Indigenous/aboriginal tourism, a rapidly evolving sector of the tourism



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Indigenous Tourism Development in Southern Alberta, Canada: Tentative Engagement. By: Notzke, Claudia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2004, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p29-54, 26p Abstract: This paper reviews indigenous/aboriginal tourism, a rapidly evolving sector of the tourism industry and an important growth sector in aboriginal economies, and examines the optimism expressed about its growth potential. Case studies are given of the host, guest and intermediary relationships involved in aboriginal tourism in southern Alberta, Canada, still at an early and tentative stage of development, despite the volume of travel taking place in this area, the location of Canada's largest Indian reserves in this region, and world renowned attractions such as Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump. It notes the lack of industry knowledge on the part of local aboriginal operators, a lack of consumer awareness on the part of travellers and an underutilization of potentially advantageous partnerships between local product suppliers and tour operators. Suggestions are made for the professional development of an aboriginal tourism product; market reconnaissance and market development; and the evolution of a partnership between aboriginal tourism product suppliers and the travel trade. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 13198786)
Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Community-based Tourism Enterprises Development in Kenya: An Exploration of Their Potential as Avenues of Poverty Reduction. By: Manyara, Geoffrey; Jones, Eleri. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2007, Vol. 15 Issue 6, p628-644, 17p Abstract: The United Nations World Tourism Organization endorses tourism for economic development and poverty reduction in developing countries, emphasising the role of micro-, small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises. In Kenya, community-based enterprises (CBEs) are preferred. This paper evaluates CBE potential and challenges for poverty reduction in Kenya. Reviewing literature on Kenyan tourism development, it uses case studies of six Kenyan CBEs spread across Kenya's tourism-focused community-based initiatives selected using opportunistic and snowball sampling. The case studies used individual in-depth semi-structured interviews with community leaders, CBEmanagers, tourism academics, support organisations and government officials, and focus groups with community members. The paper develops a detailed understanding of the CBEs, identifying the catalyst for their establishment and the role and degree of external intervention. It explores critical success factors, the extent to which CBEs alleviate poverty, and factors making communities welcome CBEs (or not). The results emphasise the conservation orientation of CBEs, with support agencies preferring partnership approaches involving white investment which inadequately addresses community priorities. Through foreign resource control and heavy reliance on donor funding, CBEs promote neocolonialism and reinforce dependency. An urgent review of the support framework for community tourism development in Kenya integrating the principles of sustainable development is advocated. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.2167/jost723.0; (AN 27464578)

A Cultural Encounter through Volunteer Tourism: Towards the Ideals of Sustainable Tourism? By: McIntosh, Alison J.; Zahra, Anne. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2007, Vol. 15 Issue 5, p541-556, 16p Abstract: International volunteering is increasingly recognised as a form of alternative tourism. However, the nature of the ‘alternative’ experience gained, and the ensuing narrative between host and volunteer, remains under-explored in published research, especially in volunteer tourism research within a cultural context in a developed nation. This paper examines the nexus between volunteer tourism and cultural tourism in the search for alternative and sustainable experiences through tourism. Qualitative research using in-depth interviews, diaries and participant observation was conducted to examine the pre-, during and post-trip experiences of 12 Australian visitors undertaking organised volunteer activities in an indigenous Maori community in the North Island of New Zealand during January 2005. Members of the indigenous Maori community were also interviewed to provide an important host perspective. Findings suggest that the nature of the interaction and cultural experiences gained were perceived as mutually beneficial and seemingly different from those gained from traditional cultural products. In particular, the volunteers experienced an alternative Maori cultural product and engaged in a different narrative with their Maori hosts through their volunteer work, one rich in authentic cultural content, genuine and reflective of modern Maori life in New Zealand society. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR];

Venturing out in Dreamtime business. (cover story) By: Liston-Burgess, Gail. Ecos, Feb/Mar2007 Issue 135, p26-29, 4p, 6c; Abstract: The article discusses issues concerning the indigenous culture and indigenous tourism in Australia. An accreditation program called Respecting Our Culture was introduced by Aboriginal Tourism Australia (ATA) to sustain business and environmental practices and determine cultural protocols. Lois Peeler, chairman of the ATA, asserts that there is a big gap in terms of the difference between Western education and Aboriginal education. Moreover, a mentoring program known as Business Ready Program, which was created by the Department of Tourism, has taken successful businessmen on board to determine ineffective business practices and ascertain positive results

World Heritage cultural landscapes: A UNESCO flagship programme 1992 – 2006. By: Rössler, Mechtild. Landscape Research, Oct2006, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p333-353, 21p, 4 charts, 6c; Abstract: This paper reviews one of the most important evolutions in the history of the 1972 UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention), namely, the interaction between culture and nature and the development of the cultural landscape categories. The World Heritage Convention currently covers 812 sites in 137 countries and is with 181 States Parties the most universal international legal instrument in heritage conservation. Among the properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, 53 sites are recognized cultural landscapes focusing on the outstanding interaction between people and their environment. The paper further explains key case studies from World Heritage cultural landscapes from all regions of the world and highlights the innovations in the Convention's implementation through the landscape approach, particularly focusing on the management of complex properties involving local communities and indigenous people. The paper also outlines links to other international and regional Conventions and concludes with a future outlook of the landscape programme. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/01426390601004210; (AN 23253389)

Memory Pieces and Footprints: Multivocality and the Meanings of Ancient Times and Ancestral Places among the Zuni and Hopi. By: Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip; Ferguson, T. J.. American Anthropologist, Mar2006, Vol. 108 Issue 1, p148-162, 15p, 8bw; Abstract: The notion of the ‘contested past’ has grown to be an important topic in anthropological research in recent decades, linking such themes as nationalism, identity, museology, tourism, and war. In North America, these discussions have largely centered on archaeology's shifting relationship with native peoples. As scholars give new attention to how research methodologies and representation of cultural histories affect indigenous peoples, it is critical to understand the unique ways in which Native Americans view their past. Contemporary Zuni and Hopi interpretations of ancestral landscapes in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona are used to explore how indigenous worldviews imbue ancient places with deep cultural and individual meanings. This research, based on a three-year collaborative ethnohistory project, argues for resolution to the ‘contested past’ by incorporating a perspective of multivocality, which will enable the creation of alternative histories that do not eschew scientific principles while respecting native values of history. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 20332371)

Notes:  This title is held locally

Tourism and Sámi Identity – An Analysis of the TourismIdentity Nexus in a Sámi Community. By: Viken, Arvid. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, Mar2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p7-24, 18p; Abstract: This article is a study of the tourismidentity nexus in a Sámi community called Karasjohka, often regarded as the Sámi capital in Norway. The aim is, based on focus group interviews, to look at the importance of tourism as a parameter for identity negotiations. The study indicates the existence of a strong Sámi ethos, but people have multiple roles and in many of these the Sáminess is of minor importance. The relation to tourists or to tourism as such seems to be handled through non‐Sámi roles. The study unveiled three main reactions to tourism; the first one is to be irritated – by the way the tourism industry handles Sámi culture, and by the fact that the most profitable parts of the business is in the hands of non‐Sámi; the second one is called reflexive rejection – tourism is maintained to be of minimal importance for cultural and identity issues; and the third one is called discursive awareness – people admitting that tourism is a significant institution and as such being part of the contexts that over time forms their views of themselves, their culture and of the outer world. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/15022250600560604; (AN 20573577)


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The Dialectic of Identities in the Field of Tourism. The Discourses of the Indigenous Sámi in Defining their own and the Tourists' Identities. By: Tuulentie, Seija. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, Mar2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p25-36, 12p; Abstract: The modernity of indigenous people has often been denied, and this is especially true in the field of tourism where indigeneity works as a part of tourism marketing. From the more critical angle tourism has been seen as a cause of decline in preexisting local indigenous identities. However, these perspectives neglect the fact that the indigenous people themselves know nowadays what it is to be a tourist and how to act in the field of tourism. This article deals with the case of indigenous Sámi people and shows that instead of being passive victims the Sámi are active participants in constructing their own identities as well as the identities of the tourists visiting their home regions. The article analyses the discourses of the Sámi focus groups interviewed in Finland, Sweden and Norway. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/15022250600560596; (AN 20573574)



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Making Differences in a Changing World: The Norwegian Sámi in the Tourist Industry. By: Olsen, Kjell. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, Mar2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p37-53, 17p, 4c; Abstract: This article analyses the representation of the Norwegian Sámi in local and regional tourist brochures and at tourist sites. The argument put forward is that these representations give an impression of the Sámi that perpetuates their image as radically different from Norwegians. The main reason for this is the conceptual difference between tradition and a single all embracing modernity found in Western thought. To become something to see, a tourist attraction, indigenous peoples have to keep alive an image where features assumed to be modern have no place. This is not an image that only relates to a global discourse. By analysing the sites tourists encounter, it is shown how these exposures are embedded in different local and national discourses that still have consequences in the contemporary everyday life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/15022250600560570; (AN 20573575)

Sámi Heritage at the Winter Festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden. By: Müller, Dieter K.; Pettersson, Robert. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, Mar2006, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p54-69, 16p, 1 chart, 1 diagram, 1 map, 1bw; Abstract: Indigenous tourism is an expansive sector in the growing tourism industry. However, the tourist experience of the indigenous heritage is often delimited to staged culture in museums, exhibitions and festivals. In this paper, focus is put on the annual Sámi winter festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden. It is discussed to what extent this festival truly is an indigenous event. This is accomplished by scrutinizing the Sámi representation at the festival regarding its content and its spatial location. It is argued that the available indigenous heritage is highly staged, although backstage experiences are available for the Sámi and for the curious tourists. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/15022250600560489; (AN 20573576)

Keeping World Heritage in the Family: A Genealogy of Maya Labour at Chichén Itzá. By: Breglia, Lisa. International Journal of Heritage Studies, Dec2005, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p385-398, 14p, 2bw; Abstract: This account of the everyday politics of the World Heritage archaeological site of Chichén Itzá (Yucatán, Mexico) contributes to a new impulse in the study of heritage and tourism: the interests and participation of multiple publics in the production of sites of national cultural identities and international tourism. For decades, Maya residents in and around Chichén Itzá have been employed in the site’s excavation, maintenance, and protection. For these indigenous heritage workers, patrimonial claims to the site are based not on the monuments themselves but on inherited job positions. The transformation of these workers into a local elite has occasioned contentious broader community politics as other local residents advocate opening the site’s benefit stream to a wider group of stakeholders. This case study thus addresses the role played by heritage workers in the micro‐politics of patrimony at a World Heritage Site. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/13527250500337421; (AN 18807124)

Trans-boundary Environmental Actors: The Zambezi Society's Campaign for Sustainable Tourism Development in the Zambezi Bioregion. By: Sithole, Elijah. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2005, Vol. 13 Issue 5, p486-503, 18p; Abstract: This paper analyses the changing roles of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) as trans-boundary actors in environmental management and sustainable tourism development in Southern Africa. It specifically examines the lead role played by the Zambezi Society (ZAMSOC) in campaigning for, and promoting, sustainable tourism in the Zambezi ecoregion. ZAMSOC has made significant strides in key areas, notably safeguarding the wilderness and wetlands of the Zambezi River system by opposing environmentally damaging tourism infrastructure; developing guidelines for wilderness-sensitive tourism practices; encouraging greater cross-border cooperation; designing pollution control measures and lobbying for more profound partnerships between the tourism industry and local communities to achieve a fairer distribution of tourism profits for host communities. In this regard, ZAMSOC's pioneering concept of trans-border `People's Conservancies' is but one example. While acknowledging ZAMSOC's achievements, the paper argues that the workload for the NGO may undermine its effectiveness in the long term considering that it operates in a context where new social movements, especially the environmental movement, are not deeply rooted among indigenous communities. However, despite these challenges, ZAMSOC's activities are reflective of how environmental activism transcends geophysical and geopolitical boundaries effectively championing the quest for sustainable tourism in ecologically sensitive bioregions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 18925066)

Tourism: A Facilitator of Social Awareness in an Indigenous Mexican Community? By: Greathouse-Amador, Louisa M.. Review of Policy Research, Sep2005, Vol. 22 Issue 5, p709-720, 12p; Abstract: As Latin American economies and cultures become increasingly tied to a global political, economic, and social order, indigenous and other marginalized people find themselves at a crossroads where their cultural survival is challenged. Tourism is one important aspect of this new economic order and it is often one of the few resources remaining in countries such as Mexico whose economy has been tied more directly to interests of dominating leaders contributing to this new world order. And while many observers note that tourism often has an exploitative impact on indigenous and marginalized people, this article examines the contradictions in tourism, identifying those economic spaces where the indigenous people have been successful in renegotiating their position with the dominant mestizo group in their community. This article offers provocative insights about the impact of tourism on indigenous people in a community in the northern mountains (Sierra Norte) in Puebla, México. It examines the potential contradictions in tourism under the economic conditions of neoliberalism. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-1338.2005.00167.x; (AN 18316318)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Conservation costs: Nature-based tourism as development at Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. By: Rugendyke, Barbara; Nguyen Thi Son. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Aug2005, Vol. 46 Issue 2, p185-200, 16p; Abstract: Local communities are frequently displaced from areas selected for environmental protection. Development of nature-based tourism, believed to be more environmentally benign than traditional agricultural systems, has been encouraged by governments and national park managers in the hope of providing alternative livelihoods for local people. This paper examines the extent to which indigenous peoples resettled from within one Vietnamese national park have engaged with the nascent tourism industry, thereby providing a perspective on the success of their resettlement, through the eyes of those communities affected. The perspectives of resettled peoples are contrasted with those of villagers who have continued to reside within the national park, using traditional means of survival, along with new initiatives designed to supplement their livelihoods and to reduce their dependence on national park resources for survival. Resettled villagers are unable to survive on agricultural activity alone, tourism has done little to provide an alternate livelihood and the park environment is still threatened by the use of park resources by resettled communities in their struggle to survive. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8373.2005.00265.x; (AN 17909656)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Rethinking Ainu Heritage: A Case Study of an Ainu Settlement in Hokkaido, Japan. By: Cheung, Sidney. International Journal of Heritage Studies, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p197-210, 14p; Abstract: With the colonisation of Hokkaido since the Meiji era, Western technologies were introduced to Japan, but the indigenous inhabitants'—the Ainu people's—ways of life were negatively affected because of the assimilation policy. Since the late 1950s, ethnic tourism in Ainu settlements has grown and Ainu hosts in traditional costumes were often seen in various tourist destinations in Hokkaido; Lake Akan was not exceptional. In this paper, the historic development of an Ainu settlement is explained, and the contested meanings of Ainu traditions and the social construction of Ainu culture in post-war Japanese society from the cultural-political perspectives is investigated. With the focus on the Ainu settlement at Lake Akan, the paper looks closely into the changing indigenous living environments and relevant activities held during the last several decades in order to discern how Ainu heritage has been preserved and promoted as well as the social transformation that Ainu people have undergone in the face of globalising Japanese society. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/13527250500160500; (AN 17342826)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Public support for tourism SMEs in peripheral areas: The arjeplog project, northern sweden. By: Nilsson, Per Åke; Petersen, Tage; Wanhill, Stephen. Service Industries Journal, Jun2005, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p579-599, 21p, 6 charts, 2 diagrams; Abstract: Within the European Union, the tourism issues facing many peripheral areas are similar to those elsewhere in the world. Beginning in the late 1980s, the emphasis of thinking in the Union moved away from large automatic grants to attract inward investment projects, towards small firms and indigenous development. As party to this thinking, tourism SMEs have been assigned an important role in the process of regional convergence. While investment subsidies remain a key instrument, they have been supplemented by technical support to tailor assistance to the needs of the individual firm. The latter aspect is an important plank in Swedish regional policy, which sees investing in human competencies as the core to innovative development at the local level. This paper examines the progress and the outcomes of a four-year programme to upgrade the level of business skills in eight tourism SMEs, which are located in the sparsely populated regions of northern Sweden. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/02642060500092436; (AN 17384872)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Tourism and Policy in Preserving Minority Languages and Culture: The Cuetzalan Experience. By: Greathouse-Amador, Louisa M.. Review of Policy Research, Jan2005, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p49-58, 10p; Abstract: This article outlines the sociolinguistic environment in Cuetzalan, Puebla, Mexico, and how the evolution of tourism influenced, in what appears to be a positive way, the preservation and maintenance of Nahuat, the language spoken by the Nahua Indians of this area. There are many remarkable consequences to this story, however, this article will concentrate on the principal movers, indigenous women, and how their proactive solution to economic hardship led to language preservation. With the focus on language usage, much of the community culture and traditions are recovered and revivified. This study focuses on the situation of a particular group of Nahua women who joined together and formed an economic cooperative to improve their very limited existence. Through diligent work with an implicit policy of self-determination, they succeeded in organizing themselves into different work areas as well as investing time to educate themselves. A majority of the women began promoting tourism and in return tourism appears to have been a very important factor that motivated them to revive and maintain their language, culture, and traditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-1338.2005.00118.x; (AN 15609686)

Mountain Places, Cultural Spaces: The Interpretation of Culturally Significant Landscapes. By: Carr, Anna. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2004, Vol. 12 Issue 5, p432-459, 28p; Abstract: This paper presents an overview of how national park interpretation in New Zealand is incorporating Mäori perspectives of cultural landscapes. Since the formation of the Department of Conservation in 1987, interpretive material containing information about the relationship between local iwi (Mäori tribal groups) and natural areas has increased. Co-operative management strategies have been instigated by the Department to ensure that interpretation conveying Mäori perspectives and cultural values for the landscape is accurate and authorised by iwi members. The paper analyses the findings from a survey that asked visitors about their experiences of the cultural interpretation at Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park. At this site, Department of Conservation staff aim to(1) increase visitors' understanding of the Mäori relationship to the land and (2) direct appropriate visitor behaviour whilst in the area. Many survey respondents were unaware of the relationship between Maori and the area prior to their visit, despite reporting cultural activities and experiences with indigenous peoples as travel motivators. On-site interpretation contributed to raising visitors' awareness that the landscape has special significance to local iwi, thus providing a cultural dimension to the visitors' experiences at this internationally renowned natural area. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 14833406)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Tourist Aesthetics in the Global Flow: Orientalism and “Warrior Theatre” on the Swahili Coast. By: Kasfir, Sidney L.. Visual Anthropology, Jul-Dec2004, Vol. 17 Issue 3/4, p319-343, 25p, 14bw; Abstract: In this article I bring together two strands of history, namely a longstanding Swahili Coast mercantilism seen in the context of a very permeable ocean frontier, and the much more recent experience of modernity, in some kind of mutual dialogue which engages both global and local outcomes. The broad topic I explore is the development of the Swahili Coast as a tourism “destination” in the late twentieth century. As an art historian, I am particularly interested in the effects of this latest invasion of foreigners (at its peak in the mid-1980s, though lately slowed to a trickle) on material culture, and on the production of identities through its objects and the artists (some of them indigenous and some not) who make them. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1080/089460490468171; (AN 14573360)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Indigenous Tourism Development in Southern Alberta, Canada: Tentative Engagement. By: Notzke, Claudia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2004, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p29-54, 26p; Abstract: This paper reviews indigenous/aboriginal tourism, a rapidly evolving sector of the tourism industry and an important growth sector in aboriginal economies, and examines the optimism expressed about its growth potential. Case studies are given of the host, guest and intermediary relationships involved in aboriginal tourism in southern Alberta, Canada, still at an early and tentative stage of development, despite the volume of travel taking place in this area, the location of Canada's largest Indian reserves in this region, and world renowned attractions such as Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump. It notes the lack of industry knowledge on the part of local aboriginal operators, a lack of consumer awareness on the part of travellers and an underutilization of potentially advantageous partnerships between local product suppliers and tour operators. Suggestions are made for the professional development of an aboriginal tourism product; market reconnaissance and market development; and the evolution of a partnership between aboriginal tourism product suppliers and the travel trade. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 13198786)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Encounters with Aboriginal Sites in Metropolitan Sydney: A Broadening Horizon for Cultural Tourism? By: Hinkson, Melinda. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2003, Vol. 11 Issue 4, p295, 12p; Abstract: Examines the aboriginal sites in Sydney. Role of abopriginality in the promotion of Australia; Aboriginal pespectives incorporated to the metropolitan landscape of Sydney; Implication of developments for visitor experience and tourism.; (AN 11354377)


Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Sustaining Indigenous Peoples in the Wilderness areas of Scandinavia and North-West Russia. By: Ireland, Michael. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, Sep2003, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p71-81, 11p; Abstract: This paper explores the concept of indigenous people and its use by the tourist industry and the academic community. This is important because the discourse used about the people we come into contact with will have consequences for the beliefs we hold about them and any social action. The question to be addressed is whether the concept of indigenous peoples is any less value laden than other terms like "primitive peoples", "tribes" or "native peoples". The paper concludes that indigenous people are an important resource for the tourist industry. These indigenous cultures must be able to grow and change, if people's livelihood is to be sustained in the peripheral regions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 10955994)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Cultural Displays and Tourism in Africa and the Americas. By: Adams, Kathleen M.. Ethnohistory, Summer2003, Vol. 50 Issue 3, p567-573, 7p; Abstract: Reflects on articles in the Summer 2003 special issue of the journal "Ethnohistory" which focus on how issues of indigenous representation and identity are worked out in the context of different kinds of tourism. Dynamic relationship between touristic displays and identity negotiation; Politics of identity displays; Tourism and Maya migration to Cancún, Mexico.; (AN 11452774)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Staged Encounters: Postmodern Tourism and Aboriginal People. By: Harkin, Michael. Ethnohistory, Summer2003, Vol. 50 Issue 3, p575-585, 11p; Abstract: Focuses on the relationship between postmodern tourism and aboriginal people. History of the scholarly study of tourism as a cultural phenomenon; Reappropriation of cultural meanings embedded in tourist practice; Indians' use of a variety of semiotic and performance techniques to effect a double framing of touristic sites.; (AN 11452778)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Politicizing Aboriginal Cultural Tourism: The Discourse of Primitivism in the Tourist Encounter*. By: Deutschlander, Siegrid; Miller, Leslie J.. Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, Feb2003, Vol. 40 Issue 1, p27-44, 18p Abstract (English): Aboriginal cultural tourism is a potentially high-growth segment of the Canadian tourism industry that is currently enjoying widespread demand among Europeans, especially German visitors. This paper uses a discourse analysis approach to examine the tourist encounter at various Aboriginal tourist sites in southern Alberta. It analyses the negotiation of "Indianness" and Indian culture by both Native interpreters and foreign visitors. These negotiations are shown to be informed by the primitivist discourse that, ironically, reinforces the Enlightenment notion of the "noble savage." We argue that, despite its colonialist and essentialist aspects, the primitivist discourse can nevertheless function as a strategy of resistance to a social system viewed by many First Nations as politically oppressive. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] (AN 9586430)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

NGOs, gender and indigenous grassroots development. By: Momsen, Janet Henshall. Journal of International Development, Aug2002, Vol. 14 Issue 6, p859-867, 9p; Abstract: This paper looks at two very similar efforts by indigenous communities to develop a tourist attraction based on their own culture and to market it in two very different environments: California and Mexico. Both groups have been displaced from their traditional areas, are being advised by a woman consultant and are expecting women community members to provide cultural performances and crafts for sale to visitors. Unlike the NGOs involved, the communities see this tourism activity as a reclamation and reaffirmation of a culture that has been almost lost, rather than as an exercise in local economic development. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1002/jid.930; (AN 17072652)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Entrepreneurship and sustainable tourism: The houseboats of Kerala. By: Kokkranikal, Jithendran; Morrison, Alison. Tourism & Hospitality Research, Jul2002, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p7, 14p; Abstract: Within developing countries it has been identified that one means of achieving sustainable tourism is through the effective engagement of local communities. In particular, this involves the encouragement of indigenous entrepreneurship, often in the forms of self-employment and small-scale enterprises. The aim is to maximise potential economic and social benefits of tourism development within the host destinations. This paper provides a conceptual framework and descriptive case study within which to analyse an example of indigenous entrepreneurship as evidence in the operators of a houseboat tourism product in the State of Kerala, India. Conclusions are drawn relative to the sustainability of both the product and indigenous entrepreneurial activity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 7098480)


Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Nomadic Savages, Ochre People and Heroic Herders: Visual Presentations of the Himba of Namibia's Kaokoland. By: Bollig, Michael; Heinemann, Heike. Visual Anthropology, Jul2002, Vol. 15 Issue 3/4, p267-312, 46p; Abstract: The pastoral Himba of Namibia's semiarid northwest have been objects of colonizing and globalizing cameras over the last century. They have been presented as isolated, subsistence-oriented herders, savage beauties, polygamous patriarchs, and persistent desert dwellers. Timelessness and marginality have been salient topics of the visual presentations of herders in Namibia's semiarid northwest. Today, Namibia's discourse on "the indigenous" is frequently pictured with images of the Himba. Especially Himba women were made the focus of the media gaze. Visual images of Himba women seemingly fill the need for esthetic presentation and offer a platform for imaginations and desires. This article seeks to describe how and why the Himba, and Himba women especially, became icons of a romanticized and estheticized Africa within a global discourse. After discussing early maps and early colonial photography, the heydays of the "Colonizing Camera" are outlined. The colonial "visual attack" was three-pronged: colonial officials seeking assertion for their ideas of indirect rule and of white supremacy, the settler elite looking for pleasure in an undisturbed natural world and frequently conflating nature and people in their photographic presentations, and finally scientists seeking for answers to various "scientific enigmas" and ethnographic descriptions before an "ancient culture" would finally fade away. Finally, visual representations after 1990--Namibia's year of Independence--are analyzed. Three visual themes are dominating discourses at the turn of the millennium: the endangered indigenous world, the esthetic and erotic appeal of indigenous women, and the many attractions of cultural tourism targeting an authentic indigenous lifestyle. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 10955852)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Sami tourism in northern Sweden: Measuring tourists' opinions using stated preference methodology. By: Pettersson, Robert. Tourism & Hospitality Research, Apr2002, Vol. 3 Issue 4, p357, 14p, 6 charts, 1 graph, 1 map; Abstract: Presents a study which explored the supply and demand for Sami tourism in Sweden. Demand for indigenous tourism; Increase in the number of Sami tourism entrepreneurs; Correlation between stated preferences and price/accessibility.; (AN 6769260)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

DISAPPEARING CULTURE? GLOBALISATION AND A CANARY ISLAND FISHING COMMUNITY. By: Macleod, Donald. History & Anthropology, Mar2002, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p53-67, 15p; Abstract: This article looks at a Canary Island fishing community, examining its interactions with global processes that are seen as part of a development stretching back to the first Spanish colonisers. The focus is on recent events including tourism, and the article depicts the fishing culture and analyses whether such a thing can be said to be disappearing. It is argued that the indigenous individuals, foreign settlers and tourists involved are all active agents in the globalisation process. Furthermore, the particular type of tourism has specific influences that are broad and deep and impact on the local economy, gender roles, relationships, and attitudes towards the environment and business strategies. The identity of the village is also examined and found to retain its links with fishing. However, some elements of the local culture are certainly disappearing. Although in contrast, other elements have been strengthened by global processes. [ABSTRACT FROM]; (AN 7154859)


Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Tourism, livelihoods and protected areas: opportunities for fair-trade tourism in and around National parks. By: Goodwin, Harold; Roe, Dilys. International Journal of Tourism Research, Sep/Oct2001, Vol. 3 Issue 5, p377-391, 15p, 8 charts; Abstract: The development and implementation of ‘alternative livelihood projects’ by donor agencies and conservation organisations has become one of the most commonly-applied management prescriptions to alleviate existing or potential conflicts between protected areas and local livelihoods. The use of these projects is a common feature of so-called Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs). In most cases, the promotion of these initiatives are undertaken as extensions of protected area programmes and often take place in buffer zones. Examples of projects that seek to improve local livelihoods in and around protected areas are common, and many of them have a tourism component. However, the results of tourism components of ICDPs have often been disappointing with local people benefiting little from tourism revenues. Nevertheless, many national parks are major tourist attractions in rural, and often marginal, areas and do offer significant opportunities for indigenous enterprise development. People living in and around these protected areas often have high expectations of what tourism could offer them. Using data collected in the south east lowveld of Zimbabwe for the DFID Tourism, Conservation and Sustainable Development project an analysis of local people's expectations of tourism is presented. The survey covered nine villages and there are significant differences in the responses. Local people were asked about their experience of tourism and their aspirations, including their preferred ways of earning money from tourism. Finally an analysis of their perceptions of the barriers to their involvement in the industry is presented. The paper then addresses the ways in which a national park or conservancy might respond to these aspirations and seek to involve local people in tourism enabling them to secure all or part of their livelihood from tourism related employment or entrepreneurial activity. An analysis of the preferences of tourists surveyed... [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1002/jtr.350; (AN 17074040)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Access to Sami Tourism in Northern Sweden. By: Müller, Dieter K.; Pettersson, Robert. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, May2001, Vol. 1 Issue 1, p5-18, 14p; Abstract: In recent years, there has been increased development of indigenous tourism as part of the tourism industry. Even the Sami of Northern Sweden are now engaging in tourism, not least because the restructuring of reindeer herding has forced them into taking up other occupations. The purpose of this article is to analyse the potential of the emerging Sami tourism in Sweden, with special emphasis on access to Sami tourism products. The analysis uses the four H approach outlined by V. L. Smith – habitat, heritage, history and handicraft. The article starts with a short description of the Sami and their culture, followed by a discussion of the relationship between the Sami and tourism in northern Sweden. Smith's concept is then introduced, modified and applied in relation to the new Sami tourism development in the area. The analysis is based on a survey of all 68 Sami tourist attractions and projects in Swedish Lapland in 1999. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; (AN 10900804)

Notes:  This title is not available from the library collection

Multinational hotel development in developing countries: an exploratory analysis of critical policy issuesThis article is derived from Kusluvan, S. (1994). “Multi-national Enterprises in Tourism: A Case Study of Turkey”.... By: Kusluvan, Salih; Karamustafa, Kurtulus. International Journal of Tourism Research, May/Jun2001, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p179-197, 19p, 4 charts, 2 diagrams; Abstract: Multinational hotel companies, often integrated with tour operators, travel agencies and other businesses in tourist-generating or tourist-receiving countries, play a key role in the development and continuity of an international tourism industry in developing countries. In order to take advantage of benefits and minimise the unwanted adverse effects from multinational hotel involvement, developing countries need the planning, implementation and evaluation of carefully designed policies linked to their particular objectives. This paper reviews the potential benefits and costs of multinational hotel companies and brings together previously scattered critical policy issues in relation to them, while suggesting possible options for developing countries to follow. Seven critical policy areas are identified: establishment of the need for foreign investment; deciding on forms of involvement; deciding on the scale of hotel development; supporting sectoral linkages; supporting indigenous employment/training; monitoring business practices; and determining foreign investment incentives and regulations. It is argued that policies should be worked out in these areas and co-ordinated in order to achieve a balance between the benefits and costs of multinational hotel involvement in developing countries. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; DOI: 10.1002/jtr.293; (AN 17074018)




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