Introducing Isotonix



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Introducing Isotonix®

Isotonix® products are unique in terms of the method of delivery. There is no ingredient in Isotonix® that cannot be found in any highly respected and traditional nutrient supplement. Only the formulation and the delivery to the body make it a unique product.


Careful Planning

We began planning the Isotonix® product line with the objective to formulate products using what we knew to be the best nutrient delivery system – the isotonic solution – and put that concept together with the finest quality nutritional ingredients available. The result - Isotonix®. One of the most important factors in selecting nutritional supplements is of this process: absorbency. A supplement can have the finest ingredients encased in an easy-to-swallow capsule and contain exactly the amount of nutrients you want, but if it isn’t effectively absorbed, all of its positive factors are diminished.



The Key To Isotonix®



Absorption. That’s the key to Isotonix®. Nothing taken orally can be absorbed into your system quicker than an isotonic fluid.
It’s a scientific fact.
There is nothing new about isotonics per se, but the concept has been put to marketable use only within the last few years. The technology behind the isotonic concept has been used very successfully with a fluid replacement drink used by sports enthusiasts. Beyond that, there are few other innovations in the same class as Isotonix®.

The Isotonix® Concept

To fully appreciate the enthusiasm we have for Isotonix®, it helps to have a thorough understanding of how and why Isotonix® works the way it does.


All fluids in the human body have a certain concentration, which is called the osmotic pressure. The body’s common osmotic pressure – which is isotonic – allows a consistent maintenance of all body tissues. In order for a substance to be used in the body’s metabolism, it must be changed to the isotonic state.

The efficiency of absorption is also affected by the digestive system. All substances that are acted on in the stomach go through a degradation process (breakdown) before they can be passed through the opening from the stomach to the small intestine to allow absorption.

The digestive process can cause substances to lose some nutritive value and this whole process takes time!
The secret of the isotonic process is probably now becoming clear! When an isotonic substance enters the body, it will be absorbed into the bloodstream rapidly. With isotonic fluids, little nutritive value is lost making the absorption of nutrients highly efficient. There is nothing artificial about it. An isotonic fluid is nature’s own nutrient delivery system. What could be more natural?
The Benefits of Isotonix®
All products are marketable when you have a story to tell. Telling the story and turning the advantages and features of Isotonix® into benefits for your customers will give you that “competitive edge” over traditional retailers.


  1. Advantage: Isotonicity. Isotonix® products become isotonic when mixed with water. Isotonic solutions offer the fastest and the most efficient absorption of all oral forms of nutritional supplementation.

Benefit: Faster and more efficient absorption into the bloodstream increases the value of taking nutrient supplements. The health conscious consumer maximizes his dollars spent for nutrient supplements by choosing Isotonix®.


  1. Advantage: Isotonix® are liquid when mixed with water. In an informal survey, we found that nine out of ten people prefer a liquid supplement when given a choice.

Benefit: Liquids are more comfortable to take! Ask any parent how difficult it is to get a child to take that first pill or capsule! No more irritated throats or disgusting aftertaste. Imagine the time, savings and increased ease for the consumer who takes a variety of supplements. For those who simply cannot take conventional oral supplements, a liquid is a blessing!



  1. Advantage: Isotonix® does not linger in the stomach. Since isotonic fluids pass through the digestive process and are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream, many gastrointestinal discomforts can be avoided.

Benefit: No more unpleasant nausea or “stomachache”! Thousands who have shied away from supplements to avoid that “unsettled” feeling may find the answer when taking Isotonix®.


  1. Advantage: Isotonix® products are not encapsulated or compacted into a “form”. There is no need for fillers, binders, coatings, lubricants, disintegrators or artificial coloring. All ingredients in Isotonix® are from the finest sources available.

Benefit: Consumers don’t need another form of unnatural supplementation! Isotonix® naturally derived supplements are delivered to our bodies in the most natural way.


  1. Advantage: Fructose! Only fructose, which is the natural sweetener of fruit, met the stringent requirements to make Isotonix® products good tasting.

Benefit: Why not take a nutrient supplement in the easiest form that tastes great? Isotonix® offers you natural sweetness and flavor in an effervescent liquid.


  1. Advantage: The Isotonix® package is designed not only to contain the product but also to be functional! The durable plastic bottle protects the product, plus the overcap functions as the pre-measured drinking cup. The amount of water added to the nutrient is critical for isotonicity.

Benefit: Isotonix® offers an all-in-one product. There is no guesswork involved, which assures the consumer that he or she is getting the exact amount of nutrients in the exact isotonic state desired. Isotonix® is easy and convenient to take with you when you’re traveling.

The delivery efficiency of Isotonix® products helps to ensure that maximum benefits are derived from the supplements. Because the nutrients arrive at the absorption site more rapidly and in an isotonic state, excellent utilization of the nutrients should be achieved.
The Meaning of “Isotonic” in Physiologic Terms
Market America’s Isotonix® nutritional formulas are an osmotic adjuvant system composed of a series of related formulas. All of the formulas may be used to manufacture products for use in human nutrition that, when prepared for ingestion as solutions are of the same osmotic pressure (or osmolarity) as most of the fluids in the human body. By definition, these solutions may be called isotonic “equal tonicity”.
Specifically, the fluid pressures of the solutions across semi-permeable membranes (the walls of the small intestines, for example, are semi-permeable membranes) in biological systems are generally referred to as having a particular osmolarity. For the purposes of this discussion, the osmolarity is measured in units referred to as milliosmoles/kilogram (mOs/kg). It can be said that when solutions on opposite sides of a membrane have the same osmolarity, they are iso-osmotic or isotonic, regardless of whether that osmolarity is 100 mOs/kg or 650 mOs/kg.
However, in human medicine that definition is considerably narrowed. Normal human blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood without cells and platelets) has an osmolarity of 288.6 mOs/kg, as do most other fluids in the body (notable exceptions being sweat and urine). Therefore, in human medicine when a solution’s osmolarity is the same, or nearly the same as that of normal human blood serum, it is referred to as isotonic.

Black’s Medical Dictionary defines isotonic as follows: “ISOTONIC is a term applied to solutions that have the same power of diffusion as one another. An isotonic solution in medicine is one that can be mixed with body fluids without causing any disturbance. Solutions that are weaker or stronger than the fluids with which they are intended to be mixed are known as hypotonic or hypertonic respectively.”

In 1905, P. Carnot and A. Chassevant, French physiologists, reported that isotonic saline (0.9% sodium chloride) solutions administered orally to dogs emptied from the stomach more rapidly than either a hypotonic solution (water) or a hypertonic solution (3% sodium chloride). Over the following 91 years, this physiologic phenomenon has been repeatedly verified in many species of animals and in humans. Researchers at the University of Leeds, Guy’s Hospital in London, Baylor University, and the Mayo Clinic, among others, have shown that not only do isotonic solutions leave the stomach faster, but also that the osmolarity of the stomach contents (its osmotic pressure) is one of the controlling mechanisms for the rate at which the stomach empties.
Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are most commonly consumed in solid (tablet or capsule) form. These solid forms must be broken down in the stomach and the active ingredients (micronutrients) must then dissolve in the gastric fluids in the stomach. This disintegration and dissolution process is often slower than any other process involved in the absorption of a micronutrient or a drug. When the active ingredients have dissolved, the body must adjust the concentration of the stomach contents to become an isotonic solution before the contents can proceed into the small intestine for absorption. If there are any foods or beverages in the stomach at the time the tablet or capsule is taken, the active ingredients will be delayed further in their transit to the small intestine until the food is properly prepared to leave the stomach.

Absorption into the bloodstream is a function of surface area, and the small intestine has a huge surface due to its length, its many folds, and the microvilli (minute finger-like projections) on intestinal epithelial cells. In comparison, the surface area of the stomach is very small, and the absorption that occurs there is negligible. The fastest and greatest absorption takes place in the small intestine.

Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences states that, “When drugs and micronutrients are administered in solid dosage forms (capsule, tablets, etc.), the rate at which the drug is released in solution may be often the slower than any other process involved in absorption, so that dissolution becomes the rate-limiting factor on absorption.” It says further: “The motility (motility refers to the movement or contractions of the stomach which cause it to empty) of the stomach is more important to the rate at which an orally administered drug is passed on to the small intestine than is the rate of absorption from the stomach itself, since for various reasons stated above, absorption from the stomach is of minor importance.” In addition, it states that: “The average emptying time of the stomach is about 40 minutes, though it varies according to contents, reflux and physiological factors, and the action of certain autonomic drugs or disease. The effect of food to delay absorption is due in part to its action to prolong emptying time. The emptying time causes a delay in the absorption of the drug.”
It should be clear from the information provided above that there is a strong scientific basis for Market America’s Isotonix® nutritional supplements based on the osmotic adjuvant system. Even a casual search of the literature will reveal a large body of experimental data supporting these concepts. See the next page for some literature references.
REFERENCES:


  1. P.E. Turner, J. Tuomilehto, P. Happonen, A.E. LaVille, M. Shaikh, B. Lewis

Metabolic studies on the hypolipidaemic effect of guar gum. Atherosclerosis 81: 145-150, 1990.
  1. J.L. Whyte, R. McArthur, D. Topping, P. Mestel. Oat bran lowers cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92 (4): 446-449, 1992.


  2. J.W. Anderson and A.E. Slesel. Hypocholesterolemic effects of oats products. Advances in Experimental Biology and Medicine 270: 17-36, 1990.

  3. C.L. Redard, P.A. Davis, S.O. Schneeman. Dietary fiber and gender: Effect on postprandial lipemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52: 337-345, 1990.

  4. B. Kashtan et al. Wheat bran and oat bran supplements: Effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53: 976-980, 1992.

  5. J.M. Keenan, J.B. Wenzm, S. Meyers, C. Lipsin, Z.Q. Huang, Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of oat bran in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Journal of Family Practice 33 (6): 600-603, 1991.

  1. J.J. Cards, F.L. Robbins, C.W. Burgin, T.G. Bumgartner, R.W. Rice. The effects of protein on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle. Clinical Cardiology 11 (9): 589-594, 1988.

  2. D. Kritchevsky. Dietary fiber. Annual Review of Nutrition 8: 301-323, 1988.

  3. J.L. Slavin. Dietary fiber: Mechanisms or magic on disease prevention.

Nutrition Today 36 (6): 6-10, 1990.

  1. P. Carnot and A. Chessevant. Modifications studies dans l’estomac et la duodenum par les solutions salines suivant leur concentration moleculaire le reflex regulteru du sphincter pylorique. C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 58: 173-176, 1905.

  2. J.N. Hunt. Some properties of an alimentary osmoreceptor mechanism. Journal of Physiology (London) 132: 267-288, 1965.
  3. A.D. Koparkar, L.L. Augsburger, R.F. Shangraw. Intrinsic dissolution rates of tablet fillers and binders and their influence on the dissolution of drugs from tablet formulations. Pharmaceutical Research 7 (1): 80-85, 1990.


  4. J.C. Meeroff, V.L.W. Go, S.F. Phillips. Control of gastric emptying by osmolarity of duodenal contents in man. Gastroenterology 68: 1144-1151, 1975.

  5. Anonymous. Absorption, distribution, and execration. In: Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th edition, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, 1975.

  6. D.Y. Graham, J.L. Smith, A.A. Bouvet. What happens to tablets in the stomach. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 79 (5): 420-424, 1990.

  7. J.A. Seigel. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying. Gut 29: 35-39, 1988.


The Most Frequently Asked Questions and Answers


  1. What does “%DV” stand for?

%DV stands for Percentage of Daily Values. The %DV’s for essential nutrients are established by the Committee on Dietary Allowances of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. These “recommendations” are based on the judgement of the Committee as to available scientific knowledge regarding the known nutritional needs of almost all healthy individuals. As defined for, “almost all healthy persons”, there is no consideration given to special needs that require special nutritional attention.


  1. What are some of the special needs %DV’s do not address?

There are many factors such as physical activity, climate, aging, chronic disease, dieting, smoking, alcohol and prescription drug use which constitute “special needs”. It is difficult to assess exactly how any one of these “special needs” may affect nutrient demand for an individual. However, an increased requirement for some nutrients would certainly be indicated for many individuals with “special needs.”

  1. Do %DV’s pertain only to vitamin supplements?


No. The %DV’s are designed to reflect ALL of the vitamin and minerals consumed in one day, (food and supplements); these nutrients which occur in foods or are added to foods as fortification. The use of a 100% DV multiple vitamin serves as excellent insurance that at least the basic needs are met.


  1. What is the shelf life of Isotonix®?

We extend the expiration date 18 months from production. However, if stored properly, they could stay potent up to 24 months.


  1. Are Isotonix® products FDA approved?

Isotonix® and all vitamin supplements fall into a general category known as “nutritional food supplements.” This classification does not require FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval. The fact that Isotonix® are unique because of the “delivery system,” doesn’t change the FDA’s position on classifying Isotonix® as a new method of oral administration.


  1. How many calories are in Isotonix® products?

A single serving of any of the Isotonix® products contains about 10 calories. This would be equivalent to the fructose in three to four grapes or one-half teaspoon of honey.


  1. Why is fructose in Isotonix® products?

Fructose is the sweetest of all naturally occurring sugars and helps make Isotonix® pleasant tasting with fewer calories. The consumption of fructose does not produce the extreme “highs” and “lows” in blood sugar levels like ordinary table sugar might. High blood sugar and insulin levels can be contributing factors in the development of certain diseases.



  1. Are Isotonix® products hypoallergenic?

Current scientific literature cites no know instances of “vitamin allergies.” Many vitamin tablets available contain dyes, fillers, binders, coatings and extenders, which may cause allergic reactions in some people. The exclusion of these substances in Isotonix® products was carefully planned. We have received very few reports of allergic reactions.


  1. What is the best time to take Isotonix® supplements?

Basically, anytime the stomach is empty, in order to take advantage of the “Isotonic state,” and principles of absorption and gastric emptying. The products may be taken in any combination as long as the amounts of powder and water are proportional. In one instance only should an Isotonix® product be taken with food to maximize vitamin uptake and that is with Vitamin B12 Special Formula.


  1. Who supplies the raw materials for Isotonix® products?

The vitamin and mineral ingredients used in formulating Isotonix® are produced by some of the foremost pharmaceutical and chemical manufacturers in the world. These companies include, but are not limited to: Hoffmann-LaRoche, Pfizer and Mallinckrodt Mkg. All of the ingredients meet the rigid specifications of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), National Formulary (NF) and the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC). Although Isotonix®, as nutritional food supplements, do not require the approval of the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA), all of the ingredients used in Isotonix® products have been FDA approved.


  1. How is quality control assured in the formulation of Isotonix® products?

The Isotonix® products are tested at independent contract testing labs as requested by Market America and our manufacturer. The Isotonix® formulas are designed to provide 115% of the label claim for each nutrient during the manufacturing process. Current United States Standards require that products like Isotonix® contain no less than 100% of the label claim. Therefore, we have taken additional steps to assure the label claims are met.



  1. Can you take more than one Isotonix® supplement at a time?

Yes! You can take up to four total servings at one time (eight ounces.) You should wait about 15 minutes before taking any more. This allows your stomach time to empty.


  1. Can several of the Isotonix® products be mixed together, or do you need to mix them separately?

All of our Isotonix® products can be mixed together. Just be sure not to take more than eight ounces at a time and make sure you take them on an empty stomach.


  1. If the product loses its fizz, does it lose its potency?

No. The ingredient of potassium bicarbonate has separated from the product. Shaking will remix the product. The fizz is there to help the ingredients dissolve, not to give it potency.


  1. Can you pre-mix the Isotonix® supplement and refrigerate the mixture for later use?

It is preferable to mix the ingredients and drink them in a reasonably short period of time.
Objective
The Product At Work

Physical fitness has become a modern way of life for many Americans. One of the keys to keeping physically fit is good, sound nutrition. Wholesome food, properly prepared, will go a long way in this area, but the stress of increased physical activity often make supplements a wise choice to ensure nutritional adequacy.

Isotonix® products are well suited for those who are engaged in athletics. From the once-a-week golfer to the marathon runner, Isotonix® products can be used to sustain your nutritional requirements. It helps to rapidly replace nutrients used in strenuous activity. The use of fructose as a sweetener is very advantageous, because it leads to a much lower rate of muscle glycogen depletion, compared to glucose. This is because fructose does not cause a rapid rise in either blood sugar or insulin. It provides a steadier supply of blood sugar and helps the energy stored in the muscles last longer. This carries the potential for greater endurance during periods of sustained exercise.


Isotonix® products also help to maintain the sodium-potassium balance by replacing potassium lost during heavy physical activity. Much potassium is lost through perspiration. The potassium in Isotonix® products will help maintain proper potassium levels in the body.

Medical Evidence
The control of gastric emptying is a function of solution osmolarity, pH, and peristaltic action. Solutions that are isotonic with reference to human physiology, have the same osmolarity as body fluids such as plasma, tears, lymph and gastric solutions. Solutions that are of a lower osmotic concentration than plasma are called hypotonic, while solutions of a higher osmotic concentration are called hypertonic.
Carnot and Chassevant first reported the idea that isotonic solutions exert a controlling influence over the rate at which the stomach empties liquids in their scientific literature in 1905. They found that saline solutions of the same osmotic concentration as plasma left the stomach more rapidly than dilutions of more concentrated solutions. Those studies have been confirmed in the more recent literature, and the mechanism by which this process takes place has been clearly identified.
The importance of this principle to Market America’s nutritional supplement products is that because the nutrients leave the stomach almost immediately, they arrive at the absorption sites in the small intestine with little or no dilution. Since absorption across a semi-permeable membrane varies according to the degree of concentration, a high concentration of nutrients in the lumen of the small intestine leads to more efficient absorption of those nutrients.

Research shows that the greatest delay in the process of intestinal absorption is the time it takes for the materials ingested orally to leave the stomach. The stomach seeks to retain materials not arriving in an isotonic state until the stomach can adjust them to isotonic solutions. This includes the time necessary to dissolve solids such as tablets or capsules into solutions that can be equilibrated into an isotonic state. Generally speaking an average minimum dissolution time for pills and tablets is about 40 minutes. By then, an already isotonic solution would have been in the small intestine for some time.

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