International law international organization and world order

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Chapman University College – POSU321 term B 2004 – International Law Professor Lovelace


C H A P M A N

U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e

INTERNATIONAL LAW

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND WORLD ORDER

Prof. Dr. Leo Lovelace

Chapman University College at Irvine

lovelace@chapman.edu
COURSE DESCRIPTION
International law is the system of rules governing the relations among states and providing the common principles for humankind. It is a decentralized system, held together by a hierarchy of subordinating, imperative principles, such as good faith, consent, and the obligation to fulfil the agreements. The system consists of legal rules, persons, and areas of action governed by international law regimes. The rules of the law are those codified in treaties and international agreements, customs, general principles, and international judicial decisions. The persons are collective entities -states, international organizations, peoples- and individual persons, who are entitled to action and protection in international law. The areas of action are those where internationally protected interests are at stake, such as the conditions and relations among the persons of the system, the protection of human rights, the maintenance of peace and security, and the uses of resources and common spaces. This course aims at understanding the basic institutions, functions, and problems of the law, through the study of cases, in terms of the following concepts:

EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES

Audio, video, and power point classroom equipment, and computer assisted instruction and learning.
COURSE OBJECTIVES
Upon completing this course students should:

1) Understand the basic characteristics of the system of international law.

2) Have a good command of how the system works, its processes, and its problems and prospects.

3) Have acquired the fundamentals of international legal and political methodology and know.

4) Be able to analyze with technical rigor cases, decisions, and policies.
MAJOR STUDY UNITS & COURSE CALENDAR
s1 Apr 17 COURSE INTRODUCTION AND ORGANIZATION.
s2 Apr 24 I THE SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

1 The system of international law: sources, evidence, rules. Codification and development of international law rules.

2 International law and the law of the United States.

3 Compliance with and enforcement of international law.


s3 May 1 II STATES, ORGANIZATIONS, AND INDIVIDUALS

1 The states: sovereignty and self-determination in the system of the law.

2 The public international organization system.

3 The individual in the system of international law.


s4 May 8 III INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN THE SYSTEM OF THE LAW

1 Nature of international acts.

2 Diplomatic representation and relations.

3 International negotiations and agreements.

4 Law of international agreements.

5 Implementation of and compliance with international agreements.

s5 May 15 IV STRUCTURE OF AUTHORITY

1 State authority and jurisdiction in the system of the law.

2 International organized authority and jurisdiction.

3 International judicial jurisdiction.

s6 May 22 V INTERESTES PROTECTED BY THE LAW 1: PEACE AND SECURITY

1 The obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means

2 Preventive diplomacy and peace operations

3 Use of force

4 Arms control and disarmament

5 Armed conflicts and international humanitarian law


s7 May 28 VI INTERESTS PROTECTED BY THE LAW 2: HUMAN RIGHTS

1 International law of human rights

2 The global humanitarian crisis

3 Economic development


s8 June 5 VII INTERESTS PROTECTED BY THE LAW 3: COMMONS

1 The international law of the sea

2 The international law of the outer space

3 International environmental law


s9 June 12 CASE STUDY PROJECTS PRESENTATION.
INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
Case study, presentation, and discussion

Lecture and reading

Case study essay writing
REQUIRED TEXTS
. Public International Law, Thomas Buergenthal and Sean D. Murphy (West Group, 2002)

. Professor’s Instructions: Concepts, Cases, Questions, Research and Study Materials.
STUDENT PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND COURSE POLICIES
INDIVIDUAL ATTENDANCE:

For purposes of the overall class and individual performance and grading, regularity of attendance is essential.

CASE PRESENTATIONS:

Participation in this course is a structured activity, in that everyone is assigned cases for presentation and discussion, as scheduled, throughout the term.


CASE STUDY ESSAY (TERM PAPER):

The case study essay is an original writing by each individual student member of the class a case, or aspect of a case, different from those which she or he may have presented or discussed, or otherwise agreed with the Instructor. The basic, standard rules on originality, reference and source quotations, and text notes, apply to the production of this essay. The length of the essay may vary from 15 to 20 double-space pages, including text notes and bibliographical references.


METHODS OF EVALUATION FOR DETERMINING GRADES
9 INDIVIDUAL ATTENDANCE: 27% [3 x 9]

3 CASE PRESENTATIONS: 33% [3 x 11]

3 CASE DISCUSSIONS: 9% [3 x 3]

1 CASE STUDY ESSAY (TERM PAPER): 31%


Instructional Evaluation Criteria for all Course Assignments

For purposes of evaluating and grading all course assignments -case presentations, case study essays or term papers, and final examination- the Instructor relies generally on the following basic criteria:

a) Presentation. Course assignments must be formally structured in terms of an introductory, a development sequence, and a conclusion.

b) Information and knowledge. Contents must be informative and demonstrate substantial command or knowledge of the specific questions addressed and their relation to their relevant issues, alternatives, and contexts.

c) Critical. The best contents involves elements of description, explanation, and analysis. The explanatory aspects or components, focusing on causal and comparative dimensions of the issues and the questions at stake, should also show a good level of critical capacity, in relation to facts, in relation to the logical requirements of consistency and coherence, and in relation to value frameworks and principles which may be paramount for or controlling on the issues or on the larger constitutional, legal, and public policy conditions at stake.

d) Analytical and evaluative. The aspects of explanation and analysis of contents -in case presentations, the term paper, and the final- are best dealt with when the student shows competence and command in distinguishing the elements, establishing basic categories and comparisons, and then reaching synthetic concepts to assess questions, reasonings, and the strength or adequacy of decisions.

UNIVERSITY-LEVEL WRITING STANDARDS
The ability to express one’s ideas effectively is a hallmark of a quality higher education. Writing is, therefore, one of the central activities at Chapman University through which students accumulate, communicate, and demonstrate learning.
Unless otherwise indicated by the Instructor, all writing in Chapman University classes, from postings on electronic bulletin boards and PowerPoint presentations, to personal essays and formal research papers, will be evaluated on the minimal essentials of Standard American English grammar, word choice, spelling and punctuation, and on the integrity, creativity, reasonableness and accuracy of the information’s content. Academic expository writing differs from other forms in that it usually:
. Has a topic that is narrow enough in scope to explore in some depth in the space allotted,

. Focuses its presentations by means of a clear statement of purpose (thesis statement, hypothesis, or question posed by the Instructor) and logically organized sub-topic paragraphs or sections,

. Utilizes a sentence style that is appropriate for its intended audience,

. Employs arguments that demonstrate principles of sound critical thinking,

. Substantiates abstractions, judgments and assertions with specific illustration, facts, and evidence,

. Draws upon research whenever necessary and properly acknowledges the work of others.

Any material not original to the student must be cited in a recognized documentation format (such as APA [American Psychological Association], ASA, MLA, or the University of Chicago) appropriate to the particular academic discipline. For a quick reference to documentation standards for various fields you may refer to: http://www.chapman.edu/library/reference/styles. Use of information of materials from outside sources without proper citation is considered plagiarism and can be grounds for disciplinary action. See the explanation of Academic Integrity below. All written work should be word processed or typed unless otherwise specified and carefully proofread.

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
As a learning community of scholars, Chapman University emphasizes the ethical responsibility of all its members to seek knowledge honestly and in good faith. Students are responsible for doing their own work, and academic dishonesty of any kind will not be tolerated. “Violations of academic integrity include, but are not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, or misrepresentation of information in oral and written form. Such violations will be dealt with severely by the Instructor, the Dean or Center Director, and the Standards Committee. Plagiarism means presenting someone’s else idea or writing as if it were your own. If you use someone’s else idea or writing, be sure the source is clearly documented”. Other guidelines for acceptable student behavior are specified in the Chapman University College 2002-2003 Catalog.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT STATEMENT
Any personal learning accommodations that may be needed by a student covered by the “Americans with Disabilities Act” must be made known to the Instructor as soon as possible. This is the student’s reponsibility. Information about services, academic modifications and documentation requirements can be obtained from the Director of the Center for Academic Success at the Orange Campus at 714-997-6828 or from the Director of a Chapman regional campus.
CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY RESOURCES ONLINE
. Chapman UniversityThurmond Clarke Memorial Library

.

. Catalog Search < http://clarke.chapman.edu/search~S1>.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND DOCUMENTATION RESOURCES
. American Society of International Law .

. American Journal of International Law .


. Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969 (Vienna Convention) .

. European Journal of International Law .

. International Court of Justice .

. International Law: Cases and Materials, Damrosch, Henkin, Pugh, Schachter, Smit (West Group, 2001). Libr., Law: KZ64.H46 I57 1980.

. Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States, American Law Institute 1987. Libr, Law: KF4651.R47 1987.

. United Nations .

. U. N. Charter < http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html >.

. U. N. Documents < http://www.un.org/documents/ >.

. U. N. General Assembly < http://www.un.org/ga/57/ >.

. U. N. High Commissioner for Human Rights .

. U. N. International Law Commission .

. U. N. Security Council .
COURSE OUTLINE
Part I. THE SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

s2 APRIL 24


1 The system of international law: sources, evidence, rules. Codification and development of international law rules.

Case 11 Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons .-

Read: PIL 1, 2, 13; Instruct 1.

2 International law and the law of the United States.

Case 12 What does it mean international law

is supreme law of the land? .-

Read: PIL 7; Instruct 1.

3 Compliance with and enforcement of international law.

Case 13 The ICJ Orders of April 8 1993



(Genocide Convention in Bosnia/Herzegovina)

and March 3 1999 (LaGrand) compared.-

Read: PIL 1; Instruct 1.


Part II THE LAW RATIONE PERSONAE: STATES,

ORGANIZATIONS, AND INDIVIDUALS IN THE SYSTEM OF THE LAW

s3 MAY 1
1 The states: sovereignty and self-determination in the system of the law

Case 21 Chechnya, Kosovo, Palestine, Taiwan compared .-

Read: PIL 3; Instruct 2.
2 The public international organization system

Case 22 Immunity of United Nations personnel .-

Read: PIL 3; Instruct 2.
3 The individual in the system of international law

Case 23 From Nuremberg to The Hague .-

Read: PIL 3; Instruct 2.
Part III INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN THE SYSTEM OF THE LAW

s4 MAY 8
1 Nature of international acts

Case 31 Unilateral sanctions (U. S. v. Cuba).-

Read: PIL 7; Instruct 3.

2 Diplomatic representation and relations

Case 32 American hostages.-

Read: Instruct 3.

3 International negotiations and agreements

Case 33 Negotiating the NPT indefinite extension.-

Read: PIL 5; Instruct 3.

4 Law of international agreements

Case 34 Reservations to treaties: U. S. ratification of human rights treaties.-

Read: PIL 3; Instruct 3.

5 Implementation of and compliance with international agreements:

international responsibility of states

Case 35 Conflict between the law of the state and international law: LaGrand.-

Read: PIL 1; Instruct 3.


Part IV. JUS AUCTORITAS ET POTESTAS: THE STRUCTURE OF AUTHORITY

AND JURISDICTION IN THE SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

s5 MAY 15

1 State authority and jurisdiction in the system of international law

Cases 41 Pinochet.- 41A bin Laden.-

Read: PIL 8, 9; Instruct 4.


2 International organized political authority

Case 42 Iraq/Kuwait (1990/91), Kosovo/Yugoslavia (1998/99)



and U.S./Iraq (2003) compared.-

43 The 2001 decision to use force on Afghanistan.-

Read: PIL 3, 12; Instruct 4.

3 International judicial jurisdiction

Case 44 Establishing and challenging the ICJ jurisdiction.- 44A U. S. and the International Criminal Court.-

Read: PIL 4; Instruct 4.


Part V. THE LAW RATIONE MATERIAE. INTERESTS PROTECTED BY THE LAW:

1 PEACE AND SECURITY

s6 MAY 22

1 The obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means

Cases 51 The U. N. Security Council, or


Who Is Responsible for International Security?.-

51A Israeli/Palestine.- c52 Taiwan/China.- c53 India/Pakistan.-

Read: PIL 4; Instruct 5.
2 Preventive diplomacy and peace operations

Cases 54 Bosnia.- c55 Congo.-

Read: PIL 12; Instruct 5.
3 Use of force

Cases 56 Korea (1951), Iraq/Kuwait (1991), Kosovo (1999), Afghanistan (2001), and Iraq (2003)



compared.- c57 Eritrea/Ethiopia.- c58 Arab/Israeli Wars.- c59 Russia/Chechnya.-

c510 The use of force against terrorism.-

Read: PIL 12; Instruct 5.
4 Arms control and disarmament

Cases 511 Coventional arms.- c512 The Chemical Weapons Convention.- c513 The Biological



Weapons Convention.- c514 The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.- c515 The question of the

legality of nuclear weapons.- c516 Missile defense.-

Read: PIL 12; Instruct 5.

5 Armed conflicts and international humanitarian law

Cases 517 The Geneva Conventions in international armed conflicts.- c518 The Geneva


Conventions in non-international armed conflicts.- c519 The law of international responsibility

for violations of the laws of armed conflicts and humanitarian law.-

Read: PIL 12, 6C; Instruct 5.


Part VI. THE LAW RATIONE MATERIAE. INTERESTS PROTECTED BY THE LAW:

2 HUMAN RIGHTS

s7 MAY 28

1 International law of human rights

Cases 61 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.-

c62 Convention against Torture.-

Read: PIL 6; Instruct 6.
2 The global humanitarian crisis

Case 63 Refugees.-

Read: PIL 6; Instruct 6.

3 Economic development

Case 64 The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg 2002).-

c65 What globalization?

Read: Instruct 6.
Part VII. THE LAW RATIONE MATERIAE. INTERESTS PROTECTED BY THE LAW:

3 COMMON HERITAGE OF HUMANKIND

s8 JUNE 5

1 The international law of the sea

Case 71 Maritime boundaries.-

Read: PIL 10; Instruct 7.

2 The international law of the outer space

Case 72 Missile defense and the law of outer space.-

Read: Instruct 7.

3 The international environmental law

Case 73 Climate change.-

Read: PIL 11; Instruct 7.

CASE INDEX
American hostages
. AMERICAN HOSTAGES IN IRAN: THE CONDUCT OF A CRISIS, Christopher et al. (1985), Libr.: E183.8.I55 A6 1985.

. Case Concerning U. S. Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran, ICJ 1980,

. Case Concerning U. S. Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran: Judgment (May 24 1980), ICJ 1980. Libr.: JX238.I7 U54 1982, KZ218.I57 1980b; 74 AJIL 3 746 (1980) <>.

. Contemporary Practice of the U. S.: Termination of Relations, Nash, 74 AJIL 3 657 (1980 <>.

. Contempt, Crisis, and the Court: The World Court and the Hostage Rescue Attempt, 76 AJIL 3 499 (1982) <>.

. Protection of Diplomats under Islamic Law, by M. Cherif Bassiouni, 74 AJIL 3 609 (1980) <>.

. Some Aspects of the Vienna Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities, Kerley,

56 A J I L 1 88 (1962) <>.



. The Case of the U. S. Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran: Phase of Provisional Measures, Gross, 74 AJIL 2 395 (1980).

. The Iran Hostage Crisis: Easy Answers and Hard Questions, Falk, 74 AJIL 2 411 (1980) <>.
binLaden
. Contemporary practice of U. S. relating to international law, Murphy, 93 AJIL 1 161 (1999) .

. Contemporary practice of the U. S. relating to international law: Efforts to obtain custody of Osama bin Laden, Murphy, 9a AJIL 2 348 at 366 (2000) <>.


. Options for prosecuting international terrorists, Scheffer, U. S. Institute of Peace. Nov. 14, 2001 .

. Patterns of Global Terrorism, 2000, U. S. Department of State .

. Responsibility for the Terrorist Atrocities in the U. S., Sept. 11, 2000, U. K. Office of the Prime Minister, Summary of Statement of Evidence, Oct 4, 2001 .

. The U. S. Embassies bombings trial - A Summary, Zill, PBS Frontline

. U. S. Code, Title 18, Part I, Ch.113B, Terrorism .

. U. S. v. bin Laden et al., U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, Nov 4 1998 (indictment) < http://www.ccc.de/mirrors/jya.com/usa-v-laden.htm>.

. U. S. v. bin Laden et al., U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, 92 F. Supp. 2d 189; 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3014, March 13 (jurisdiction) <>

. U. S. v. bin Laden, et al., U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, 92 F. Supp. 2d 225; 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2832, March 15 (factual and legal background, bill of particulars ordered ) <>

. U. S. v. Zacarias Moussaoui, U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Dec. 2001 .


. Who is bin Laden?, PBS Frontline < http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/bio.html>.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
. Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (BiH v. Yugoslavia), Bello, Bekker, Szasz, 91 AJIL 1 121 (1997) < >.

. Bosnia Page, .

. Brief History of the War Bosnia Homepage .

. NATO and U. N. Involvement in Bosnia Bosnia Homepage .

. Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, Rich. 4 EJIL 1 36, .

. The Balkan Conflict The Canada Connection .

. The Bosnian War and the New World Order, Andreatta, Occasional Papers of the WEU Institute for Security Studies (Oct. 1997) .

. The Dayton Agreements and International Law, Paola Gaeta, 7 EJIL 2 147 (1996) .

. The Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee: A second Breath for the Self-Determination of Peoples, and Appendix: Opinions No. 1, 2 and 3, Alain Pellet, 3 EJIL 1 178 (1992) .

. The International Response to the Dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Weller, 86 AJIL 3 569 (1992) <>.

. THE WORLD AND YUGOSLAVIA’S WARS, R. H. Ullman editor (1996); The OSU Main Libr.: DR131.7.D58 W67 1996.


. United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) .

. U. N. Secretary-General Reports on Bosnia-Herzegovina (1991-1995) .

. U. N. Security Council Resolutions 713 (1991) to 1035 (1995) < http://www.un.org/documents/scres.htm>.

. YUGOSLAVIA AND AFTER: A STUDY IN FRAGMENTATION, DESPAIR AND REBIRTH, Dyker and Vejvoda, editors (1996); The OSU Main Libr.: DR 1300.Y84 1996.

Chechnya, Kosovo, Palestine, Taiwan compared
. Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (Inter-American Convention) (1933).- The Avalon Project < http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/intdip/interam/intam03.htm > .

. Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations

and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, U. N. General Assembly Resolution 2625, A/RES/2625 (XXV) 1970



< http://ods-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/348/90/IMG/NR034890.pdf?OpenElement >.

. Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, U. N. General Assembly Resolution 1514, A/RES/1514 (XV), Dec 14 1960

. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, U. N. General Assemby Resolution 2200A, A/RES/2200A, Dec 16 1965 .

. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Second Optional Protocol, U. N. General Assembly, A/RES/44/128, Dec 15 1989 .


Chechnya

. Battle for Chechnya, BBC Special Report .

. Chechen Republic Online

. Chechnya, Jamestown Foundation .

. Contested Sovereignty: The Tragedy of Chechnya, Lapidus, 23 INTERNATIONAL SECURITY 1 5 (1998). The O. S. U. Libr., Main: JX1901I55.

. Declaration on Chechnya, European Union Presidency Conclusions, Helsinki European Council (December 10, 11, 1999) - Federation of American Scientists .

. ICRC in Chechnya .

. International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities, Meron, 89 AJIL 3 554 (1995) <>.

. Russia/Chechnya, Human Rights Watch (March 2001) < http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/chechnya/ >.

. Second Chechnya War, Federation of American Scientists .
Kosovo

. The Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee: A second Breath for the Self-Determination of Peoples, and Appendix: Opinions No. 1, 2 and 3, Alain Pellet, 3 EJIL 1 178 (1992) .

. The International Response to the Dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Weller, 86 AJIL 3 569 (1992) <>.

. Kosovo Crisis: History, Bloody History, BBC .


. Intermediate Sovereignty As A Basis For Resolving The Kosovo Crisis. ICG Report (November 9, 1998) .

. The Serb-Albanian War and International Community’s Miscalculations, Rama, 2 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALBANIAN STUDIES 1 (Spring 1998) .

. What Does Public International Law Have to Say About Kosovar Independence, Muenzel, in Kosovo & Yugoslavia: Law in Crisis, Jurist 1999 .
Palestine

. ONE LAND, TWO PEOPLES: THE CONFLICT OVER PALESTINE, Deborah J. Gerner (1994). Libr. DS119.7.G425 1994.

. ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT, Ann M. Lesch and Dan Tschirgi (1998). Libr. DS119.7.L4665 1998.

. The Palestine Problem before the United Nations, Potter, 42 AJIL 4 859 (1948) .

. The expulsion of the Palestinians re-examined, Dominique Vidal, LE MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE (December 1997) .

. Question of Palestine, U. N. Peace and Security .

89 (5 May 1997) Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.


. The Middle East torn asunder, Gresh, Vidal, Pauly, Riviere, Touret, LE MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE

. U. N. General Assembly Resolution 3236 (Nov 22 1974, right of the Palestinian people to self-determination);


. ECONOMIC, LEGAL, AND DEMOGRAPHIC DIMENSIONS OF ARAB-ISRAELI RELATIONS, Ian S. Lustick editor (1994) [especially chapter by Henry Cattan, Sabri Jiryis, Ian Lustick, John Quigley, Amnon Rubinstein, and Thomas R. Stauffer]. Libr.: DS119.7.E23 1994.

. The Chaim Herzog Center for Middle East Studies and Diplomacy, Ben Gurion University, at .

. Right of peoples to Self-Determination, U. N. General Assembly, A/RES/34/44, Nov 23 1979 ; Right of the Palestinian People to Self-Determination, A/RES/54/152, Dec 17, 1999 .

Taiwan

. China’s Perception of the Taiwan Issue, Che-Fu Lee, 32 NESLR 3 (1998) .

. Is China’s Policy to Use Force against Taiwan a Violation of the Principle of Non-Use of Force under International Law? Anne Hsiu-An Hsiao, 32 NESLR 3 (1998) .

. Is There a Question of Taiwan in International Law? Lovelace, Jr., 4 HARVARD ASIA QUARTERLY 3 (2000) .

. Resolving Cross-Strait Relations between China and Taiwan, Charney and Prescott, 94 AJIL 3 (2000) <>.

. Self-Determination in the Taiwan-China Context, Valerie Epps, 32 NESLR 3 (1998) .


. Taiwan’s Current International Legal Status, Lung-chu Chen, 32 NESLR 3 (1998) .

. Taiwan Documents Project . 4 2000).
Climate change
. U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, .

. Resources: Guide to the Climate Change Negotiation Process, . Especially:

. U. N. Framework Convention: The Convention and Kyoto Protocol :

. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol Full text, .

. U. N. Framework Convention: Issues in the negotiating process, .

. U. N. Framework Convention: Sessions: Conference of the Parties (COP) at its sixth session, The Hague (Netherlands), November 13-24 2000, .

. The U. S. positions and other comparative international positions, and .

. Climate crisis, Green Peace International, .

. Globelaw .

. ECO .
Conflict between the law of the state and international law (LaGrand)

. LaGrand v. Stewart, U. S. District Court for the Ninth Circuit, 133 F. 3d 1253 (9th Cir.), cert. Denied, 119 S. Ct. 422 (1998). U. S. Courts for the Ninth Circuit, .


. Death Penalty website, Cornell University Legal Information Institute See especially: Cornell Law School Death Penalty Project, Liebman Study - A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973-1995.

. Agora: Breard, Charney, Reisman et al., 92 AJIL 4 666 (1998) .

. LaGrand (Germany v. U. S.), Judgment of June 27, 2001, International Court of Justice

.

. 1963 Convention on Consular Relations, and Optional Protocol, International Law Commission .

. Breard and Treaty-Based Rights under the Consular Convention, Paust, 92 AJIL 4 691 (1998), .
Convention against Torture
. Torture, Henry Shue, 7 PHILOSOPHY AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS 2, 124 (1978) Libr.: H1.954.

. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

(1984, 1987) < http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm >:

-Status of Ratifications < http://www.unhchr.ch/pdf/report.pdf >,

-Declarations and Reservations < http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/treaty12_asp.htm >,

-Committee against Torture (CAT) < http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/6/cat.htm >:

CAT concludes thirtieth session (May 16 2003)

< http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/NewsRoom?OpenFrameSet >,

CAT State Party Reports:


Turkey (Jul 22 2002) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.20.Add.8.En?OpenDocument >,


Egypt (Oct 18 2001) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.55.Add.6.En?Opendocument >,

Russia (Oct 15 2001)< http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.34.Add.15.En?Opendocument >,

Uzbekistan (Nov 16 2001) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.53.Add.1.En?Opendocument >,

Indonesia (July 16 2001) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.47.Add.3.En?Opendocument >,

Israel (July 4 2001) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.54.Add.1.En?Opendocument >,

China (January 5 2000) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.39.Add.2.En?OpenDocument >,

U. S. (Feb 5 2000) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.28.Add.5.En?OpenDocument >,

U. K. (Jul 20 1998)< http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.53.Add.1.En?Opendocument >,

France (Oct 10 1997) < http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.17.Add.18.En?OpenDocument >,

. Inter-American to Prevent and Punish Culture, Organization of American States

< http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/Treaties/a-51.html >.

. Filartiga v. Pena-Irala, U. S. Court of Appeals, 2nd Cir., June 30 1980, Judicial Decisions, 75

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1, 149 (1981) Libr.: JX27.A5.



. European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or

Punishment (1987) < http://www.hrcr.org/docs/Eur_Conv_Torture/eurotort2.html >.


. http://www.austlii.edu.au/

. http://stars.coe.fr/doc/doc97/edoc7784.htm

. International Efforts to Combat Torture and Inhuman Treatment, Roland Bank, 8 EUROPEAN

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 4 (1997)



< http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol8/No4/index.html >.

. Stop Torture, Amnesty International USA < http://www.amnestyusa.org/stoptorture/ >.

. On a Hierarchy of International Human Rights, T. Meron, n AMERICAN JOURNAL OF

INTERNATIONAL LAW 4 (1986) Libr.: JX27.A5.



. A Controversial Declaration on the United Nations Convention Against TortureMassimo Coccia,

1 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1 (1990)



< http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol1/No1/index.html >.

. U. S. Report pursuant to the Convention against Torture, submitted on Oct 15, 1999, Committee against Torture, CAT/C/28/Add.5 (February 9 2000)

< http://193.194.138.190/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CAT.C.28.Add.5.En?OpenDocument >. See also U. S. Department of State former site on Democracy, Human Rights and Labor

< http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/torture_toc99.html >.

. Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law, Sean D. Murphy, 94 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 2, 357 (2000) Libr.: .

. Restatement (Third), Section 701 (Obligation to Respect Human Rights), Section 702 (Customary International Law of Human Rights), Section 703 (Remedies for Violations of Human Rights Obligations), Section 711 (Injury to Nationals of Other States), Section 713 (Remedies for Injury to National of Other States) Libr.: KF4651.R47 1987.


. U. S. Code, Title 18, Crimes and Criminal procedure, Chapter 113C, Torture

< http://www.access.gpo.gov/uscode/uscmain.html >:
Eritrea/Ethiopia
. Ethiopia and Eritrea U. N. Peace and Security, Current Peacekeeping Operations <http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/unmee/body_unmee.htm>.

. Ethiopia Eritrea Conflict Organization of African Unity <http://www.synapse.net/~acdi20/oua3/internet_reso/comtemp/erit-ethio/index1.htm>.

. Ethiopia / Eritrea War, Federation of American Scientists - Military Analysis Network .

. Self-Defense and the Rule of Law, Schachter, 83 AJIL 2 259 (1989) .

. The Disputed Border BBC News .

. The Truth of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Conflict, Dehai .

. U. N. Security Council Resolutions 1177 (1998) (June 26), 1226 (1999) (January 29), 1227 (1999) (February 10), 1297 (2000) (May 12), 1298 (May 17), 1312 (July 31), 1320 (2000) (September 15)

< http://www.un.org/documents/scres.htm >.

. Roots of the Eritrea-Ethiopia War: A Fact Sheet, ReliefWeb, July 28 2000

< http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/05c7019ad397bec9c1256990003555c9?OpenDocument >.

. Ethiopia-Eritrea War, FAS Military Analysis Network

< http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/ops/war/eritrea.htm >.

. The War Between Ethiopia and Eritrea, Patrick Gilkes and Martin Plaut, 5 FOREIGN POLICY IN FOCUS 25 (August 2000) < http://www.foreignpolicy-infocus.org/briefs/vol5/v5n25eritethiop.html >.

Establishing and challenging the ICJ jurisdiction
. The International Court of Justice after Fifty Years, R. Y. Jennings, 89 AJIL 3 493 (1995) <>.

. I.C.J. Basic Documents: Constitutive Instruments .

. Nuclear Test Case (Australia v. France), Judgment ICJ 1974 .

. Word Made Law: The Decision of the ICJ in the Nuclear Test Cases, Franck, 69 AJIL 3 612 (1975) <>.

. Case concerning U. S. diplomatic and consular staff in Tehran (U. S. v. Iran) (Provisional Measures) - Order of December 15 1979, ICJ 1979, 74 AJIL 1 266 (1980) <>.

. Case Concerning United States Diplomatic and Consulat Staff in Tehran: Phase of Provisional Measures, by Leo Gross, 74 AJIL 2 395 (1980) <>.

. Case concerning military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v.

U. S.) - Nicaragua Case (Provisional Measures), Order of May 10 1984, 78 AJIL 3 750 (1984) <>.

. (Jurisdiction and Admissibility) - Judgment of November 26 1984 .

. Questions of interpretation and application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the aerial incident at Lockerbie (Libya v. U.S./U.K.) - Lockerbie Case - Order of April 14 1992; and Judgment of February 27 1998 [Preliminary Objections (Jurisdiction and Admissibility)] .

From Nurmberg to The Hague
. Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals

< http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/proc/judcont.htm >.

. Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, International Law Commission (1950)

< http://www.un.org/law/ilc/texts/nurnfra.htm >.

. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, The Avalon Project of the Yale Law School

< http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/imt.htm >.

. International Criminal Court < http://www.icc-cpi.int/php/show.php?id=home&l=EN >:

-Statute < http://www.icc-cpi.int/docs/basicdocs/rome_statute(e).html >, see especially Part 2, Jurisdiction, Admissibility, and Applicable Law (Articles 5, 6, 7, 8 for the categories of crimes).



. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

< http://www.un.org/icty/index.html >.

. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) < http://www.ictr.org/ >.

. Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals .

. Nuremberg Revisited: The Tadic Case, Jose E. Alvarez, 7 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 2, 245 (1996).

. Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, International Law Commission (1950) .

. The International Tribunal for Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Former Yugoslavia, J. C. O’Brien, 87 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 4, 639 (1993).


. The law of the Nuremberg trial, Wright, 41 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

1 38 (1947).



. The Nuremberg trial and international law, Finch, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 41/1 20 (1947).

. The Nuremberg trial and the international law of the future, Schick, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF

INTERNATIONAL LAW 41 AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 4 770 (1947).

. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, The Avalon Project of the Yale Law School, at .

. War Crimes in Yugoslavia and the Development of International Law, by Theodor Meron, 88 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1, 78 (1994).
Geneva Conventions
. An Appeal for Ratification by the U. S. (of Protocol I Additional), Gasser, 81 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 4 912 (1987)
. Acts of Terror, Terrorism, and International Humanitarian Law, Hans-Peter Gasser, 847 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 547 (2002)

< http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList521/53BBDCD7DBD2A31941256C6800302FF0 >.

. ARMED CONFLICT AND THE NEW LAW: ASPECTS OF THE 1977 GENEVA PROTOCOLS AND THE 1981 WEAPONS CONVENTION, Meyer editor (1989) Libr.: JX4511.A75.

. CAUGHT IN CONFLICTS: CIVILIAN VICTIMES, HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE, AND INTERNATIONAL LAW, Sandvik-Nylund (1998) Libr.: KZ6515.S26 1998.

. Environmental damage in times of armed conflict, not ‘really’ a matter of criminal responsibility?, Thilo Marauhn, 840 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 1029 (2000)


< http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList180/0C1A08B721BAE63EC1256B66005F376D >.
. Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1977 Protocols, ICRC

< http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebCONVFULL?OpenView >:

-States Parties and Signatories < http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebPAYS?OpenView >.



. International Humanitarian Law in Brief, ICRC

< http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList2/Humanitarian_law:IHL_in_brief#listanchor2 >:

-What is Humanitarian Law < >,

-History of Humanitarian Law < http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JQ3W?OpenDocument >,

-Basic Rules < http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList104/B14FDBD9E3BCB51FC1256B66005950E2 >,

-Provisions common to the Four Conventions and Protocol I

< http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList104/EF45A8E99219406AC1256B660059511B >,

-National implementation



< http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList2/Humanitarian_law:National_implementation >.

. Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello after September 11, Steven Ratner, 96 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 4, 905 (2002) v. JSTOR or at Library: .

. Just War, War of Aggression, and International Humanitarian Law, Francois Bugnion, 847 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 523 (2002)

< http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList521/FBC568444422AE6C41256C68003242A2 >.
. New wars, new weapons? The obligation of states to assess the legalityof means and methods of warfare, Isabelle Daoust, Robin Coupland, and Rikke Ishoey, 846 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 345 (2002)

< http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList501/B12DB125E37B11C6C1256BF900309A80 >.


. Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967, A. Roberts, 84 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1 44 (1990)

. Prospects for U. S. Ratification of Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, Aldrich, 85 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 1 1 (1991).

. State Responsibility for Violations of International Humanitarian Law, Marco Sassoli, 846 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 401 (2002)

< http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList501/BFB98C391C49E4FFC1256BFA002A6082 >.
. The Geneva Conventions as Customary Law, Meron, 81 AJIL 2 348 (1987)

. The Time Has Come for the U. S. to Ratify Geneva Protocol I, T. Meron, 88 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 4 678 (1994)

. Wars of national liberation and the laws of war, Avi-Saab, in HUMANITARIAN LAW (Gardam editor 1999) Libr.: KZ6471.H859.

. Women, Armed Conflict and International Law, Helen Durhan, 847 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 655 (2002)

< http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList521/B08F4F79CF15825741256C680035DBD0 >.

. Zero-casualty warfare, A. P. V. Rogers, 837 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 165 (2000) < http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList177/A41F49D9F3CE3756C1256B66005E3594 >.




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