworld of Tokyo, Okada Toru. Name this Japanese author of Kafka on the Shore and The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle.
12. Most physical properties of molecules in this class depend on their tacticity, and one famous co- example consists of butadienes and nitriles. Biochemical examples of these molecules, such as nucleic acids and cellulose, are made by condensation reactions that produce water, while many synthetic types, like rubber and Teflon, are built by simply (*) adding another subunit to the growing chain. Including the commercially important fibers Dacron and nylon, name this class of large compounds all composed of small, repeating molecules called monomers.
13. The milkman, Howie Newsome, reappears in every morning scene in this work, and after a church choir practice, Mrs. Soames gossips about the drunkard who plays the church organ. Generally performed with minimal props or scenery, proud residents of a place with an equal death and birth rate sing "Blessed be the Tie that Binds" once every act. The (*) Stage Manager introduces this play set in Grover's Corners, New Hampshire. Featuring George Gibb and Emily Webb, name this play by Thornton Wilder.
ANSWER: Our Town
14. Ceyx [seeks] drowned while seeking the help of one of these entities at Clerus, and Acrisius requested guidance from another of these before his daughter, Danae, was impregnated by Zeus. One of these entities at Ammon ordered that Andromeda be fed to a sea serpent. King Laius (*) consulted one before leaving his son to die on a mountain, and in the Apologia, one of these told Socrates that no man was wiser than he. That one was dedicated to Apollo, and was located at Delphi. Name these Greek temples, where Sibyls foretold the future.
15. In one novel, he wrote about the captain of the Sephora who is tricked out of finding Leggatt, and in another, Senór Gould gives away a Costaguana gold mine. Chinua Achebe called this author of The Secret Sharer a racist, and Jewel falls in love with the chief mate of the Patna who moves to Patusan. In one novella, Charlie Marlowe travels through the (*) Belgian Congo to meet an ivory trader whose last words were "The horror, the horror!" Name this Polish-born author of Nostromo, Lord Jim, and Heart of Darkness.
ANSWER: Joseph Conrad
16. Some members of this phylum have polian vesicles and Tiedemann's bodies that connect to a structure that pulls water in from the madreporite and leads it down ambulacral grooves to ampulla. Teeth are attached to an Aristotle's lantern in other members of this phylum, and its ring canal is part of the (*) water vascular system. Many of its most famous members are found in the class Asteroidea. Its members also exhibit radial symmetry, often five-fold. Identify this phylum that contains sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and sea stars.
ANSWER: Echinodermata [or echinoderms]
17. The Talmud probably refers to this object as "a star that leads sailors astray,” and, in response to an Ottoman siege of Belgrade, Pope Callixtus III is said to have excommunicated it. Its passing in 1066 was recorded on the (*) Bayeux Tapestry. Famously reaching perihelion two weeks before the birth and then one day before the death of Mark Twain, name this comet, which becomes visible in Earth's sky every 76 years.
ANSWER: Halley's Comet
18. In the days leading up to this battle, the U.S. Congress decided to divide the land of the victims into five smaller areas. Colonel James Forsyth ordered the natives to surrender their weapons, though Black Coyote refused and a medicine-man named Yellow Bird tried to counter the American bullets with a ghost dance, leading the Seventh Cavalry to fire into a crowd of (*) women and children. The American Indian Movement later reclaimed the site near the namesake river of what 1890 conflict, in which 146 Lakota Sioux were massacred?
ANSWER: Wounded Knee massacre
19. The still-unidentified woman in this painting was long believed to be Giovanna Cenami, and parallel to her gaze is a featherduster in the background. Behind her to the right is a large red bed, and a pair of clogs appears on the bottom left hand corner. The chandelier above has one candle lit, and the woman in green holds (*) hands with a man wearing a black hat and a brown cape. Depicting the marriage of the namesake man, this is what painting by Jan van Eyck?
ANSWER: The Arnolfini Wedding [accept anything mentioning Arnolfini, such as Arnolfini Portrait or Arnolfini Marriage]
20. This scientist's eponymous algorithm subtracts multiples of one of its inputs from the other to find greatest common factors. He also lends his name to systems in which given a line and a point not on it, there is exactly one line (*) parallel to the given line through the given point. Name this ancient Greek who started from five axioms and five postulates, including the parallel postulate, in his set of thirteen books about geometry, The Elements.
ANSWER: Euclid of Alexandria [or Eukleides]
1. This work ends with the narrator lamenting the protagonist's apparent death during his second journey, which was only to keep him away for half an hour. For 10 points each:
 Name this work, in which the unnamed protagonist travels to the year 802,701 and finds the Eloi and the Morlocks.
ANSWER: The Time Machine  This man wrote The Time Machine, as well as The War of the Worlds and numerous other science fiction works.
ANSWER: Herbert George Wells  H.G. Wells was a frequent correspondent with this Irish playwright of Arms and the Man. Pygmalion, his best known work, sees Henry Higgins train Eliza Doolittle to speak properly.
ANSWER: George Bernard Shaw 2. This quantity is defined as the internal energy of the system plus the product of its boundary pressure and volume. For 10 points each:
 Name this thermodynamic quantity that measures the total energy of a system, abbreviated H.
 Subtracting the product of temperature and entropy from the enthalpy gives this eponymous function, a measure of the amount of energy in a system that is available to do work.
ANSWER: Gibbs free energy [or Gibbs function; or Gibbs energy; prompt on free energy]
 If the change in Gibbs free energy for a process is negative, the process is of this type, meaning that it absorbs heat.
ANSWER: endothermic [prompt on endergonic]
3. This Russian composer's most famous work sees the oboe represent a duck that is eaten by the title animal. For 10 points each:
 Name this composer of the Lieutenant Kije Suite and The Love for Three Oranges, whose ballet Romeo and Juliet notably includes a tenor saxophone.
ANSWER: Sergei Prokofiev  This Prokofiev work sees the title boy warned by his Grandfather not to stray too close to the woods. The boy catches the title animal by his tail and marches him to a zoo.
ANSWER: Peter and the Wolf  This double reed instrument, pitched lower than the oboe and English horn, represents the Grandfather in Peter and the Wolf. This instrument has a notable solo in the opening of Stravinsky's Rite of Spring.
4. This period saw the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments through the work of Radical Republicans, including noted victim of a Preston Brooks caning, Charles Sumner. For 10 points each:
 Name this period of American history following the Civil War, in which basic civil rights such as citizenship were extended to freed slaves and the seceded Confederate states were reintroduced into the Union.
 Including former Confederate General James Longstreet, this derogatory term refers to white Southerners who supported Reconstruction efforts.
 Reconstruction was ended by this President, who took office over Samuel Tilden in the "Compromise of 1877,” in which he was awarded twenty disputed electoral votes and Democrats were given several concessions.
ANSWER: Rutherford B. Hayes 5. It tells the story of the Hero Twins, Hunahpu [who-NAH-poo] and Xbalanqué [SH'buh-LAN-kay], as they compete in the ball game at Xibalba [SHEE-ball-bah], the underworld. For 10 points each:
 Name this Quiché (kee-SHAY) mythological narrative, discovered in Guatemala.
ANSWER: Popol Vuh  The Popol Vuh is the main source of information into this civilization's mythology, whose calendar doesn't actually portend apocalypse in 2012.
ANSWER: Mayans [accept word forms]
 The Popol Vuh includes one of these stories, explaining how Tepeu (tay-poo) and Gucumatz made humans from mud and wood. This type of story may or may not include a cosmogony tale.
ANSWER: Creation myth [accept logical equivalents for "myth,” such as "tale" or "story"]
6. One large example of this in the United States is the Ogalalla, stretching from South Dakota to Texas but mostly concentrated underneath Nebraska. For 10 points each:
 Name this underground water source consisting of permeable rock into which wells can be dug to provide water.
 The intrusion of this substance can occur if a coastal aquifer is overpumped. This substance, which mixes with freshwater in brackish estuaries, is commonly found in the oceans.
ANSWER: Salt water (or seawater; grudgingly prompt on "water")
 If an aquifer reaches the surface, pressure can push the water up against the force of gravity, allowing this type of well to be used to access the water.
ANSWER: Artesian well
7. Founded by Mahavira, the 24th tirthankara, this faith is divided into two sects, one of which prefers to roam sky-clad, or in the nude. For 10 points each:
 Name this ancient religion that believes all living things have a soul.
ANSWER: Jainism [or Jain Dharma]
 This Jainist vow of non-violence explains why practitioners will sometimes sweep the path in front of them to avoid injuring other living organisms.
ANSWER: Ahimsa (ah-HEEM-sah)
 Guru Nanuk founded this other religion near Punjab; many of its followers carry a ceremonial dagger and brush their unkept hair with a wooden comb.
8. The title characters of this play sing "Brekekekex koax koax.” For 10 points each:
 Identify this play, in which Dionysus travels to Hades to retrieve Euripides in hopes of improving contemporary tragedy.
ANSWER: The Frogs [or Batrachoi]
 This ancient Greek playwright of The Frogs also wrote the comedies The Birds and Lysistrata.
 Lysistrata concerns the women of Athens going on a sex strike to convince their husbands to end this conflict with the Sparta.
ANSWER: Second Peloponnesian War
9. Holders of this title, which originated in the Heian (hay-ahn) period, ruled from the Bakufu. For 10 points each:
 Holding power until the 1867 Meiji (may-jee) Restoration, name this title that denoted military rulers of Japan such as Ashikaga Takauji.
ANSWER: Shoguns [or Seii taishogun; do not accept "shogunate"]
 This Shogun founded a namesake dynasty which lasted until the Meiji Restoration. He unified Japan at the massive Battle of Sekigahara.
ANSWER: Tokugawa Iyeyasu
 Shoguns had to rein in these powerful territorial lords, among whom Japan was divided for much of its history.
10. He famously stomped on the head of Cowboys center Andre Gurode, earning a five game suspension from Roger Goodell. For 10 points each:
 Name this defensive lineman for the Washington Redskins, who took ten days to pass a conditioning test after refusing to attend voluntary team workouts.
ANSWER: Albert Haynesworth  Haynesworth was originally drafted by this team, whose coach, Jeff Fisher, is the longest tenured head coach in the NFL. This team's only Super Bowl appearance, a loss to the Rams in 1999, followed the Music City Miracle.
ANSWER: TennesseeTitans [accept either or both parts]
 This Titans quarterback and 2006 Offensive Rookie of the Year has held the starting role intermittently with Kerry Collins. He famously won the 2006 Rose Bowl over Reggie Bush and the USC Trojans.
ANSWER: Vince Young
11. After its release from British rule in 1867, this nation assumed control of Rupert's Land and the District of Keewatin. For 10 points each:
 Name this country whose provinces include Nunavut and Nova Scotia.
 This longest river of Canada flows from the Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean.
ANSWER: Mackenzie River
 This other river connects 4 of the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. It runs through Quebec and forms a Canada-US border.
ANSWER: St. Lawrence River
12. This man's brother, Tenskwatawa, was known as the Prophet; his prophecies became the foundation for a confederacy of tribes led by this man. For 10 points each:
 Name this Shawnee Indian, who was killed at the Battle of the Thames.
ANSWER: Tecumseh  Nicknamed "Tippecanoe" for one victory over Tecumseh, this Governor of the Indiana Territory would be President for a month in 1841 before dying of pnuemonia thought to have been contracted at his inauguration.
ANSWER: William Henry Harrison  Another conflict between Native Americans and US troops in the Midwest saw this Sauk leader evade capture through Northern Illinois and Wisconsin. Although he never saw combat, Abraham Lincoln was among the militiamen chasing this man.
ANSWER: Black Hawk [accept Black Hawk War]
13. Incoming vesicles arrive at the cis face of this object, and outgoing ones leave its trans face. For 10 points each:
 Name this eponymous organelle, which is responsible for sorting and "shipping" proteins produced by the cell.
ANSWER: Golgi body [accept other words, like "apparatus" or "complex,” in place of "body"]
 Golgi bodies consist of these flattened sacs.
 Cisternae also comprise the "rough" type of this organelle, which is continuous with the nuclear envelope and is studded with ribosomes.
 Name this novel, which together with O Pioneers and The Song of the Lark, makes up its authors Prairie Trilogy.
ANSWER: My Antonia (AN-toh-nee-a)
 This author of "Neighbor Rosicky" and My Antonia wrote about two French priests trying to spread their dioceses to New Mexico in Death Comes for the Archbishop. ANSWER: Willa Cather  Willa Cather grew up in this state, the setting for My Antonia, with largest city at Omaha.
ANSWER: Nebraska 15. In 2010, a study found that this species, the most recent specimens of which date to 30,000 years ago, interbred with Homo sapiens sapiens. For 10 points each:
 Name this subspecies of genus Homo, featuring a distinct brow and named for the German valley where the first skull specimen was found.
ANSWER: Neanderthal Man (ne-AAN-durr-TALL) [accept Homo sapiens neanderthalensis]
 Another famous archaeological find was the 1974 discovery of this Australopithecus specimen, named for the Beatles song playing at the fieldsite.
ANSWER: Lucy  This 1912 archaeological hoax saw a skull found near the namesake British town; in reality, the jawbone was of an orangutan, although this wasn't confirmed until the 1950's.
ANSWER: Piltdown Man
16. Name these concepts from computer programming for 10 points each.
 Also known as "increment,” this two-character operation adds one to a variable's value.
ANSWER: ++ ("plus plus") [accept C++]
 This somewhat controversial command, which Djikstra "considered harmful,” unconditionally jumps to another line of code.
ANSWER: goto  This kind of data structure holds the address of a piece of data, rather than the data itself, and so must be dereferenced before the data can be accessed.
17. The first of these was held over ten months and sentenced twelve men to death, although Martin Bormann was already dead and Hermann Goering committed suicide before his hanging. For 10 points each:
 Name these military tribunals of Nazi war criminals, held in the namesake German city in 1945-6.
ANSWER: Nuremburg War Trials [accept equivalents that mention Nuremburg; accept Nurnberg]
 One of the men condemned to death was Joachim von Ribbentrop, who co-signed a non-aggression pact with this Soviet diplomat prior to the war. Earlier, Finnish armies used a makeshift firebomb known as this man's "cocktail" during the Winter War.
ANSWER: Vyacheslave Molotov  This deputy to Hitler famously flew to Scotland to negotiate peace with Britain, but was arrested and held in the Tower of London before living in Spandau Prison until his 1987 death.
ANSWER: Rudolf Hess 18. Examples of this genre include Salvador Dali and Luis Buñuel's Un Chien Andalou. For 10 points each:
 Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin were created in this artistic medium.
ANSWER: art cinema [accept equivalents, like movie or film]
 This Japanese filmmaker cast Toshiro Mifune into many of his movies like Rashomon, Yojimbo, and The Seven Samurai.
ANSWER: AkiraKurosawa  Mario Crane is stabbed to death in a notorious shower scene at the Bates Hotel in this Alfred Hitchcock thriller.
19. This value equals the height of the image produced over the height of the original object. For 10 points each:
 Name this quantity, the factor by which a mirror or lens reduces or enlarges an object.
ANSWER: magnification [prompt on capital M]
 For spherical mirrors in the paraxial approximation, this value of the mirror is half of its radius of curvature. In general, it is the distance at which rays are brought together.
ANSWER: focal length [prompt on lowercase f]
 Pencil and paper ready. If an object is placed closer than the focal length to a spherical convex mirror, this type of image will be formed. Your answer should have three parts.
ANSWER: an image that is virtual, upright, and larger than the original, and on the opposite side of the mirror from the original [prompt on partial answer; order is irrelevant; accept equivalents for "larger"; accept equivalents for "upright"—the key point is that the image is not upside down]
20. Monsier Homais tries to remove a boy's club foot, but eventually his leg gets amputated. For 10 points each:
 Name this French realist novel, in which Emma commits suicide with arsenic after racking up debt in love affairs with Leon and Rudolphe.
ANSWER: Madame Bovary  This cynic penned Madame Bovary described Frederic Moreau's achievement-based desire for Madame Arnoux in Sentimental Education. ANSWER: Gustave Flaubert  This other French realist wrote about how Eugene Rastignac's attends the rich Pere Goriot's funeral in The Human Comedy.
ANSWER: Honoré de Balzac