a format for the receipt of questions, in order to create a FAQ list, able to be consulted on line by those administrations which may apply in the future;
a Gantt chart of the actions taken and to be taken was sent to the administrations, indicating the different steps for correct compilation of the grid (based on guide lines) and highlighting the phases through which the administrations could take advantage of the assistance of Formez;
a seminar was held at the end of the project, during which representatives of all the pilot administrations were present. The results of the data collected through the compilation of the questionnaire were presented at the seminar and an overall evaluation of the experience was drawn, allowing the administrations to make their individual comments.
In 2007 the Quality Award has been carried out again and a training program for the evaluators has been organized. These take part in the jury of the award as junior members.
Since 2007several seminars have been organized at the regional level for the diffusion of CAF (and more in general on quality issues). From May 2008 the Resource Centre CAF will be functioning, inside the portal www.qualitpa.gov.it.
Finally, the adaptation of the CAF to schools and Justice is on the way.
Despite that a policy for the diffusion and promotion of the EFQM model has not been supported at central level, it is possible to highlight voluntary use of the model at a predominately local level.
In 1998, the Municipality of Bologna adopted the self-evaluation process, following the EFQM criteria. The self-assessment exercise, together with the training of directors and official staff, resulted in the identification of the principle guidelines for improvement.
After the second self-assessment exercise, the Municipality of Bologna took part in the European Quality Award and was presented as a best practice case at the first Quality Conference for Public Administration in the EU (Lisbon, May 2000). The cities of Trento and Milan have also experienced the EFQM model.
Also in the cultural sector (museums) an experimental phase based on the self–evaluation process according to EFQM criteria, has been introduced. This research – exercise, which was carried out with the help of the evaluators of Italian Quality Award, has led to the creation of a self-assessment guide for museums and to its concrete implementation in a museum in the Emilia Romagna Region (2001)
Latvia: CAF – the interest about CAF model and its implementation is increasing. Now the CAF resource center recognises only 5 CAF users. But some may not be registered. In 2007 the Latvian School of Public Administration organised a special course on CAF, the responsiveness was rather high that indicates the interest in this model. Altogether 42 certificates were issued.
The approach used by organisations differ. For example, the State Chancellery involved private consultants in the introduction of QMS, as the CAF model is combined with ISO. Ministry of Agriculture managed to make structural changes and involved highly experienced experts that now work in the ministry. The Ministry of Finance organised a benchmarking project together with the Ministry of Finance of Finland, and introduced CAF in 2007.
EFQM – as the model is the basis for the Quality Award, it could be concluded, that EFQM model is mostly popularized by the Latvian Association for Quality. The organisation provides methodological materials in Latvian and encourages institutions to participate with their applications.
Investors in Exellence – the only known example - Minsitry of Agriculture – is combining ISO 9001, CAF and IIE
As it was mentioned before, it is not compulsory for the public sector institutions to use quality management models, but some institutions use some models in practice. The survey in 2007 was implemented in order to find out the level of the quality management models usage.
By the results of the survey in 2007, CAF is used in practise by 10,3% public administration institutions. But half of the institutions could not indicate which version of the model they are implementing. So practically there are about 5% of public administration institutions using CAF. In the database of European Public Administration Institute there are registered public administration institutions implementing CAF. Most of the institutions are using version of the model of the year 2002. CAF version of the year 2006 was introduced to public administration institutions in 2007. It is expected that in the following years more institutions will implement CAF. The main problems for implementing the CAF are: increased workload, lack of workers motivation and information about the model’s implementation. So basically problems are related with human resources.
Some institutions are using specific quality management models because of their specific activities.
Ministry of the Interior is collecting the information about the CAF users and provides this information on the web page: www.vrm.lt.
In the period of 2007-2013 it is planning to use money from European Social Fund (EU support) for the promotion, implementation and certification of different QM tools and systems in public administration institutions of Lithuania.
INK (derivative of EFQM): since 1993 compulsory for all police forces. Also quite a lot of municipalities, educational organisations, ministries, provinces make use of the INK excellence model.
BSC: not a lot of public organisations make use of BSC yet, one sector that does is the healthcare sector
The EFQM model is used by some services of Portuguese public administration, sometimes combined with CAF model (CAF is foreseen as a first step to C2E).
The Ministry of Education has promoted the EFQM model in Portuguese schools. The project names: "EFQM: an assessment tool". The goal was to promote this model in Portuguese public schools, to improve the quality in the education sector.
CAF is being used in Portugal since 2000, and became a popular model used in PA since then.
CAF was extensively introduced in Slovenia in 2002; in the beginning of 2003 Slovene translation of CAF was published. Since then usage of CAF is increasing continuously as CAF was defined as strategic direction in Slovenian public administration modernisation. CAF is incorporated in different strategic documents and/or initiatives. In the Further Development Strategy of the Slovenian Public Sector 2003–2005 CAF was included within the first of seven priority tasks in the area Quality management within administration and orientation of public administration towards users. In Slovenia’s Development Strategy (2005), in action plan for 2005 and 2006 under the third development priority An efficient and less costly state CAF was exposed together with the EFQM model as a tool for systematically raising the quality of the public administration’s services.
Furthermore, in the Reform Programme for Achieving the Lisbon Strategy Goals (2005) it is stated: »Slovenia wants to achieve a growth in institutional competitiveness by introducing business excellence in the public administration. The objectives we wish to achieve are the introduction of a strategic planning system as a basic management tool in the public administration, the introduction of management tools, and the application of the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) and inclusion in the European Excellence Model (EFQM). The measures for the achievement of these objectives are: (i) adoption of regulations for quality assessment and strategic planning (2006/2007); (ii) building support (methodological support and information support) for the strategic planning system (2006/2008); (iii) management education and training.«
Hungary (as a case):
The official Hungarian version of CAF was elaborated in 2003. This version was the European CAF’s 2002 version. Since 2003, the government has already encouraged the national dissemination of the model with extensive incentive system.
The application of the model was helped by guidelines. The Ministry of the Interior has contributed to the dissemination of the model among the public administration agencies with consultations, as well.
In the beginning the CAF self assessment system was tested with pilot projects in the national public administration.
We have created a central, internet based CAF database. The development has been working since January 2004. The developed national questionnaire can be applied online. After their registration, each public administration agency can use the whole system.
The Hungarian government has made it mandatory to develop and disseminate the Hungarian adaptation of CAF. In public administration the use of CAF has been recommended but not mandatory. The government encouraged the dissemination of CAF by inviting applications for support. On this basis, the Ministry of the Interior invited applications for the quality development of public administration agencies in 2003. The aim of the grant was to subsidize Hungarian quality development projects, and especially to promote the introduction of the CAF model. The precondition for participation in the CAF application was that the agencies had to return the completed questionnaires to the Ministry of the Interior, to the central CAF database. The total amount of grant was HUF 41,5 million. From among the 117 eligible applicants 52 were granted subsidy.
Any information and services are free. They are available in two ways: the informative publications are available for anybody, but the application of CAF online system depends on registration. The registry of the users helps the completion of CAF database and statistics.
In 2006 the Prime Minister’s Office elaborated the Hungarian version of CAF 2006 version and the methodology. At the same time, these developments were also harmonized with the European CAF developments.
In Hungary, the CAF questionnaire has been specialised to more different sectors, like:
The CAF online system (worked from 2004) was further developed in 2007, according to the CAF 2006 version.
In Hungary, 250 users have registered in the database of Prime Minister’s Office. The number of total national users can be estimated several 10%s more than the registered one.
Hungary has operated its CAF methodological feedback system since 2005, which enables public administration agencies to get an external feedback about their CAF application.
CAF action plan available at …
Some public administration agencies apply other excellence models (e.g. EFQM). The application of these tools depends on the decision of the respective organisations and their QM culture. (Link: https://caf.meh.hu/)
Romania (as a case):
Common Assessment Framework (CAF) was launched, at national level, in Romanian public administration, in 2005 in order to increase the quality of the public services in Romania. Responsible for coordinating CAF model is the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform.
The approach of CAF implementation is:
Phase 1: Training sessions on quality management - CAF for the top management within the targeted public institutions
Phase 2: Training sessions on quality management - CAF for the civil servants within all County Councils and Prefect’s Institutions
Phase 3: CUPAR received and planned the requests for technical support from interested public authorities. All these requests were sent on a voluntary basis
Phase 4: CUPAR’s CAF team assisted the public authorities in running properly the exercise on the site The results of CAF 2008
CUPAR received 47 technical support requests from public administration institutions on a voluntary action basis:
31 Prefect’s Institution
7 County Councils
3 Deconcentrated Public Services
Ministry of Economy and Finance (1 General Directorate)
Ministry of Education, Research and Youth (3 Directorates)
National Institute for Administration
Central Unit for Public Administration Reform
386 civil servants have been trained on CAF and were able to disseminate the information related to it
84 high civil servants, representatives of Prefectures and County Councils from all 42 counties in Romania were trained on the self-assessment instrument
Action plans elaborated within the institutions based on CAF implementation conclusions
The principal domains proposed for improvement are:
Internal communication (drafting the internal strategy communication, create intranet network, introduce integrated management of the documents)
Strategic planning (reviewing the multi - annual modernizing strategy)
Employees’ motivation (their involvement in drafting the action plan for the institution, in drafting the internal communication as well as in the multi- annual modernizing plan through working groups).
Results measurement both for the personnel and for the beneficiaries (established a set of indicators)
Customers/citizens’ satisfaction (there were drafted questionnaires in order to have a clear view about their satisfaction)
LL and / or additional descriptions – Regarding the Excellence Model
EFQM, since 1996: The Excellence model is recommended and communicated by SCKK. The use of the model is voluntary. The Danish Quality Award, which is given to worthy public institutions (see above), is build up around the excellence model. Only institutions who have improved their organisation through the Excellence model can win the price. Link: http://www.sckk.dk/visSCKKArtikel.asp?artikelId=1317.
KVIK (CAF), since 2003: The Danish version of CAF was developed as a simpler self-assessment method based on request of the public sector organisations. The use of the model is voluntary. Link: http://www.sckk.dk/visSCKKArtikel.asp?artikelId=1316.
CAF was introduced in Estonia in 2002, when also the Estonian translation of the CAF was published. The Ministry of Finance was one of the first organisation conducting CAF self-assessment in 2002. CAF was very widely used in 2003, when the quality award based on CAF-model took place. The Ministry of Finance has promoted CAF, as well as implementing training, providing information etc during the last year. So far, there is approx 20 CAF-users in Estonia, some of them have used CAF already twice.
The voluntary choice of tool for the organisations doing quality work has proven to be a suitable way for the Finnish administrative culture.
The use of CAF by public organizations in Greece started in 2002 when the first edition of CAF was published. Currently an increasing number of public organizations at central, regional and local government level is applying the CAF model.
The CAF system has become a widespread quality improvement tool in the Hungarian public administration. It contributes to the renewal of the organisations significantly.
While there is no formal policy of implementing specific excellence models in the Irish Public Service, it is completely open to individual organisations to utilise such models as appropriate.
The Customer Charter process, which is implemented across the Irish Public Service, contains many elements of such approaches.
The use of these models is increasing. Connecting them to awards or initiatives that compare different organizations can help by better motivating the administrations.
Importance of support actions, communication and the framework of a strategic action plan
So far quality assurance in Malta relies on the quality service charter initiative and the common service standards.
The choice of excellence model as well as the decision whether use it or not basically belongs to the head of institution. Only the tax administration has a complex and obligatory program for all units.
There is no centralized approach. A number of Polish institutions interested in quality management started their quality journey with ISO certification. When EFQM and CAF became more common in Polish administration a number of institutions got acquainted with them and started using them.
In 2006 and 2007 a CAF implementation project Improvement of administrative capacity within the frames of EU Transition Facility was carried out in selected central government organizations.
The project fo MSWiA covered 20 central governmental organizations and lasted from October 2006 till December 2007. It was focused on improvement of administrative capacity in public administration – thus serving the need to fulfil commitments and requirements arising from the acquis.
Within each organization, after self-assessment five improvement projects have been worked out by the civil servants and later implemented, covering the subjects like: internal recruitment system for civil servants working in the ministry, improvement of complains system, ministry strategy execution and its division on the level of units.
The most important lesson learned form this project is that one year is not sufficient time for such a challenging topics. The optimal period of time is 24-30 months. Results of the project will be useful for planning similar projects within the frames of the EU 2007-2013 Structural Funds both by Ministry of Interior with regard to local governments and Chancellery of Prime Minister with regard to central government administration.
Team work and consensus importance (the opportunity to consider positive/critical aspects of the organization which are normally underestimated or not discussed)
Transparency and communication are essential
Bottom - up approach is essential for a continuous improvement
The measurable connection between actions and effects (enablers-results) a necessary action for continuous improvement
Excellence models are to be seen by the public organisations as a mean for their continual improvement. The model usage should never be considered as the main goal in public management.
The usage of these excellence models needs to be approached on a gradual basis. It is advisable to start by using basic models as EVAM model, and then go further to more complex excellent models, CAF or EFQM. Once the units are experienced enough, they are ready to apply for an external recognition.
It is very useful for the organisations to compare internally and externally their assessment results after using different models.
Bolj obrazložitev kot LL:
Many organisations will use excellence models and standards of various types. Some are sector specific. There is no ‘national programme’ as individual organisations are best placed to decide the best use of excellence models in the particular circumstances of their own business.