Internet Basics



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Internet Basics


What is the Internet?

The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers). The U.S. Department of Defense laid the foundation of the Internet roughly 30 years ago with a network called ARPANET. But the general public didn't use the Internet much until after the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.


In 1957, the U.S. government formed the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), a segment of the Department of Defense charged with ensuring U.S. leadership in science and technology with military applications. In 1969, ARPA established ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet.
ARPANET was a network that connected major computers at the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of California at Santa Barbara, Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah. Within a couple of years, several other educational and research institutions joined the network.
In response to the threat of nuclear attack, ARPANET was designed to allow continued communication if one or more sites were destroyed. Unlike today, when millions of people have access to the Internet from home, work, or their public library, ARPANET served only computer professionals, engineers, and scientists who knew their way around its complex workings.

What is the World Wide Web?

The World Wide Web came into being in 1991, thanks to developer Tim Berners-Lee and others at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, also known as Conseil European pour la Recherche Nucleure (CERN). The CERN team created the protocol based on hypertext that makes it possible to connect content on the Web with hyperlinks. Berners-Lee now directs the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a group of industry and university representatives that oversees the standards of Web technology.

Early on, the Internet was limited to noncommercial uses because its backbone was provided largely by the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the U.S. Department of Energy, and funding came from the government. But as independent networks began to spring up, users could access commercial Web sites without using the government-funded network. By the end of 1992, the first commercial online service provider, Delphi, offered full Internet access to its subscribers, and several other providers followed.
In June 1993, the Web boasted just 130 sites. By a year later, the number had risen to nearly 3,000. By April 1998, there were more than 2.2 million sites on the Web.
Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of the total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Two recent adaptations of Internet technology, the intranet and the extranet, also make use of the TCP/IP protocol.

For many Internet users, electronic mail (e-mail) has practically replaced the Postal Service for short written transactions. Electronic mail is the most widely used application on the Net. You can also carry on live "conversations" with other computer users, using Internet Relay Chat (IRC). More recently, Internet telephony hardware and software allows real-time voice conversations.

The most widely used part of the Internet is the World Wide Web (often abbreviated "WWW" or called "the Web"). Its outstanding feature is hypertext, a method of instant cross-referencing. In most Web sites, certain words or phrases appear in text of a different color than the rest; often this text is also underlined. When you select one of these words or phrases, you will be transferred to the site or page that is relevant to this word or phrase. Sometimes there are buttons, images, or portions of images that are "clickable." If you move the pointer over a spot on a Web site and the pointer changes into a hand, this indicates that you can click and be transferred to another site.
To view files on the Web, you need Web browsing software. You use this software to view different locations on the Web, which are known as Web pages
. A group of Web pages is a Web site. The first page of a Web site is often called the home page.

Just as each household in the world has a unique address, each Web page in the world has a unique Internet address, sometimes called a URL. For example, the Internet address of the Windows home page is http://www.microsoft.com/windows.



Terms to Be Familiar With:
Browser--Contains the basic software you need in order to find, retrieve, view, and send information over the Internet.

Download--To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer.


Upload—To send data from a local computer to a remote computer.

E-mail - E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication. E-mail can be distributed to lists of people as well as to individuals. However, you can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files, as attachments sent in binary streams.

Filter - Software that allows targeted sites to be blocked from view.  Example: X-Stop, AOL@School

Home Page - The beginning "page" of any site.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) - The coding language used to create documents for use on the World Wide Web.  There are three-letter suffixes used in coding that help to identify the type location one is viewing

HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol) - the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. Relative to the TCP/IP suite of protocols (which are the basis for information exchange on the Internet), HTTP is an application protocol.

Hypertext - Generally any text that contains "links" to other text.

Search Engine - A web server that collects data from other web servers and puts it into a database (much like an index), it provides links to pages that contain the object of your search.

TCP/IP -- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.


URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - The Internet address.  The prefix of a URL indicates which area of the Internet will be accessed.  URLs look differently depending on the Internet resource you are seeking.

WWW (World Wide Web) - A technical definition of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).



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