In the health sector, since the beginning of the 1990ies at the latest, a focus has been turned on quality. Several laws and other types of legislation have been passed. On the first of January 2005, the Federal Act on the Quality of Health Services came into force. It sets standards regarding structures, processes and results. In July 2007 the Bundesinstitut für Qualität im Gesundheitswesen started to work.
In the school system, several important quality initiatives have been carried out. The Q.I.S. (Qualität in Schulen)-Program offered tools for the evaluation of teachers and individual schools, whereas QIBB(Qualitätsinitiative Berufsbildung), tries to establish a QM-System for all levels of the school system.
The Copernic reform would like to promote a well fare society.
On federal level we have in our statut – a Code of conduct. Last year it was more precise in a royal arrest.
Employee performance management system aiming at enhancing meritocracy and transparency
Code of conduct
Other policies for improving the quality of service provided to the public (e.g. One-stop-shops)
Order of Police President No. 100/2004, setting a proceeding for implementation and application of model Excellence EFQM into Police of the Czech Republic.
Czech National Quality Policy (2000) – will be updated in 2008.
Quality Management is one of the backbones in the Danish modernisation programme (Link: www.modernisering.dk) from 2002. A number of initiatives have been taken in relation to this programme.
Codex for good top executive management: The Danish Forum for Executive Management published the codex in 2005. The codex presents nine central recommendations to top executive managements. Link: http://www.publicgovernance.dk/?siteid=672&menu_start=672 The lessons learned are that a lot of top executive managers have been more aware about the importance of management and the fact that management discussions across the public sector are very valuable.
Principles for good public service: The Government, the Danish Regions (DR) and Local Government Denmark (LGDK/KL) published nine principles for good public service in 2007. The principles are meant to lead the way to a dialog between and within the public institutions about what good public service is about. The process of spreading the use of the principles in public institutions at state, regional and local level is taking place at the moment. Link: http://modernisering.dk/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Projekter/Redskaber_og_vejledninger/Principper_for_god_offentlig_service_final.pdfKVIK – the Danish version of CAF: In 2003 and 2006 SCKK (Centre for Development of Human Resources and Quality Management) has published a manual for implementing CAF as a tool for self-assessment in the Danish public institutions. The use of the recommendations and tools provided by this publication are voluntary. Link: http://www.sckk.dk/visSCKKArtikel.asp?artikelId=1316.
The Danish Public Sector Award: Since 1997 public organisations have been able to apply for the Danish Public Sector Award. The award and related recognitions are rewarded on the basis of use of the Excellence Model. Award Winners exemplify best practise in the public sector. Link: http://www.sckk.dk/visSCKKUnivers.asp?artikelID=1504.
Efficiency Strategies: The Danish Government does not demand the use of any specific tools or methods. All ministries have however since 2003 been obliged to formulate an efficiency strategy every year. In this strategy you have to describe how the ministry works with quality and efficiency. The Ministry of Finance evaluates these strategies. Link: http://modernisering.dk/da/projekter/effektiv_opgavevaretagelse/.
Estonian government has not adopted any specific strategy or policy on the use of quality management in the public sector.
There have been quality policies in different sectors and quality has also been one part in many other policies to mention one a decision-in principle of the Government was named in 1999 Good Governance, High-Quality Public Services and a Responsible Civic Society.
At the State level
In 1989, Government gave a priority to the reception and service intended for the users, as part of a broader policy for the renovation of public service (circulaire du 23 février 1989 sur le renouveau du service public). The main goals were:
Improving information delivered to the public,
Personalising relationships between public agents and users
Associating users to the improvement process of public services.
In 1995, Governement included the necessity to “better meet citizens’ needs and expectations” among the priorities of State reform (circulaire du 26 juillet 1995 relative à la preparation et à la mise en oeuvre de la réforme de l’Etat et des services publics). Each department has to establish a program of improvement and simplification of relationships with users, with qualitative and quantitative objectives and indicators.
In 2000, the inter-ministerial committee for State reform (CIRE, Comité interministériel pour la réforme de l’Etat) introduced a determined policy for quality improvement:
each ministerial department will set the priorities of its quality policy before the end of the year,
each local branch and each state agency will define its commitments for the quality of services intended for the users,
adequate human resources will be mobilised, in each ministerial department,
self-assessment, based on CAF, will be developed.
In 2007, as part of the general review of public policies, an ambitious program for the improvement of reception in public services has been adopted. Mandatory measures have been taken to ensure the quality of the reception and the improvement of the service delivered.
The service commitments of the Marianne Charter are applicable to all State departments. Respect of the standards can be controlled by a third party
Mystery user surveys will be conducted every year, and the results will be published
Expansion of business hours, to meet local expectations
Appointment management systems, to reduce waiting time
Expansion of business hours of the general purpose call center “39-39”
Extension of services delivered by 39-39 (namely verification of completion of a file)
Reduced costs to call public administrations
The primer source of the QM policies in the Hungarian public administration is the Governmental Programme. The general goals are the following:
The improvement of quality standards of public services
Enhancement of customer satisfaction
Strengthening the principle of performance
Providing the equal access to services and standardization of the quality of services
Further relevant principles of the QM policy in the Hungarian central administration are:
Application of quality management models
The policies are further detailed according to their tasks and competencies, by units. Several sectors have relevant developments and results in Hungary, e.g.:
Labour sector (www.afsz.hu) or
Pension insurance sector (www.onyf.hu).
Quality Customer Service (QCS) was a part of the Delivering Better Government Report, published in 1996 - http://www.bettergov.ie/index.asp?locID=168&docID=429
The Guiding Principles of Customer Service were published in 1997, and again (after being expanded) in 2000 - http://www.bettergov.ie/index.asp?docID=120
Guidelines for Customer Action Plans were published in 2000 - http://www.bettergov.ie/index.asp?docID=174
Guidelines for Customer Charters were published in 2003 - http://www.bettergov.ie/index.asp?docID=239
Policies for a Quality Public Administration (since 2006)
make use of external evaluation of results
acknowledge and award quality and efforts to improve
monitor and improve the satisfaction measurement and analysis practices
promote benchmarking of the quality of services delivered to citizens and businesses
diffuse and communicate the results achieved
involve the civil society actors
No separate policies have been issued to guide QM policy. The normative basis consists of the above mentioned strategic plans and documents and the two documents:
Regulations No.501 “Regulations on Implementation of the Quality Management System in Public Administration Institutions”.
and Recommendations No.1 “On Implementation of the Quality Management System in Public Administration Institutions”. (11 December 2001)
These acts are based on requirements under the standard ISO 9001:2000 or to be mire precise, Latvia’s national standard LVS EN ISO 9001.
Indirectly one other initiative should be mentioned.
In the end of 2007 Latvian Cabinet of Ministers has adopted a new Impact assessment system which is implemented through the annotation system. It includes an assessment of the economic and social impacts of the draft regulation considered, as well as the impact it may have on the state budget system improvements. The new approach simplifies the structure of the annotation using questions and answers. It also demands using SCM for measuring and reducing administrative burdens for entrepreneurs and citizens.
There aren’t direct statements about QM in the Programme of the Government of Lithuania for 2006–2008. One of the priorities of the Government activities are – strengthening the state and local governance, ensuring public order, good operation of legal system, and taming corruption.
Priority activities of the government in the field of state governance policy:
Optimize the system of public administration based on professional civil service, development of knowledge and information society
To solidify the model of state institutions management, reflecting the governance relationship among institutions, their subordination, and distribution of functions
To improve the selection of civil servants and procedures for assessment of civil service activities, etc.
Tasks of the Ministry of Interior:
In the field of public administration – to implement an effective policy of state administration, to take part in formation of a rational public administration system
In the field of civil service management – to take part in formation and implementation of civil service policy and seek to develop a professional and effective system of civil service
Please refer to the National Plan for Quality Promotion www.olas.public.lu/legislation/textes/plan/index.html CAF National Program
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See detailed description / last chapter
Quality policy - ”Good Governance” was for the first time clearly formulated in the 5th priority of the Operational Program Human Capital for 2007-2013 in relation to regulations quality, improvement of quality of services for business, modernization of management in PA and in justice.
The Portuguese Fundamental Law determines the development of a proximity public administration in order to engage citizens in the definition and execution of public administration polices.
In this context the Government have developed a Quality Policy which has the following strategic lines:
Citizens satisfaction through a quick answer to citizens requests;
Public access to service;
Internal (people) and external (citizens) dialog in public services though audition mechanisms;
Simplicity of administrative acts and legislation;
Starting 2005, all public policies/strategies issued by ministries must include quality management aspects, in order to make public institution more accountable, responsible, effective, citizens’ oriented (Government decision 775/2005 on public policies). First report regarding the stage of the implementation of public policies rules is available only in Romanian language so far, at:
The package law adopted in 2006 provides the frame for developing cost and quality standards. (Law no. 215/2001 revised in 2006 on local public administration, Law 273/2006 on local public finance, Framework law 195/2006 on decentralization and Law 188/1999 for civil servants, amended in 2006)
The main strategic quality policy document is the National Quality Programme of the Slovak Republic for years of 2004-2008 with specific objectives and activities.
Quality Policy of the State Administration Statement – 'Politika kakovosti državne uprave', 1996 (Adopted by Slovenian Government in October 1996)
Its major components are the statements about:
ethical conduct of all the employees,
partnership with citizens, national economy, friendly states and co-workers,
establishing the conditions for social and economic development,
harmonisation to modern European standards, norms and legislation,
striving for implementation of the European Business Excellence model and for on time education and training,
transparent, efficient and effective functioning within and among ministries and with administrative units,
awareness of entrepreneurial opportunities of state administration for developing the society,
effective and efficient use of budget resources,
establishing the conditions for quality of life and work for all the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia.
Quality Policy of the Public Administration Statement – 'Politika kakovosti slovenske javne uprave', 2003 (Adopted by Slovenian Government in December 2003)
The document meant widening the Quality Policy Statement from the scope of state administration to the scope of public administration.
The approach for QM in Spain is carried out by means of specific programmes, not considered as policies in the formal sense.
As the main general quality policies in Central Government Administration General framework for quality improvement in Central Government Administration can be considered
The main sectoral quality policies are connected to:
EDUCATION (Education System, Universities)
HEALTH (Quality Plan for the National Health System, 2006)
Descriptions of sectoral policies are available in the matrix; general framework is presented in this analysis in section X.
This table has to be red in a combination with the previous chapter (QM Strategy, Strategic Documents and Initiatives). Several countries do not strictly separate national documents according to the general methodology but rather according to their goals and aimes they are following. This developed in different countries' situations regarding their QM strategies and policies.
LL – Regarding the Policies: BE:
Many ministries and social security agencies have developed personnel and customer enquiries. They have shared and developed values.
The lessons learned are that after publishing the Codex for good top executive management in 2005, a lot of top executive managers have been more aware about the importance of management and the fact that management discussions across the public sector are very valuable.
The principles of quality management have to be operated in the every day work of public administration.
Giving continuity through time to the policies and adapting them to the evolutions of the context makes it possible to achieve sustainable and effective results.
To be able to implement more targeted policies and work towards embedding the QM in PA, it is crucial to define precise input, output, outcome and performance indicators. Inclusion of QM issues in other documents do not lead to such precision.
The need for enhancing the alignment and collaboration between administrative levels and between the different sectors