Instructor: John Fishback Grade: 5th Residency Title



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Teaching Artist Institute Residency Program on the Lakota Indians


Teaching Artist Institute Residency Program on the Lakota Indians

Instructor: John Fishback Grade: 5th
Residency Title: The Lakota Indians and the Buffalo (Totanka)
Four-Day Residency Program:
Day 1: Lesson Title / Lesson # Introduction - Lesson # 1

Day 2: Lesson Title / Lesson # 2- Rattle construction & symbolism practice

Day 3: Lesson Title / Lesson # 3 - Plan, practice & begin paper hide.

Day 4: Lesson Title / Lesson # Project Completion – Lesson # 4

Day 5: Optional - Continuation of Day 4
Lesson Title / Lesson # Introduction - Lesson # 1
Standard(s)/Indicators(s)/Objective(s): (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan. These should come directly from the VSC.) 2.0 Historical, cultural, and
Social Context: Students will demonstrate an understanding of visual art as an essential
aspect of history and human experience. 1. determine ways in which works of art express
ideas about one’s self, other people, places, and events. a. Analyze and interpret the
content of selected works of art and compare different ways artists express ideas and

feelings about life experiences.

Knowledge Objective(s):(Take from knowledge in your Residency Plan.)
Students will understand how American Indian artwork reflects the environment in which they lived and how their lives where similar or different to the American Indians.
Skill Objective(s): (Take from Skills in your Residency Plan.)
Students will be able to identify those materials, tools and art associated with the
American Indians
Vocabulary
Lakota (Sioux or Teton Indians) Totanka (Buffalo)

Chanupa (Piece Pipe ) Tipi travois coup

parfleches tomahawk

pemmican nomads


Materials and Resources for the class:
Handout of plains Indian crossword student assessment envelopes with pieces of paper with names to match to nature collection,

Symbols sheet to practice .


Materials and Resources for the Teacher:
completed brown paper hide U.S. Map of tribes

“Mystic Warriors of the Plains” visualizer



clay

finished rattle blank rattle parts.



Pictures of Buffalo hide artwork, Crazy Horse & Tipi,

Prior Knowledge: ( Talk to the Teacher: What do students need to know in order to participate in your lesson? How can you tap into their experiences?)
Study George Catlin & Lakota Indians, Read plains Indians books in Library: Osage, Omaha, Cree etc. Watch movie “Dances with Wolves”. Visit Americanhistory.si.edu/kids/buffalo/about hides.
Procedures:
MOTIVATION/INTRODUCTION

Show nature collection & photos. Tell them that if they are well behaved & they are very careful, they will be allowed to touch & pick up items in collection.. Talk about the Lakota people asking them questions as we go to test their knowledge. Show U.S. Map of Indian Tribes to show where Lakota lived. Have them repeat Lakota vocabulary as I am teaching about each word. This will help assess and impress. Tell them the Lakota found a use for every part of the buffalo or deer and if they did not that Wankatanka might punish them.

MODELING
I will demonstrate how various parts of the Buffalo and deer were used: bones for knives, sinew string, glue & rattles; rawhide for rattles, pouches, drums, strings etc. As I teach I will be asking questions to assess them and to engage them in the learning process such as: What could the deer antler or buffalo horn be used for?; What could the stomach be used for? Hold nature items gently to show great respect.
GUIDED PRACTICE
I will show buffalo robe art piece and explain the story and symbols written on the hide- for example the tongue is cut out of the buffalo to show how the washishu(settlers) wasted most of the animal. I will show them my finished paper, cut-out hide, art piece and explain my symbols. I might ask a student for a story and show on the visualizer how to use symbols to tell the story. I will talk to the about finding a symbol that represents them or their animal. I will talk to them about how the Lakota did the Hanblechee (vision Quest) to help them find their animal helper and that this animal was often included in their art or decoration. I can talk about Crazy Horse’s Vision that bullets could not hurt him.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Each student will practice making stories on a sheet of paper if time permits but if time is short they can finish in the classroom or at home. Students will be encouraged to think about an animal they identify with and what symbol they will use to represent their animal helper on the rattle. Perhaps an animal footprint or leaf imprint.
Assessment: Performance Tasks(s), Key Criteria and/or Other Evidence: (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan.)

Ask student questions as I talk to test their knowledge, have them repeat Lakota words each time I introduce a new word. Each student will be given an envelope with some pieces of paper with different nature collection names-they will walk to the collection and put each name next to the piece in the collection. Give student “plains Indians” crossword for homework. If time short, this can be completed in the classroom.

CLOSURE: (Quick wrap up/review/reflection/lead into the next lesson)
I will tell them next class they will be making the rattle using a symbol which represents them. I will show them the blank rattle ball and briefly show them how it is made and show my completed example. In this project you will be using modern decorating materials such as the marker. I will mention that are final hide project will be decorated with Indian decorating materials. Give homework assignment: Each student will think of an animal found in nature (not pets) and create a symbol for your animal which will be incorporated into the rattle design next lesson.

Classroom Teacher Follow-Up: (What can the teacher do to complement / continue/complete the work)
Help students with practice in telling a story using nature symbols and find more examples of symbols or have them create nature symbols to tell their story; Go over vocabulary; Get book “Keepers of the Earth”-Native American stories and environmental activities for children by Michael Caduto & Joseph Bruchac. Read to the students Lakota and Dakota stories.
Lesson Adaptation: (How will you modify your instruction for students with special needs, English as a second language, gifted and talented, etc.)
Speak to Spanish students some in their language; Speak louder for hearing impaired and ask if every body can hear me- those with difficulties can move closer (I am hearing impaired); let the visual challenged hold the collection and other learning material so they can view it up close. Provide reading list and additional resources for gifted students. Give extra attention to challenged students. Stay acutely aware of each student’s body gestures and attitudes. Ask teacher and other helpers to assist those in need when I see their challenge.
Lesson Title / Lesson # 2- Rattle construction & symbolism practice

Standard(s)/Indicators(s)/Objective(s): (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan. These should come directly from the VSC.) 2.0 – Historical, cultural &

social context. Students will demonstrate an understanding of visual arts as an essential
aspect of history and human experience. 1. Determine ways in which works of art express
ideas about one’s self, other people, places and events. b. Select ideas, images, and forms
to express personal meaning about life experiences in a visual composition.

Knowledge Objective(s) :( Take from knowledge in your Residency Plan.)
The different materials used by American Indians in their art, and the similarities and differences with modern artists.
Skill Objective(s): (Take from Skills in your Residency Plan.)
Construct native artwork utilizing natural materials. Students will be able to identify those materials, tools & art associated with American Indians.
Vocabulary_oral_tradition_bone_wood,_feather__hair_brushes_pictograph_pigment_symbol_walnut_chlorophyll_charcoal_Materials_and_Resources_for_the_class'>Vocabulary
oral tradition bone wood, feather & hair brushes pictograph pigment

symbol walnut chlorophyll charcoal


Materials and Resources for the class:
Class table preparation: cover table with poster board

markers rattle balls

corn in bowls wood handles

feather, stick & bone brushes charcoal

gray, red & white clay blueberries

stencils walnut husks

other natural paints chlorophyll or green plants Bring extra books which students might enjoy.


Materials and Resources for the Teacher

Symbols poster visualizer

nature collection U.S. tribe map

paper hide art piece finished rattles

pictures of painted Lakota art (tipis, hides etc.)

Prior Knowledge: (Talk to the Teacher: What do students need to know in order to participate in your lesson? How can you tap into their experiences?)
Indians use symbols to tell stories. They were shown these symbols on the buffalo hide art piece and in the paper hide art piece. Students should have thought of a rattle design before they come to this lesson. This prevents precious class time being spent trying to think up a design. Teachers should provide class time and assistance to help students create a design. Please bring paper with design to lesson.
Procedures:
MOTIVATION/INTRODUCTION
Ask students if they have figured out what their animal helper is and what their design will be. Ask who would like to share their design with the class or what their design means. Talk to the students about the three types of Lakota instruments and show them examples. Focus attention on the different ways rattle were made. Remind students that if since they are good they will be allowed to touch or even pick up the nature items during the rattle construction time. I will explain how the Lakota made their paint and the tools they use to apply the pigment to the art piece. Remind them there were no stores to buy anything. They had to make every thing they wanted except the few times we they would barter with other tribes. I will show some different art pieces done by Lakota using a variety of methods. At the end of this lesson we will take five minutes to reflect on the four most significant things you have learned, the three modifications you would make in your project, the two things you don’t want to forget for you next project and the one question you have about your future project.

MODELING

I will show how the various Lakota tools are used to apply pigment and compare them with modern brushes, paint (tempura) and markers. I will mention that working with these primitive paints takes patience. I will demonstrate making a wood brush by chewing on the end to make a feathered brush. Lakota Indians had great patience. Mention they will be making their rattles with both modern and primitive materials. I will show them how they can use both modern and primitive pigments to decorate the rattle.


GUIDED PRACTICE
This is where I show them how the rattle is put together. I will go over symbols chart and show students that I have stencils available to help them and where the materials are found. Break the class in half. Half the class will work on decorating the rattle ball while the other half will be putting corn in the rattle hole and taking time to explore the nature collection. After 10-15 minutes the two groups will switch. Ask a student or two what their symbol or story is and then show the class how they might express this design on their rattle using the given materials.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students will construct their rattles at the prepared tables using student materials (red, white & gray clay, chlorophyll, markers, walnut etc.). All materials will be pre-positioned at the table before the students arrive. Students will practice making a wood brush by chewing on the end to make a feathered brush. Tell students that every part of the rattle should be decorated. It was important to the Lakota people to decorate well to express who they are and what they want to say.
Assessment: Performance Tasks(s), Key Criteria and/or Other Evidence: (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan.)
Students will fill out self assessment / teacher rubric. I will ask student’s questions about what they have learned last lesson and what their story will be or was last class. They will have a matching vocabulary assessment about last weeks vocabulary.
CLOSURE: (Quick wrap up/review/reflection/lead into the next lesson)

Students will be asked to hold up their rattles to show the class. A few students will be asked to tell about their rattle. I will hold up my brown paper hide artwork and explain that the next lesson we will be cutting out our paper hide and practice making our design. Give students assignment: think of a story that they want to tell with symbols. Write this story on a piece of paper with pencil using symbols. Bring to next lesion. Give examples of stories like: pretending they were a Lakota Indian and some of the events that might occur in their lives like “the time they went on a hunt, moved the village or interacted with some natural event. Remind them that the Lakota did not have an alphabet! They depended on symbols or the Oral tradition. I will explain the oral tradition & how important listening was to them. Also, how they did not interrupt each other because they might miss some valuable information. This is also why symbols were so important. I will compare this with how our society interrupts constantly. Maybe because listening is not as important!

Classroom Teacher Follow-Up: (What can the teacher do to complement / continue/complete the work?)

The students’ teacher should provide some time in class for students to practice telling a story using symbols. Have students visit americanhistory.si.edu/kids/buffalo/about hides to get ideas. Remind teacher that students can recreate an Indian story they have learned about.


Lesson Adaptation: (How will you modify your instruction for students with special needs, English as a second language, gifted and talented, etc.)
I will spend more time with those students who have special needs or challenges. I will say some Spanish compliments to Latinos like Buenisimo, excellente, buen trabaho! I will provide books in nature collection for those who would like to read more.


Lesson Title / Lesson # 3 - Plan, practice & begin paper hide.
Standard(s)/Indicators(s)/Objective(s): (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan. These should come directly from the VSC.) 2.0 Historical, cultural, and
Social Context: Students will demonstrate an understanding of visual art as an essential
aspect of history and human experience. 1. determine ways in which works of art express
ideas about one’s self, other people, places, and events. a. Analyze and interpret the
content of selected works of art and compare different ways artists express ideas and
feelings about life experiences.

Knowledge Objective(s):(Take from knowledge in your Residency Plan.)
Students will understand how Native Americans connect closely with animals,
plants and the earth through their artwork..

Skill Objective(s): (Take from Skills in your Residency Plan.)

Utilize images from the natural world and Native American techniques to communicate
thoughts, ideas and stories.
Vocabulary
sign language wash –day (good)

mother Earth talking stick

heyoka (Clown / contrary) diversity
Materials and Resources for the class:
pencils practice paper

brown paper scissors

symbol sheets hide pattern

erasers
Materials and Resources for the Teacher

buffalo hide artwork nature collection

poster of symbols brown paper

visualizer “ Mystic Warriors of the Plains”

Prior Knowledge: ( Talk to the Teacher: What do students need to know in order to participate in your lesson? How can you tap into their experiences?)
Students will have learned about symbols and practiced making art with symbols. They

will have practiced telling a story with symbols. They should have paper with story.


Procedures:
MOTIVATION/INTRODUCTION

Start the Lesson by showing the paper hide art piece I have created. Let students know that telling a story and expressing who you are is very important to the Lakota people. They put a high value on being different. Everybody should create their own design. You can borrow peoples methods of telling a story but tell your own story. Tell them about a heyoka. This is an individual who might do things completely different. A heyoka may say yes when they mean no, walk backwards, ride a horse backwards. It is good to be your self so express that difference. In nature, Diversity means stability. Everybody and everything is important. Even a person in the tribe who is physically different or unusual has something important to give to the tribe. The Lakota believe rocks, the wind, and everything in nature is alive. They talk to us! Try to understand what your symbols are saying. Tell students that these art pieces they are creating will be put on display on the school walls where everyone will have a chance to see them. Let them know that their classmates and teacher will be reviewing each paper hide art piece and will try to interpret what the hide story is saying. This way we will find out if you are successful telling your story! Lakota showed great respect for the buffalo by making their art the best they could be! Work hard on doing your very best!

MODELING
I will talk to the students about the buffalo hide: How the animal was hunted, skinned, stretched and tanned. Show some of the tools and methods for staking and working the hide. Explain when and where the hide was worked. How the hide was protected, worn, stored and treated.
GUIDED PRACTICE
This is where I will have several brown paper hides cut out so that I can demonstrate the process of telling a story in the Lakota way. Put paper hides and real buffalo hide on wall so students can see them. The first step is to demonstrate cutting out the hide shape from brown wrapping paper. Draw the animal shape on the paper and then use scissors to cut shape out. Show students where they should put scrap paper. Explain different methods of laying out the design: Lakota style of concentric rings or in the spiral technique. Explain how the Lakota style reflects nature like concentric rings when a stone is thrown into the water. Compare this with how we write a story form left to right and how some cultures write their story right to left. Have a student or two suggest a story, and then write this story down using different symbols. Remind them it is o.k. to make mistakes. They will start their design using pencils and we have erasers. Mistakes are how new things are often invented. Mistakes are not bad, they are just new ideas! Show them that later they will go over their pencil drawings with charcoal and other natural, Lakota pigments.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Student will design their story using pencils, stencils and erasers if necessary. The students should use the majority of the class time (45 minutes) for this activity. Students will be given rectangular sheets of brown wrapping paper. The brown paper should be pre-positioned at the table along with symbol sheets. Hide shape will be pre-drawn on the paper. They will cut out the hide shape. Those students that don’t have scissors can begin their design lay-out until scissors are available.

Assessment: Performance Tasks(s), Key Criteria and/or Other Evidence: (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan.)



  1. Students should design their paper hide story in a spiral or concentric ring manner

  2. Students should rip the edges of their brown paper hide to resemble a buffalo hide.

  3. students should write a story using American Indian or other “natural” symbols.

Each students will write down on an assessment form: their interpretation of five (5) other students’ stories. After they write their interpretation down, they will have the student reveal his or her story. Finally, they should write down a few symbols which might help the student tell the story. The assessment form should be divided into three columns: Student name; interpretation; symbols suggestions.
CLOSURE: (Quick wrap up/review/reflection/lead into the next lesson)
Next lesson you will be refining your story and adding pigment with tools just like the Lakota people would have done their art work. Assign them homework: 1.)work on your paper hide with pencil. They can also use the back of their paper to create a second story if necessary. 2.) Try to find your own natural paint for the next lesson- practice with this pigment. A good source might be fruits and vegetables – smear on paper and let dry.
Classroom Teacher Follow-Up: (What can the teacher do to complement / continue/complete the work)
The teacher should give students time to work on their design and symbols.
Lesson Adaption: (How will you modify your instruction for students with special needs, English as a second language, gifted and talented, etc.)

Help students draw some of their symbols. Provide stencils to help with easy symbol application. Leave stencils with teacher so they can use them for the homework Touch them on shoulder when you talk to them to show you are interested in what they have to say. Provide more paper hides if their paper becomes damaged. Encourage and compliment. Pick out students who are struggling and show some great aspect of their work or design to the class to show them that they have good ideas!



Lesson Title / Lesson # Project Completion – Lesson # 4
Standard(s)/Indicators(s)/Objective(s): (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan. These should come directly from the VSC.) 2.0 – Historical, cultural &
social context. Students will demonstrate an understanding of visual arts as an essential
aspect of history and human experience. 1. Determine ways in which works of art express
ideas about one’s self, other people, places and events. b. Select ideas, images, and forms
to express personal meaning about life experiences in a visual composition.

Knowledge Objective(s):(Take from knowledge in your Residency Plan.)
Students will understand how Native American artwork reflects the environment in
which they live and how their lives are similar to or different from Native Americans
Skill Objective(s): (Take from Skills in your Residency Plan.)
Utilize Native American techniques and material from nature to communicate thoughts, ideas & stories.
Vocabulary
pilama –yello (thank you-men) matriarchal

pilama- ya (thank you- woman) patriarchal

Matatae mortar & Pestle

Mitakuye Oyasin (we are related to all things) Wopila – (gratitude / thanks)


Materials and Resources for the class:
Grey, red & white clay charcoal

Blueberries chlorophyll (grass, green plants)

Bone, stick & feather brushes water

Walnut husks pencils

Fat, grease or oil hand wipes

Stencils symbols sheet

Other natural materials scissors

Containers to put materials out on all tables mortar & pestle



Materials and Resources for the Teacher

nature collection(buffalo hide, Lakota tools, pelts and natural material that Lokota people may have used)

buffalo hide artwork visualizer


brown paper assessment paperwork
Prior Knowledge: ( Talk to the Teacher: What do students need to know in order to participate in your lesson? How can you tap into their experiences?)
Students should have created a story in the previous lesson and practiced with symbols and applying pigment.
Procedures:
MOTIVATION/INTRODUCTION
Read a quote by a famousLakota Indian such as Sitting Bull. Help students experiment with creating color from natural material. Advise them to do their very best on the hide work to show respect to mother earth and to Totanka. Ask students if they have discovered any new pigments that might be good for painting. Also, remind students that we you will be putting their artwork up on the school walls for everyone to see. Tell them briefly about patriarchal and matriarchal tribes.
MODELING
Ask students about the different sources of pigment that Native Americans could have used in their artwork. Tell them how Lakotas made a beautiful blue paint from duck poop. Tell them again that the Lakotas use every part of the animal including the blood for red. Remind them that I will be asking you about six different things found in nature that can be used as paint. Show where the different pigments and materials were pre-positioned on the tables.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Show how pigment is applied to the brown paper utilizing the different brushes, water etc. Use the mortar & pestle to grind up grass, walnut husk and other materials for paint.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
It is very important to allow as much time as possible for students to work on their project. At least 45 minutes should be set aside for this activity.
Assessment: Performance Tasks(s), Key Criteria and/or Other Evidence: (Take one or more directly from your Residency Plan.)

On a piece of paper- have students write down 8 natural paint sources. Give students pieces of paper with descriptions of each hide story. Have students walk around the table and match the correct description to the appropriate hide artwork.

CLOSURE: (Quick wrap up/review/reflection/lead into the next lesson).
Pick up each hide artwork and have students tell the story they have painted on their hide. Make comments on the student’s good techniques and methods they used. Thank the students for allowing me, the teaching artist, to teach them about the Lakota people. Encourage students to get out side to enjoy the natural world and to learn more about Native Americans. Use both the male and female Lakota words for thank you and have the students practice saying those words.
Classroom Teacher Follow-Up: (What can the teacher do to complement / continue/complete the work)
Allow students time to finish their artwork if necessary. Put artwork up on school walls as soon as possible.
Lesson Adaptation: (How will you modify your instruction for students with special needs, English as a second language, gifted and talented, etc.)

Help students apply pigments. Pick out students who are struggling and show some great aspect of their work or design to the class.







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