Introduction 5 Background Information 5 Preliminary Findings 7



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Preliminary Findings


NB:

In the final report, title of this chapter will be replaced by »Main Findings« or similar.

(1) Quality as indispensable part of development of Public Administrations
Quality is / should be integrated in all government documents – to assure the best

outcomes – as an other side of a coin



(2) Trends reported / detected:


Quality



Excellence

Benchmarking



Bench learning

Customer Focus



Good Governance



(3) Development, activities & projects at the EUPAN level have strong influence on development of Quality Management in Public Administrations at national level.

(4) Usage of individual QM tools should in principle not be mandatory


  • Usage of individual QM tool depends also on the level of maturity;

  • Clear message of the governments: the most reccomended QM approaches / tools have the strongest government support (financial, material, expert, …)



(5) Networking


  • Gaining at its importance;

  • More and more widespread;

  • Includes: formal and informal networks, quality conferences, sharing practices, …


1 Quality Management Development



Member State


LL

Austria

Broad involvement of employees is essential as well as careful examination and realisation of suggestions from client surveys.

Belgium

It is easier for a new service to develop quality management than for the old ministry such as justice, finance, … For the new manager it was easier to propose new initiative and use new tools. With the Copernic reform it was the first time the government give budget to the civil servant to invest in the new technology, e-government, ....

Cyprus

  • To gain political support

  • The importance of having a clear vision and the full commitment from top management

  • To manage the relationship and achieve cooperation with the trade union of public servants

  • Persistence in achieving our objectives

  • Involvement of staff

Denmark

An important lesson learned is that a sustainable approach regarding quality development requires comprehensive cooperation between all levels of the public sector – and cooperation between government and labour unions.

Hungary

Besides providing of the appropriate incentives and realisation of principles, the coherent implementing of the goals and the continuity are relevant aspects in the area of the quality management.

Italy

The continuity and coherency of the policies adopted in the last years have encouraged an institutional empowerment.

Latvia


Now it is rather clear that such a normative approach without letting to choose the most appropriate QM strategy, but imposing the ISO 9001 instead, should be changed. Informative and methodological help is demanded much more than strict regulations.

Luxembourg

QM is part of a paradigm change of public sector relationships with citizens/users. As a matter of culture, it needs adherence and involvement of all the actors at the different levels. Importance of communicating and persuading.

Malta

Important to ensure that commitment to maintaining quality standards is upheld over time notwithstanding turnover in personnel.

(2) Need to ensure that management has tools to operate, e.g. being able to replace departing front-line staff so as to maintain service standards.



Poland

In case of decentralized QM approach, it’s crucial to support all individual initiatives coming from particular public institutions which decided to run a quality policy. It’s noteworthy that the first public institutions who introduced (elements of) QM were smaller (but resilient) units.

EU pre-accession and structural programmes have played a significant role in carrying out a number of projects on QM. That was a stimulus to start this kind of activities as well as a platform to learn experiences from other European administrations. Additionally, all-European quality conferences have served as an important agora for best practices’ exchange and benchmarking.



Slovak Republic

The most important is to get commitment of important and significant ministries at the beginning of the quality management implementation initiative. It is crucial to get as much support as possible when the change is going to be launched.


Slovenia

  • Quality standards and / or models were appropriate starting points for managing PA organization and its performance – quality standards and models played important role as organizational models;

  • The leading principles of PA functioning: customer orientation, lower costs, efficiency etc. are being incorporated in new strategies / strategic initiatives in all areas (e.g. e-Gov strategy, RAB programme) – quality is now perceived as an other side of the same coin.

Spain

  • The need for a global approach for quality management, both for public and private organisations to contribute to the development of productivity and competitiveness of national economy.

  • Service quality cannot be out to the central core of public organisation management and policies. It is not possible to obtain a substantial improvement starting only from methodological positions (models, process management). It requires the commitment of political leadership and top managers in the different public administrations.

  • Accordingly, internal and customer relationship management are not enough for QM promotion. Attention should focus not only on the improvement of quality of services (considered as outputs of public activities) but on the quality in the macro-level (Governance and institutional quality)


Member State

QM became a part of …

Main Characteristics

Main Goals

Austria


The use of QM-Instruments started about 10 years ago.


Since then, the use of QM-Instruments has been extended and refined. Starting from 2001, the Federal Chancellery recommends and promotes the use of CAF, which has resulted in the realisation of about 50 CAF-self-evaluations. The Ministry of Finance and the province of Tyrol have decided in favour of comprehensive coverage. Also ISO-certifications and the EFQM-Model are applied.

1) Sustainable increase of the quality of the outputs
2) Raise satisfaction of clients and employees
3) Find a common view and self-image of the organisation
4) Improve communication


Belgium

Early 1990s.

Intensive development in the area of quality in Belgan public administration was observed from the year 1990 with the modernisation unit in all federal ministries. The Ministry of Public Administration was build in 1995.
In 1999, with the Copernic reform the main focus was made on the customer. The customer is in the center of the administration. After the first European quality conference in Lisbonne the 6 ministers of public administration in Belgium decide to organise an interministerial conference of public service.

A steering committee of the national conference organise the first event in 2001. It was the first Belgian quality conference for all the level of the Belgian administration (federal, regional, provincial, local). All the civil servants in Belgium were involved. 900 people were present. 98 administrations had introduced a CAF application.

The parastal administration of the social security were accountable public administration bodies to their public for their results and efficient functioning. They have administrative contract. The ministries were called federal public service and the role of the management was point it out. In the first 3 month of the engagement of the managers they must write a strategic plan to describe their vision, strategic and operational objectives.


The quality was integrated in the internal control of the administration. The main characteristics of our administration is :

- Integration of Public management (strategic and operational objectives)

- development of the leadership

- evaluation and measurement of the performance

- customer management, BPR (simplify administrative processes), BPM, BSC

- administrative simplification

- complaint procedure.
The main objectives of the federal level in 2008 are: customer management, management of complaint, description of administrative processes, personnel enquiry (they want to increase the personnel satisfaction), customer enquiry (they want that the administrative has a better image in the society, they want that administration is seen as an attractive employer), absence, development of the leadership for the middle management, ...


Bulgaria

Early 2000s (2002?)

See: the national story

The Bulgarian government has established the following strategic principles for public service delivery in Bulgaria:

1. Treat all users fairly, honestly and courteously;

2. Communicate openly and provide full information;

3. Consult widely and promote continuous improvement;

4. Incorporate feedback and learn from complaints;

5. Encourage access to services, via different channels;

6. Work with others to provide an improved, joined-up service;

7. Set and publicise service standards and publish results against those standards;

8. Measure and publish measurements of customer satisfaction.

Cyprus


1993

The starting year for deliberate efforts in the quality management area in the public administration in Cyprus was in 1993 when the decision for development and implementation of specific reform measures in the Public Service was taken. The main objective of this initiative was the increase in productivity and the reduction of operation costs of the Cyprus Public Service.

It should be mentioned that a milestone towards quality management was the establishment of the “Office of the Commissioner for Administration (Ombudsman)”, in 1991, an independent Officer of the Republic who exercises control over the actions or inaction of public administrative authorities. In addition, another important milestone was the establishment of the Cyprus Academy of Public Administration (CAPA), again in 1991, which has the responsibility of contributing through training activities to the management development and modernisation of the Cyprus Public Service and, as a result, to the enhancement of quality in the Public Service. In the first five years of its operation, CAPA provided training on European Union issues in order to assist public officers in understanding the EU functions, policies and practices as well as to develop awareness of the effects of participation to the EU. In addition, CAPA designed and developed Induction courses for the newly recruited public officers as well as training programmes on skills development.

Furthermore, in 1993, a decision was taken to enhance the employee performance management system in order make it more transparent, fair and objective.

Since then several reform measures towards quality management have been introduced (described as a country example).


The most important goals regarding quality management in PA in our country are the following:


  • To create a performance and results-oriented culture in order to enhance effectiveness and productivity (budgets are currently constructed, on a pilot basis, based on performance targets, employee performance management system is based on competencies with the view of incorporating targets in it etc)

  • To measure customer and employee satisfaction

  • To promote strategic management and goal setting in the public service

  • To focus on initiatives that directly lead to better quality service provided to the public

Czech Republic

1999, when Territorial Public Administration Reform started, which included also the quality matters.

The Territorial Public Administration Reform the Czech Republic was about an implementation of a combined (joint) model of public administration (PA). This is to say that self-governing bodies, in addition to self-government competences, are also responsible for the state administration performed as devolved competences in accordance with particular laws. Quality methods are one the appropriate tools for management of self-governing bodies.

  • The adoption of Czech National Quality Policy in 2000

  • Quick spreading of CAF, benchmarking or ISO standards by carrying on various projects for implementation of quality tools within the PA authorities, financed from budget of The Czech National Quality Policy or The European Social Fund
  • Setting up National conference of quality in PA (held annually since 2004) and The Awards of the Ministry of Interior for Quality in PA (since 2005) for popularization of quality in PA


Denmark

The modernisation programme was introduced in the start of the 1980’s. The goal of the programme was to modernize and improve the quality in the public sector.



The modernisation programme was introduced in the start of the 1980’s. The goal of the programme was to modernize and improve the quality in the public sector. Since then, the responsibility for the modernisation and quality management of the public sector has been placed in the Ministry of Finance. The Ministry of Finance coordinates the main lines in the modernisation programme, but the programme rests on a broad corporation between the state, the municipals and the regions. In the 2002 the government relaunched the modernisation programme and the three goals: 1) Freedom of choice, 2) Open and responsive, 3) Value for money, were set up for the public sector. Link: http://www.moderniseringsprogram.dk/.
In 2007 the Quality Reform was proposed by the government. This reform is a grand plan for the development and quality of the public sector. Today, there have been agreements between the political parties and the labour unions concerning the majority of the initiatives in the reform. Link: http://www.kvalitetsreform.dk/.
The modernisation programme and the Quality Reform are state level initiatives. The Danish public sector is very decentralised and a lot of different kinds of initiatives improving quality development and management are taking place in the municipalities.

Start of 1980s: The goal of the programme was to modernize and improve the quality in the public sector.

In the 2002 the government relaunched the modernisation programme and the three goals: 1) Freedom of choice, 2) Open and responsive, 3) Value for money, were set up for the public sector. Link: http://www.moderniseringsprogram.dk/.

Today, there have been agreements between the political parties and the labour unions concerning the majority of the initiatives in the reform.


Estonia

The promotion of the quality management in the public sector is addressed as one topic in the »Public Administration Reform Programme of the Government of the Republic of Estonia« (2001). This year could be also named as the starting year for efforts in the quality management in Estonia.

The promotion of the quality management in the public sector is addressed as one topic in the »Public Administration Reform Programme of the Government of the Republic of Estonia« (2001). This programme consisted of 5 strategic areas, one of the areas was strategy for developing citizen-oriented public administration
However Estonian government has not adopted any specific strategy or policy on the use of quality management in the public sector. There have been implemented some projects on this field Public Sector Quality Award Pilot Project (2003), organised by the Ministry of Finance can be seen as one initiative in this field.

Also important is the decision of the Government in 2000 to launch the elaboration and implementation of citizen charters.



The overall aim of the Public Administration Reform Programme of the Government of the Republic of Estonia was to achieve with optimum expenditure the performing of public functions so that it takes into account the interests and rights of the citizens, is innovative, flexible, of high-quality and effective.
Launching citizen charters in 2000 had two aims:

  • To promote client-orientation in the public sector and to create service agreements between citizens as customers and public sector organisations
  • To link budget costs with real outputs and create some measurable indicators for the evaluation of performance of state agencies.


Finland

The work in the area of quality management in the public sector started more actively in the first part of the 1990’s. A project on “productivity and quality” in the middle of 1990’s was the first to put TQM on the public sector agenda. This was followed by an important work on Quality Strategy for the Public Administration in the late 1990’s.

Since then the quality work has been on the centralized public reform agenda.



Since then the quality work has been on the centralized public reform agenda. Already for the last ten years the quality work done on the national level in Finland has been linked to the work on the EUPAN agenda. Thus for instance promoting quality self assessment has played as strong role and has also lead to CAF and other similar tools in being more and more widespread in the Finnish Public sector.
One typical thing has also been that quality work of the state administration has been done in close co-operation with the municipal sector.

The most important goals at the moment are to:

- further spread the use of quality self assessment work to public sector organisations

- to enhance the sustainability of this work

- to enhance benchmarking and the use of best practices




France

Since 1980s

Since the 80s, improving quality of public administrations was among the missions of the Directorate general for civil service. In 1998, the newly created Inter-ministerial delegation for State reform took over this task, under the supervision of the Inter-ministerial committee for State reform. This board, in charge of steering the State reform policy at ministerial level, affirmed several times the strategic importance of public quality and launched the first projects in this area, such as the Marianne Charter and the simplification of procedures. Subsequent State reform programs kept these goals.

Public quality is one of the key issues of the new General review of public policies, a government program for 2007-2012, launched in July 2007.


  • Tailoring the public services to meet citizens’ needs,

  • simplifying the procedures and reducing the administrative burden,

  • improving the reception at public services in providing the users with an extended guarantee of service standards.




Germany

Middle of the 90ies


Quality Management has become an important issue in the context of Modernisation of general Administration and in the Administration of the Federal State in the middle of the 90ies and it has been playing an important role up to now. Behind this development stands the endeavour, to have a high level of quality in administration activities with only a few concentrated resources and considering the introduction of new information and communication technology e.g. concerning the improvement of Customer Satisfaction. The Development of Quality Management for a better capacity of Administration has been one of the main important aims in the Program of Government “Future oriented Administration through Innovation” including the programe “E-Government 2.0”, decided on 13th September 2006.

Capability and readiness for modification should be communicated outside the institution.( e.g. ISO – Certification)

Efforts for Modernization should be concentrated und it should be one of the aims to build up a consistent and redundance-free Management-System.

QM Systems are expected more and more from customers, citizens, Stakeholders. in the European context as well.


Greece

The effort to introduce quality management in public administration started in the late 1990s through the establishment of a special Unit on Efficiency and Quality in the General Secretariat of Public Administration in the Ministry of Interior.

The effort to introduce quality management in public administration started in the late 1990s through the establishment of a special Unit on Efficiency and Quality in the General Secretariat of Public Administration in the Ministry of Interior. This effort continued in the following years and in 2004 a law was voted by the Greek Parliament (Law 3230/2004 providing for the establishment of a Directorate on Efficiency and Quality in the General Secretariat of Public Administration. The law provides for the establishment of a network of similar Directorates in all the Ministries and Peripheries (regional government) of the country. The law also provides for the establishment of an integrated system of performance management, the introduction of quality tools (mainly CAF) and policies and a quality award for top performing public organizations.
The details regarding the Quality Award were further elaborated by a ministerial decision in 2005 which set as evaluation criterion the implementation of CAF by public organizations.

Main goals regarding QM in PA are: to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and quality of Public Organizations, to adopt a customer-citizen orientation approach by public organizations; to simplify and ease access to public administration by citizens and enterprises; to create a results oriented administrative culture; to cut down on red-tapping.


Hungary

In 1990s


The renewal of the public administration’s quality in Hungary came to the front in the 1990’s. From 2002 the government made further efforts to promote the effective operation of the state administration and self governmental administration in order to enhance the performance of public administration. In the area of quality management the government helped the public administration agencies not only with the vocational and conceptual support but with providing financial tools.

Since 2006 the government has aimed to develop a service-oriented state operating with fewer organisations. In the last two years the state administration has had a relevant institutional reform and a structural transformation, which served the renewal of quality of public administration.



The major general goals of the area are the following:

The improvement of quality standards of public services

Enhancement of customer satisfaction

Strengthening the principle of performance

Providing the equal access to services and standardization of the quality of services

Cost effectiveness



Ireland

1997

The Quality Customer Service (QCS) Initiative was launched in Ireland in 1997, with a view to identifying and examining areas for the improvement of customer services, and implementing solutions in the Irish Civil Service. As the basis for this initiative, 9 Guiding Principles of Customer Service were agreed in 1997 and these were expanded to 12 Guiding Principles in 2000. Key elements of Ireland’s QCS Initiative now include the production of Customer Action Plans (since 1997) and Customer Charters (since 2003).

12 Guiding Principles:


  • Quality Service Standards

  • Equality/Diversity

  • Physical Access

  • Information

  • Timeliness and Courtesy

  • Complaints

  • Appeals

  • Consultation and Evaluation

  • Choice

  • Official Languages Equality

  • Better Co-ordination

  • Internal Customer

Italy

1994

In the early nineties managerial principles are introduced in Italian PAs. Law 241/1991 has introduced the first principles aimed at bringing Pas closer to citizens: efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of the activities carried out by PAs. Quality of service delivery, still, is not among these. The decree 29/1993 creates offices dedicated to citizens’ relationship management and it is during this period that several initiatives on quality take off (such as the Citizens Charters introduced with the decree of the presidency of ministers (or DPCM) in 1994. Other contemporary initiatives include the award “100 projects at the service of citizens” that reward projects aimed at improving the relation between PAs and citizens.

During the second half of the nineties, the emphasis is put on the simplification of processes and procedures (the so-called Bassanini laws). By the end of the nineties, e-government gets a high ranking on political agendas.

In 2004, 2005 and 2006, the Minister of Public Administration issues three directives respectively on the measurement of perceived quality; on the quality of on-line services; and on the quality of public administrations.

Parallel trajectories concern the quality of specific sectors such as healthcare and education. Healthcare organizations have introduced quality management tools in the framework of several public management reforms implemented during the early nineties, while schools have been given more managerial autonomy since the late nineties, which has promoted many initiatives, mainly training, on quality.

A quality culture has been diffused also in the central administrations (especially autonomous agencies such as the fiscal agencies, INPS (national social security institute), INAIL (national institute for insurance against accidents at work), etc.).

The three main results include the following:


  1. Some big PAs have introduced a new logic characterized by:

  • A greater citizens’ orientation

  • Reorganization and technological integration

  • simplification

  1. PAs compare with each other and learn through this comparison

  2. there has been a move from single tools to an integrated perspective of quality.

In 2007, a National Plan for Quality in PAs has been introduced for implementing the 2006 Directive with the aim of:

  • increasing the number of PAs which are committed to improving quality

  • active engagement of stakeholders in the definition and implementation of quality improvement policies

  • communication and visibility of results.

Latvia

One of the first indications of the Latvian governments firm commitment to improve the quality of public services was the Government Declaration in 1997, which stated, “it is required to continue public administration reform increasing administrative capacity”. But rather targeted actions started in 1999 when the Prime Minister set up a working group to explore how to introduce a quality assurance system into Latvian PA. In its first proposal the working group recognised only one quality management system – ISO 9001 standard. The cabinet of Ministers approved the proposal of the working group in January 2000 and established a new inter-ministerial working group to draft detailed normative regulations.

Although this working group was strongly in favour of simply recommending ISO 9001 rather than making it compulsory, the terms of reference issued by the Prime Minister for the working group clearly stated that ISO 9001 should be the basis for the Act. This political decision in favour of the ISO 9001 standard has to be seen in the context of enormous popularity of the ISO 9000 series both in the Latvian private and public sectors.

On December 2001 the Cabinet of Ministers approved the regulation No 501 “Introduction of a quality management system in public administration”. The regulations stated that the QMS should be introduced according to the LVS EN ISO 9001 ( which is equivalent to the well-known ISO 9001) insofar as it is applicable for a given organisation.1

However the situation since then shows that institutions choose not only ISO standards as the issue of whether the regulation overrides other legislation and regulations is still regarded unclear by some legal experts.

In the meantime public services quality was also a key issue in the Latvian PA Reform Strategy for 2001-2006 – it names quality, reliability, accessibility and effectiveness as the basic values of a modern public administration.

The new project of the guidelines for PA development policy for 2007-2013 (see below) state the directions of activities in the field of quality:


  • institutional revisions

  • service quality

  • promoting e-government

  • QM systems.

The main goal for future development of public administration is to ensure a continuous development by raising the comprehension of the rule of law, efficiency and quality of services according to the needs of the society. This goal is supported by sub-goals, requiring sustainability oriented policy planning and strategic planning system, availability of public services, ensurance of effective application of human rights, professionalism and motivation in the work of civil service and active involvement of the society in the decision making process.


Lithuania

In 2004.

The main changes in Lithuanian public administration system started in 2004, when Lithuania was invited to join the European Union. Public administration activities became more complex, the requirements for public administration and civil servants grew up, and there were a necessity to strengthen the capacities of the institutions of public administration for making forecast, planning, organizing, coordinating, controlling and assessing their outcomes. Moreover, the examples of EU member states, how to use quality management models and systems, promoted to develop these activities in Lithuanian public administrations. In order to improve the public administration system purposefully and consistently, the Government in April of 2004 approved the Strategy of the Public administration Development until 2010. It became the main strategic document, in which the statements about the development of quality management initiatives were defined.

Main goals we are following in PA are: to improve the system of public administration; to improve framework and activities of regional administration institutions; to develop local self-government; to strengthen administrative capacities of the civil service and to enhance the image of the civil servant; to improve accessibility, quality, transparency of public services provided by public administration institutions and to shorten the time-span of provision of such services with the help of reliable IT.


Main goal we are following with QM in PA are: To improve the quality of public services, European states introduce quality management methods in public administration (e.g., CAF – (Common Assessment Framework), EQFM (European Quality Foundation Model)) that are aimed at satisfaction of the needs of users, to continuously analyse and improve their activities, as well as cooperation among civil servants, state and municipal institutions and bodies. While solving this task, quality management should be integrated into administration activities, quality standards should be set and assessed, best practice should be shared with EU Member States.

Luxembourg

For all sectors (public and private sectors) : Foundation of the Accreditation and Surveillance Office in 2001 (OLAS) and the National Council for accreditation, certification and quality promotion, and the Luxembourg Quality Movement..
For all sectors (public and private sectors) : National Plan for Quality Promotion (first version for 2005-2007, next one for 2007-2009.)

Specific for Public Administrations : Administrative Reform Action Plan and Electronic governance Master Plan. Since 2002, cooperation with the Luxembourg Quality Movement: conferences dealing with quality management organized regularly.

Accreditation and Surveillance Office (OLAS), main developments :

Foundation of the Luxembourg Quality Movement in 2001

Foundation of the National Council for accreditation, certification, and quality promotion in 2001,

Definition of a first National Plan for Quality Promotion (2005-2007) and a second version (2007-2009).

National Plan for Quality Promotion :

Increasing of the quality level in different sectors as agricultural, wine growing, horticulture, food, hospital sector, health, geriatrics, gerontology, private sector, metrology, transport and public sector.
Administrative Reform Action Plan :

Quality management approach with the National CAF program in 2005.

Different tools for quality management as training plan, skill management, individual staff interview, user satisfaction measurement. The methodologies are developed and supported by the administrative reform department and implemented by the administrations and public services
Electronic governance Master Plan :

Virtual “One-Stop Shop” for citizens and enterprises, Web presence of public sector standardized by a reference framework (Normalization reference charter)



Accreditation and Surveillance Office (OLAS) :

Promote, control and delivery Accreditation.


National Plan for Quality Promotion :

Promote Quality in order to strengthen competitiveness.


Administrative Reform Action Plan :

Support quality management approach in public administrations.


Electronic governance Master Plan :

Simplification of administrative procedures, accessibility of services, user-centred.

Malta

In 1999 a Public Service Change Programme was initiated within the Public Service of Malta, which brought about the commencement of a number of customer service improvement initiatives, including the Quality Service Charter initiative. Furthermore, an internet-based Customer Care System was launched (www.servizz.gov.mt)


The development of Charters is on a voluntary basis, and to date, fifty-nine (59) Quality Service Charters have been implemented and are being maintained across the Public Service. Additionally, common service standards were introduced on a Service-wide basis in 2006.


  • Tangibly improve the level of service that we give to the public;

  • Improve public accessibility to public institutions;

  • Consolidate and further the application of technological systems across Central and Local Government;

  • Enhancing accountability through continuous feedback.




The Netherlands

Early 1990s

QM is not mandatory in the PA of the Netherlands. Public organisations are free to choose whether or not they want to implement QM and if they choose to do so they can organise QM at their own discretion. The Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations offers guidelines, assistance, etc. which organisations can use to improve the quality of service.
An exception is the police: in 1993 a law was enforced by the Ministry of the Interior that made the implementation of the INK Excellence Model (a derivative of the EFQM model) compulsory for all police forces in the Netherlands.




Poland

Early 1990s

Systemic transformation toward democratic state (early 90s) as well as Euro-Atlantic integration (OECD and EU standards) enabled making deliberate efforts in the QM area in Polish PA. From the very beginning the quality approach has remained to a large extent decentralized. From institutional perspective, key government actors such as Office of Civil Service, Ministry of Interior and Administration and Ministry of Finance have elaborated and implemented a number of initiatives covering a broad range of institutions (respectively, central administration institutions, local administration units, tax administration offices). In addition, an active (stimulating and supporting) role of non-governmental institutions has to be emphasised.


QM policy is aimed at achieving the following goals:

  • improving functioning of PA institutions

  • strengthening their effectiveness and efficiency in public service delivery

  • improving public image of PA

  • involving all stakeholders in co-operation

Portugal

Early 1990s (1993).

Since the 80's Modernisation of Public Administration has become a vital factor for the social and economic development of Portugal. Accordingly, a citizen-oriented administration has taken Quality as a political priority for Public Services.

The concern about quality in public services and the strategy for quality management integrated the public agenda and government programmes since 1993.



Main initiatives on quality issues:

  • stimulate quality management in public services, by using CAF model.

  • manage the performance assessment system of public services .

  • stimulate the application of modern management support tools.




Romania

2003 (?)

Concerning the civil service, we consider that 2004 was the year when certain coherent measures were undertaken by the Romanian central public institutions in order to insure and to strengthen the quality management.

There were issued certain strategic documents in this regard, mentioning several measures to be taken as follows:


  • Introducing the quality standards for monitoring and assessing a public service and the civil servants’ professional activity;


  • Setting up a fix number of civil servants according to the quality standards established for each public service;

  • Establishing a strategic planning system for each public authority according to the public services offered;

  • Establishing certain motivational schemes in order to increase the quality of public services and to stimulate the innovation;

  • Elaborating and implementing the Citizens’ Chart in order to introduce and assess quality standards for public services;

  • Implementing an assessment guide for institutional self assessment according to CAF.

  • Reducing the bureaucracy

  • Citizens’ orientation

  • Professionalizing civil service for increasing the quality of public services




Slovak Republic

2003

The significant moment happened in 2003. Slovak central governmental bodies as one of a few European countries have been obliged to implement the CAF Model in their organisations till 2008

Main objectives that the above mentioned CAF project follows are:

  • to motivate PA organisation to start continuous improvement activities,

  • customer orientation,

  • to introduce different measurements,

  • to increase efficiency of PA organisations.

Slovenia

1999

Intensive development in the area of quality in Slovene public administration was observed especially from the year 1999, when in the Ministry of Interior, then responsible for public administration, the Quality Committee began its activity, the main purpose of its activity defined as effective, citizen friendly, recognizable and responsible public administration. In 2002, quality became one of the main pillars of the Slovenian public administration reform, the main focus being on a customer friendly service, accountability of public administration bodies to the public for their results and efficient functioning, and on the awareness of the role of the management in it. Additional impulse toward further development of quality of Slovene public administration was due to the formation of the Ministry of Public Administration which occurred in December of 2004. The Ministry of Public Administration has been incorporating the demands and quality performance standards of Slovene public administration into the legislation and in all the strategic documents, which it prepares and/or cooperates in preparing.

Main characteristics were:


  • Shift from public administration towards public management;

  • Quality standards and / or models were appropriate starting points for managing PA organization and its performance – quality standards and models played important role as organizational models;

  • The leading principles of PA functioning: customer orientation, lower costs, efficiency etc. are being incorporated in new strategies / strategic initiatives in all areas (e.g. e-Gov strategy, RAB programme) – quality is now perceived as an other side of the same coin.

Main goals we are following with QM in PA are: to put customer in the centre; to improve efficiency; to reduce costs; to simplify administrative processes; to make contacts between customers and the state easier and fewer personal contacts.


Spain

Late 1980s




In this context the Spanish Agency for the Evaluation of Public Policies and Quality of Services aims to enhance the institutional quality of public administrations, in order to:

  • Provide public managers with information to improve decision-making on the provision of public services;

  • Promote learning and organisational improvement in public government institutions and thus raise their performance; and

  • Enhance public sector citizen orientation so as to develop a higher standard of service.

Sweden

The Swedish central government agencies started to use excellence models in the middle of 1990´s.






United Kingdom




Generally in delivering quality in administration Public Services aim to demonstrate value for money and also to prove their worth, especially in making a measurable impact on their community.






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