Indian cinema


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Professor Priya Jaikumar

Office: LUC 404L


Office Hours: Wednesdays 2-4 pm

Call CNTV office @ 740-3334 to make an appointment
CTCS 510


Spring 2008

Thursdays LUC 307, 10-11:50

LUC 207, 12-3:50

TA: Veena Hariharan,

Office Hours: 6-7PM, Monday, TA Office

Indians suffer from a particularly virulent case of movie madness,” Anupama Chopra, King of Bollywood, 5.

When I moved to America I would watch Hindi movies for nostalgia’s sake; it was the cheapest round-trip ticket home, four bucks at the Eagle Cinema in Jackson Heights. Then, in college and beyond, I stopped, finding them increasingly absurd and pointless,” Suketu Mehta, Maximum City, 352.


Salman’s Rusdhie’s Satanic Verses, the center of many controversies, is as much a satire of the secular as it is a satire of the sacred. Its protagonists Gibreel Farishta and Saladin Chamcha are, respectively, a Bollywood star and a voice-over artist. The epic scale of Hindi cinema—more than 800 movies a year!, three hour long films!, temples and elections devoted to stars!, billboards bigger than buildings!, the last cultural dominion against Hollywood!—lends itself easily to accounts that run the gamut from gentle mockery to enthusiastic acclaim of its audience’s religious fervor. This class is an immersive study of Urdu-Hindi language cinema and its history, with a constant (and necessary) meta-critical eye on the terms of its popular and scholarly reception.

At the most basic level, this class offers a history of Hindi language Indian popular cinema. But historical knowledge cannot be a simple affair when narratives about Indian cinema have been marked by great ambivalence on the part of the state, cultural theorists, literate elite, and the West. So our study must be equally an investigation into why (and if) we must take the “popular” seriously, and what vocabularies are suitable to discuss the “popular” in non-Western realms. For instance, how must we account for distinctions or similarities between Hollywood and Indian cinema when we use terms like melodrama, when we discuss gender and sexuality, consider class, assess genre, or encounter the term “Bollywood”?

For this task, we will also need to be self-reflexive about our own practices of spectatorship and taste cultures. In conjunction with our dialogue with course readings, it will be important to evolve a critical vocabulary for how we receive and respond to the film screenings: How do we categorize or evaluate them?; What registers of our pleasure, boredom, distaste, laughter, or appreciation do they awaken? Seminar participants are not expected to have prior knowledge of Indian cinema, but will be expected to do a fair amount of course reading and independent research to orient themselves to current events in Indian politics, society and culture. References to resources are provided in the syllabus and will be updated over the semester.

Primary Course Objectives

- To acquire an overview of Urdu/Hindi language Indian popular cinema and its primary modes of theorization

- To assess non-Eurocentric modes of analyzing popular cinema produced and circulated outside the west

- To formulate a de-centered vision through which we may revisit such apparently place-neutral terms as “subject,” “modernity,” “femininity” and “masculinity” “sexuality,” “democracy” and “pleasure.”

Required Texts

1. Priya Jaikumar. Cinema at the End of Empire. Duke University Press, 2006.

2. Ranjani Mazumdar. Bombay Cinema. University of Minnesota, 2007.

3. Suketu Mehta. Maximum City. Vintage Departures, 2004.

4. M. Madhava Prasad, Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction. Oxford University Press, 2000.

5. Course Reader at Magic Machine University Graphics, University Village.

Weekly Schedule

(nb: All films will be discussed the week after the screenings and all readings will be due for the week they are listed. “Secondary Films’ will be on a DVD provided by me, and will be required at-home viewing for the next week’s presenters).
Week one. 01/17


Screenings: Excerpts of Silent Indian features: 1. D. G. Phalke Kalia Mardan and Sri Krishna Janma (circa 1918); 2. Excerpt of early comedy, unnamed; 3. Himansu Rai and Franz Osten, The Light of Asia (1925)

Feature Screening: Black Narcissus (English, Powell and Pressburger, UK, 1947)

Assignment: Visit all the websites listed below.

Week two. 01/24

Colonialism, Conflict and Cosmopolitanism

Readings: 1. The Light of Asia
entries on Kalia Mardan, Lanka Dahan and Sri Krishna Janma (CR); 2. Suresh Chabria, “Before our eyes: A short history of India’s silent cinema” The Light of Asia (3-24), (CR); 3. Jaikumar, Introduction and Chapters One, Two, Three and Six.

Screening: Phalke, Sant Tukaram (Marathi, 1936); Secondary Film, Phalke’s Raja Harishchandra (silent, 1913).
Week three. 01/31

The Mythic and the Social

Readings: 1. Neepa Majumdar on Sant Tukaram, forthcoming in 24 Frames (CR); 2. Contemporary reviews of the film from Bapu Watve, V. Damle and S. Fattelal: A Monograph (CR); 3. Sean Cubitt, "Phalke, Melies, and Special Effects Today", Wide Angle - Volume 21, Number 1, January 1999, pp. 115-130 (CR and Project Muse) (CR); 4. Jaikumar, Chapter Seven, pp. 195-205; 227-238.

Recommended: Ravi Vasudevan, “Devotional Transformation: Miracles, Mechanical Artifice, and Spectatorship in Indian Cinema.” Postscripts 1.2/1.3 (Aug./Nov. 2005): 237-257 (Ask TA if interested).

Screening: Raj Kapoor, Sri 420 (Hindi, 1955); Secondary Film: Raj Kapoor, Awaara (Hindi, 1951)
Week four. 02/07

Gender, City, and the Developmental Nation

Readings: 1. Rajadhyaksha and Willeman, Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, entry on Raj Kapoor (CR); 2. Sumita Chakravarty, “Culture/Nation” in National Identity in Popular Indian Cinema (CR); 3. Rosie Thomas, “Melodrama and the Negotiation of Morality in Mainstream Hindi Film,” in Consuming Modernity (CR); 4. Ravi Vasudevan, “Addressing the spectator of a third world national cinema”, Screen 1995 (CR); 5. Excerpt from Behind the Scenes of Hindi Cinema, ed. By Johans Manschot and Marijke de Vos (Handout)

Screening: Vijay Anand, Jewel Thief (Hindi, 1967); Secondary Film: Raj Khosla, CID (Hindi, 1956)
Week five. 02/14

Comparative and Derivative Discourses

Readings: 1. Rajadhyaksha and Willeman, entry on Dev Anand (CR); 2. Richard Allen, “To Catch a Jewel Thief: Hitchcock and Indian Modernity” (forthcoming 2008) (CR); 3. Ranjani Majumdar, Bombay Cinema: The Archive of a City, Introduction and Chapter Three, “Desiring Women”; 4. Miriam Hansen “The mass production of the senses: Classical Cinema as Vernacular Modernism” in Reinventing Film Studies (CR); 5. Corey Creekmur, “Picturizing American Cinema: Hindi Film Songs and the last days of genre” from Soundtrack Available (CR).

Screening: Satyajit Ray, Ghare Baire (Bengali, 1984); Secondary Film: Satyajit Ray, Charulata (Bengali, 1964).

Week six. 02/21

Gender and Modernity in Alternative Cinema

Readings: 1. Rajadhyaksha and Willeman, entry on Satyajit Ray (CR); 2. Mira Reym Binford, "India's Two Cinemas" in John D.H. Downing (ed.) Film and Politics in the Third World; 3. Partha Chatterjee, "The Nation and its Women" from The Nation and its Fragments (CR); 4. Nicholas Dirks, "Home and the World" in Revisioning History (CR); 5. Moinak Biswas, "Introduction" in Apu and After (CR).

Recommended: Ravi Vasudevan, "Nationhood, Authenticity and Realism" in Apu and After (This discusses Charulata; ask TA if interested).

Screening: Guru Dutt, Pyaasa (Hindi/Urdu, 1957); Secondary Film: Guru Dutt, Kaagaz ke Phool (Hindi/Urdu, 1959)
Week seven. 02/28

Neglected Auteurs, Suppressed Discourses

Readings: 1. Rajadhyaksha and Willeman, entry on Guru Dutt (CR); 2. Corey Creekmur on Pyaasa (Thirst) in 24 Frames (CR); 3. Nasreen Munni Kabeer, "Pyaasa" in Guru Dutt: A Life in Cinema (CR); 4. “Guru Dutt: Such Sweet Sorrow” Sight and Sound. 16, no. 3, (2006) (CR); 5. Sumita Chakravarty, “Woman and the Burden of Poscoloniality”in National Identity in Popular Indian Cinema (CR); 6. Mukul Kesavan, “The Islamicate” in Forging Identity: Gender, Community and the State in India (CR).

Recommended: Chapter Two “Film Style: Settings and Costume” from Dwyer and Patel, Cinema India: The visual culture of Indian film

Screening: Shyam Benegal, Ankur (Hindi, 1974)

Week eight. 03/06

Subalternity and The New Cinema Movement

No class presentation or meeting as I will be away at SCMS. We will have a scheduled screening. Screening: Sholay (Hindi, 1975); Secondary Film: Deewar (Hindi, 1975).

Week nine. 03/13

Crisis of State in Popular and Alternative Cinema

Readings: 1. Madhava Prasad, Ideology of the Hindi Film, Chapters Two, Five and Six; 2. Koushik Naberjea, “’Fight Club’: Aesthetics, Hybridization and the Construction of Rougue Masculinities in Sholay and Deewar” from Bollyworld (CR); 3. Ranajit Guha, “Prose of Counterinsurgency,” excerpt from Guha ed. Subaltern Studies II (CR; complete essay available on request).

Recommended: Neepa Majumdar, “The Embodied Voice: Song Sequences and Stardom in Bombay Cinema” in Soundtrack Available; Anupama Chopra, Sholay: The Making of a Classic.

Screening: Basu Chatterjee, Choti si Baat (Hindi, 1975); Secondary Film: TBA (Abhiman, Rajnigandha or Gharonda).

Week ten. 03/20

Week eleven 03/27

Classed Spheres of Circulation and Aspiration

Readings: 1. Suketu Mehta, Maximum City, Chapters “Personal Geography,” and “Mumbai.” 2. Rajadhyaksha and Willeman on Basu Chatterjee (CR); 3. Rachel Dwyer “The Rise of the Middle Classes of Bombay” and “Shooting Stars: The Film Magazine Stardust” in All You Want is Money, All You Need is Love (CR); 4. Madhava Prasad, Ideology of the Hindi Film, Chapter 7; 5. Manjunath Pendakur, “In The Throes of Change: Exhibition, Production and Distribution,” in Indian Popular Cinema (CR); 6. Jeebesh Bagchi, “Acceleration and Conflicts: Comments on the Cinematic Object in the 1990s and After,” Journal of the Moving Image, no, 5, December 2006 (CR); 7. Lakshmi Srinivas, “The active audience” in Media, Culture and Society (CR).

Screening: Mani Rathnam, Roja (Tamil/Hindi, 1992); Secondary Film: Mani Rathnam, Bombay (Tamil/Hindi, 1995).
Week twelve. 04/03

Communalism and Terrorism

Readings: 1. Suketu Mehta, Maximum City, “Powertoni”; 2. Sa’adat Hasan Manto, “Toba Tek Singh” from Translating Partition (CR); 3. The Roja Debates from Economic and Political Weekly (Niranjana, Chakravarty, Srinivas and Niranjana) (CR); 4. Nicholas B. Dirks, “The Home and the Nation: Consuming Culture and Politics in Roja,” in Pleasure and the Nation (CR).

Recommended: Ravi Vasudevan, “Voice, Space, Form: Roja (Manirathnam, 1992), Indian Film and National Identity.” in Not on any Map: Essays in Postcoloniality and Cultural Nationalism

Screening: Karan Johar, Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (Hindi, 1998); Secondary Film: Farhan Akhtar, Dil Chahta Hai (Hindi, 2001)

Week thirteen. 04/10

Etymologies of Bollywood Cinema

Readings: 1. Madhava Prasad, “This Thing Called Bollywood” (CR); 2. Ranjani Majumdar, Bombay Cinema, Chapter Four; 3. Geetanjali Gangoli, “Sexuality, Sensuality and Belonging,” in Bollyworld (CR); 4. Thomas Blom Hansen, “In Search of the Diasporic Self,” in Bollyworld (CR); 5. Brian Larson, “Bandiri Music, Globalization and Urban Experience in Nigeria,” from Bollyworld (CR); 6. Anupama Chopra, Chapters 12, King of Bollywood (CR).

Recommended: Corey Creekmur, “Bombay Boys” in Where the Boys Are on hindi films and masculinity (CR).

Screening: Ram Gopal Varma, Company (2002); Secondary Film: Ram Gopal Varma, Satya (1998)
Week fourteen. 04/17

Global Economies across Illicit and Licit Spaces

Readings: 1. Anupama Chopra, Chapter 14, King of Bollywood (CR); 2. Suketu Meha, Maximum City, “Distilleries of Pleasure” (note: “Black Collar Workers” is also about the underworld, but not required reading); 3. Corey Creekmur, “Bombay Bhai: The Gangsters in / Behind Popular Hindi Cinema” in Cinema, Law and the State in Asia (CR); 4. Ranjani Majumdar, Bombay Cinema, Chapter Five; 5. Jigna Desai, “South Asian Diasporas and Transnational Cultural Studies” from Beyond Bollywood; 6. Nitin Govil, “Something Spatial in the Air” from Media Space (CR); 7. Aparna Sharma, “India’s Experience with the Multiplex” in Seminar (CR).

Screening: My Mother India (Safina Uberoi, 2001). Assignment: Circulate film journals in class.
Week fifteen. 04/24

Documentary in the Transnational Age

Readings: 1. Talal Asad, "Reflections on Laicite and the Public Sphere", Keynote address at the "Beirut Conference on Public Spheres," October 22-24, 2004; 2. Partha Chatterjee, "Fasting for Bin Laden: The Politics of Secularization in Contemporary India" in Powers of the Secular Modern. NO PRESENTATION: Open discussion led by Veena Hariharan.

Screening: In lieu of a screening, you are required to attend any one film of the Indian film festival of Los Angeles at the Arclight Cinema, Hollywood.

Assignment: Turn in film journals to me.
Week sixteen. 05/01

Graduate Presentations on Final Papers as Works in Progress

Assignments and Expectations

1. Class Presentation (30%): This seminar is constructed around your participation, and that will be a core requirement. Every week, one (or two) people will lead discussion on the film screened in class, with reference to the readings. The secondary film extends the presenter’s range, and can be brought in for clips if so desired. Your discussion can be framed around central aspects of the film, and how the readings allow you to address them; or what is confusing about the readings and needs further elaboration; and what questions you want to raise in class about the film and readings. You will have class comments to guide you regarding the screenings (see #2 below), though you are not required to incorporate all the comments of your colleagues.

2. Film Comment (10%): In addition to participating in weekly discussions, you will be required to email to the presenter, the professor (me), and your TA brief comments on the films screened. EACH PERSON WILL DO THIS FOR SIX WEEKS. Based on the roster, the class will be divided into two, alphabetically. The first half will comment on every alternate screening starting with Week One, and the second half on every alternate screening starting with Week Two (skipping Week Eight).

Please keep your comments to the point (no more than one page of email maximum; less is okay; can be bullet point comments; a linear argument is not necessary, but productive thinking is, e.g: “I found the use of space in this film interesting, and think it can be linked to the readings on devotional settings like temples. E.g, in the scene on...etc). You can refer to any aspect of the screening you want the presenter/class to discuss. It is not necessary to have completed all the readings at the time you send this, and you should email it no later than Tuesday evening (for that Thursday’s class).

3. Journal (20%): You will get an “A” on this assignment irrespective of what you write, as long as you write / create it, so make it meaningful to yourself. This will be a personal document (which you will submit to me on Week Fourteen). It can be in any form: notebook, handwritten, typed, webpage, scrapbook, but I want you to write (academic language not required) your experience of any aspects of the screenings and readings in or outside of class, related to Indian cinema. If you are thinking of some other Asian cinema, and how it fits with the rubrics discussed/ films screened, that is fine too. This is an account of your self-reflexivity in class.
4. Final paper (40%): A final, research paper, of approximately 15-17 pages, with a detailed bibliography, on any aspect of Indian cinema in its national, local or global context. This may also be a comparative paper on Indian cinema in relation to any other cinema that is the focus of your dissertation; or a theoretical, methodological paper. Central criteria is that it should be based on original research and thinking on issues related to broader course themes. Work in progress will be presented on the final week of class.

During the course of this term, please visit the following websites and keep in touch with news on India and Indian cinema regularly: (look up the content page of a few issues; especially (look at the range of activities, including publication and types of essays). (film trade news and gossip) (look up some entries) (check headlines) (check headlines)

For DVD purchases:;;

Important Notice

(a) If you have any diagnosed learning or other disability, please let your TA or me know early in the semester so that we can work towards accommodating the classroom and tests to your needs. You are required to register with Disability Services and Programs (DSP) each semester, and turn in their verification to me or to your TA. DSP is at STU301, hrs: 8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m., M-F, ph# (213)740-0776. If you do not register with DSP, we will not be able to address your needs, so it is imperative that you do so.

(b) Work should be turned in on time. This is a graduate seminar, so I expect perfect attendance. If you cannot make it for any reason, please let the seminar group know ahead of time.

(c) Please make sure you proof read all the papers you hand in for grammatical or typographical errors, because a poorly written paper distracts from the best argument. If you are ever unclear about the requirements of an assignment, please ask me or your TA.

(d) Academic Integrity: We will expect the highest level of integrity from the students in this class. Plagiarism (including copying from a website without citation), the use of the same paper for more than one class, or the submission of a paper authored by someone other than you will result in a failing grade and a report to the Office of Student Conduct.


Extended Bibliography for your Reference

Agnihotri, R. A. Modern Indian Films on Rural Background: Social and Political Perspectives with Survey Study (New Delhi, Commonwealth Publishers, 1991).

Arora, P. Imperilling the prestige of the white woman: colonial anxiety and film censorship in British India. ‘Visual Anthropology Review’ 11(2): Fall 1995.

Barnouw, Eric and S. Krishnaswami. Indian film (2nd edn.) New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Baskaran S.T. The eye of the serpent: an introduction to Tamil cinema. Madras: East-West Books, 1996.

Bharucha, R. On the border of fascism: manufacture of consent in Roja. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(23): 4 June 1994: 1389-1395.

Bharucha, R. Utopia in Bollywood: hum aapke hain kaun! ‘Economic and Political Weekly’: 15 April 1995: 801-804.

Bhaskar, I. Allegory, nationalism and cultural change in Indian cinema: ‘Sant tukaram’. Literature and Theology: An International Journal of Religion, Theory and Culture 12(1): March 1998: 50-69.

Bhaskar, I. Myth and ritual: Ghatak’s meghe dhaka tara. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’: April-June 1983: 43-50. Another version of this essay, Mother goddess ascendant, in K. Bhasin and B. Agarwal (eds) Women and media: analysis, alternatives and action. New Delhi: Kali for Women in collaboration with Isis International, Rome, 1984.

Biswas, Moinak. ed. Apu and After: Re-visiting Ray's Cinema (London: Seagull, 2006).

Bhowmik, S. Indian cinema, colonial contours. Calcutta: Papyrus, 1995.

Brosius, C. and M. Butcher (eds). Image journeys: audio-visual media and cultural change in India. London: Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1999.

Chabria, S., V.  Dharamsey  P. C.  Usai, Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934: A Filmography (New Delhi, Wiley Eastern, 1994).

Chakravarty, S. S. National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema, 1947–1987 (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1993).

Chakravarty, Sumita S. National identity in Indian popular cinema, 1947-1989. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.

Chakravarty, V. and M.S.S. Pandian. More on Roja. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(11): 12 March 1994: 642-644.

Chatterjee, Gayatri. Awara. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern, 1993.

Chatterjee, Partha. A bit of song and dance, in Aruna Vasudev (ed) Frames of mind: reflections on Indian cinema. Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore, Madras: UBS Publishers, 1995.

Chowdhry, P. Colonial India and the making of empire cinema: image, ideology, and identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Cooper, Darius. The Hindi film song and Guru Dutt. ‘East-West Film Journal’ 2(2): June 1988.

Cubitt, Sean 1953- Phalke, Melies, and Special Effects Today Wide Angle - Volume 21, Number 1, January 1999, pp. 115-130 (On Project Muse).

Das Gupta, C.  The Painted Face: Studies in India's Popular Cinema (New Delhi, Roli Books, 1991).

Das, Veena. On soap opera: what kind of an anthropological object is it? in D. Miller (ed) World’s apart: modernity through the prism of the local. London: Routledge, 1995.

Das, Veena. The making of modernity: gender and time in Indian cinema, in T. Mitchell (ed) Questions of modernity. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Dasgupta, Chidananda. The painted face: studies in India’s popular cinema. New Delhi: Roli Books, 1991.

Derne, Steve. Movies, masculinity, and modernity: an ethnography of men’s filmgoing in India. Westport: Greenwood, 2000.

Desai, Jigna, Rajinder Dudrah, Amit Rai, Bollywood Audiences Editorial. South Asian Popular Culture, 3:2 (2005), 79-82.

Dhondy, Farrukh. Keeping faith: Indian film and its world. ‘Daedalus’ 114(4): Fall: 1985.

Dickey, S. Cinema and the urban poor in south India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Dickey, S. The politics of adulation: cinema and the production of politicians in south India. ‘The Journal of Asian Studies’ 52(2): May: 340-72.

Dirks, N.B. The home and the nation: consuming culture and politics in Roja, in C. Pinney and R. Dwyer (eds) Pleasure and the nation: the history, politics and consumption of public culture in India. Delhi: OUP, 2001.

Dissanayake, Wimal (ed). Melodrama and Asian cinema. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Doraiswamy, Rashmi. Hindi commercial cinema: changing narrative strategies, in Aruna Vasudev (ed) Frames of mind: reflections on Indian cinema. Delhi: UBSPD, 1995.

Dwyer Rachel and D.  Patel, Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film (London, Reaktion, 2002.).

Gandhy, Behroze and Rosie Thomas. Three Indian film stars, in Christine Gledhill (ed) Stardom: industry of desire. London: Routledge, 1991.

Ghosh, Shohini. The troubled existence of sex and sexuality: feminists engage with censorship, in Christiane Brosius and Melissa Butcher (eds) Image journeys. New Delhi: Sage Publications; London: Thousand Oaks, 1999, 233-259.

Gopalan, Lalitha. Cinema of Interruptions: Actions Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema (London, BFI Publishing, 2002).

Govil, Nitin. “Something Spatial in the Air: In-Flight Entertainment and the Topographies of Modern Air Travel.” Media/Space: Place, Scale and Culture in a Media Age. Anna McCarthy and Nick Couldry, Eds. Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2004. 233-252.

Hardgrave, R.L. When stars displace the gods: the folk culture of cinema in Tamil Nadu. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975.

Hughes, S. Policing silent film exhibition in colonial south India, in Ravi Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000, 2001.

Hughes, S. The pre-Phalke era in south India: reflection on the formation of film audiences in Madras. ‘South Indian Studies’ 2: July-December 1996.

Hughes, Stephen. “Pride of Place,” Seminar 525, May 2003

Jaikumar, Priya. Cinema at the End of Empire. Duke University Press, 2006.

Jha, Priya. “Lyrical nationalism: Gender, Friendship, and Excess in 1970s Hindi Cinema.” The Velvet Light Trap, 51, Spring 2003.

Juluri, Vamsee. Global weds local: the reception of hum aapke hain kaun. ‘European Journal of Cultural Studies’ 2(2): May 1999: 231-248.

Kabir, Anaynya Jahanara, “Allegories of Alienation and Politics of Bargaining: Minority Subjectivities in Mani Ratnam’s Dil Se,” South Asian Popular Culture (Vol 1, no. 2, October 2003), 141-159.

Kabir, N. M.  Bollywood: The Indian Cinema Story (London, Channel 4 Books, 2001).

Kabir, Nasreen Munni. Talking films: conversations on Hindi cinema with Javed Akhtar. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Kapur, G. Cultural creativity in the first decade: the example of Satyajit Ray. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 23-24: January 1993: 17-49.

Kapur, G. Mythic material in Indian cinema. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 14(15): 1987: 79-107.

Kesavan, Mukul. Urdu, Awadh and the tawaif: the Islamicate roots of Hindi cinema, in Zoya Hasan (ed) Forging identities: gender, communities and the state. Delhi: Kali for Women, 1994.

Krishen, P. (ed). Indian popular cinema: myth, meaning and metaphor. ‘India International Centre Quarterly’ 8 (1): special issue: March 1980.

Mankekar, P. Screening culture, viewing politics: an ethnography of television, womanhood, and nation in postcolonial India. Duke University Press, 1999 and Delhi: OUP, 2000.

Mazumdar, Ranjani. Dialectic of public and private. Representation of women in Bhoomika and Mirch Masala. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 26(43): October 1991: WS 81-84.

Mishra, V. Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire (London, Routledge, 2002).

Mishra, V. Bollywood cinema: temples of desire. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Misra, Vijay. Decentring history: some versions of Bombay cinema. ‘East-West Film Journal’ 6(1): January 1992: 111-155.

Misra, Vijay. Towards a theoretical critique of Bombay cinema. ‘Screen’ 26(3/4): 1985: 133-46.

Nandakumar, R. The star system: a note towards its sociology. ‘Deep Focus’ 4(2): 1992: 44-5.

Nandy, Ashis. An intelligent critic’s guide to Indian cinema, in The savage Freud and other essays on possible and retrievable selves. Princeton: Princeton University Press, and Delhi: OUP, 1995.

Nandy, Ashis. The secret politics of our desires: nation, culture, and gender in Indian popular cinema. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Niranjana T. and V. Dhareshwar. Kaadalan and the politics of re-signification: fashion, violence and the body. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 29: January 1996; also in Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000.

Niranjana, T. Cinema, femininity and the economy of consumption. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 26(43): 26 October 1991.

Niranjana, T. Roja revisited. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 29(21): May 1994: 1299.

Niranjana, T. Whose nation? tourists and terrorists in Roja. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 24(3): 15 January 1994: 79-82.

Niyogi De, Esha. “Modern Shakespeare in Popular Bombay Cinema,”, 43:1 [Spring 2002].

Pandian, M.S.S. Parasakthi: life and times of a DMK film, in R. Vasudevan (ed) Making meaning in Indian cinema. Delhi: OUP, 2000, 2001.

Pandian, M.S.S. Politics of representation: women in the films of M.G. Ramachandran, in T.V. Satyamuthy (ed) Region, religion, caste, gender and culture in contemporary India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Pandian, M.S.S. Tamil cultural elites and cinema: outline of an argument. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 13(15): April 1996. A Tamil translation was published in ‘Kalachuvadu’: July-September 1997.

Pandian, M.S.S. The image trap: M.G. Ramachandran in films and politics. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1992.

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Pendakur, M. New cultural technologies and the fading glitter of Indian cinema. ‘Quarterly Review of Film and Video’ 11(3): 1989.

Pinney, C. Camera Indica: the social life of Indian photographs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Prasad, M. Cinema and the desire for modernity. ‘Journal of Arts and Ideas’ 25-26: 1993.

Prasad, Madhava. Ideology of the Hindi film: a historical construction. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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Rajadhyaksha, A. Cinema, culture industries, political societies. ‘Inter-Asia Cultural Studies’ 4(1): special issue: April 2003 (with Kim Soyoung).

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