cxxvii D. J. West, MurderFollowedby Suicide (London: Heinemann, 1965), 150.
cxxviii The phrase “temporarily abled” is a useful reminder by the writer Reyolds Price. His book, A Whole New Life: An Illness and a Healing (New York: Scribner’s, 2003), is his beautiful account of life as a paraplegic.
cxxix Quoted in Daniel Maguire, Death by Choice, 2nd ed. (Garden City: Doubleday, 1984), 3.
cxxx Chapter Seven
Sigmund Freud, “Mourning and Melancholy,” Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (London: W.W. Norton, 1953-74), vol. XIV.
cxxxi Geoffrey Gorer, Death Grief and Mourning (New York: Ayer, 1979), 128.
cxxxii Jessica Mitford, The American Way of Death (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963); also, Jessica Mitford, The American Way of Death Revisited (New York: Knopf, 1998).
cxxxiii New York Times, Nov. 11, 2000.
cxxxiv Philippe Aries, The Hour of Our Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1982), 550-51.
cxxxvRobert Burt, Death is That Man Taking Names (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 64, points out that the Civil War memorial at Yale University that inspired the Vietnam memorial took fifty years to be built and dedicated. There was controversy over whether its praise of devotion and unity should include Confederate as well as Union soldiers. The Vietnam memorial could be constructed quickly because it does not ascribe any meaning to the deaths.
cxxxvi Laurie Kellman, “Vietnam Memorial Still Heals Wounds,” Associated Press Online, July 19, 2002
cxxxvii New York Times, Nov. 11, 1987
cxxxviii Jack Hitt, “The American Way of Dealing with Death,” New York Times, August 18, 2002, 4.
cxxxix Samuel Heilman, When a Jew Dies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).
cxl Harold Kushner, When Bad Things Happen to Good People (New York: Avon Books, 1981), 89.
cxli Kushner, When Bad Things Happen., 88-90
cxlii Bronislaw Malinowski, “The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages,” in C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards, The Meaning of Meaning (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1989, 315.
cxliiiSimon Leys, The Analects of Confucius (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997),19:17.
cxliv James Atlas, New Yorker, Oct. 13, 1997
cxlv C.S. Lewis, A Grief Observed (New York: Bantam Books, 1976), 61: “To say that the patient is getting over it after an operation for appendicitis is one thing; after he’s had his leg off quite another. After that operation, either the wounded stump heals or the man dies. If it heals, the fierce continuous pain will stop. Presently, he’ll get back his strength and be able to stump about on his wooden leg. He has ‘got over it’. But he will probably have recurrent pains in the stump all his life...and he will always be a one-legged man.”
cxlvi Judith Cook, “A Death in the Family: Parental Bereavement in the First Year,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 13 (1983), 42-61.
cxlvii Sylvia Rees and Dewi Lutkins, “Mortality of Bereavement,” British Medical Journal, Oct. 1967.
cxlviii Arnold van Gennep, Rites of Passage (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), 146-65.
cxlix Robert Hertz, Death and the Right Hand (Aberdeen: Cohen and West, 1960), 86: “Mourning, at its origin, is the necessary participation of the living in the mortuary state of their relative.”
cl Richard Huntington and Peter Metcalf, Celebrations of Death (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 93-118.
cli Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying, 112.
clii John Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy (Garden City: Anchor Books, 1970), 33.
cliii Erich Lindemann, “Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 101(1944), 148.
clv Mark Twain, The Autobiography of Mark Twain, ed. Charles Neider (New York: Harper, 2000).
clvi For the proposed revisions of the “DSM,” see www. dsm5.org.
clvii Although Jewish tradition warns against excessive weeping, the Talmud also says that anyone who cries at the death of a good person is forgiven all his sins; Shabbat 105b. See also The Tibetan Book of the Dead, ed. W. Evans-Wentz (New York: Oxford University Press, 1960), 87, 195.
clviii C .S. Lewis, A Grief Observed, 69: “Grief is like a long valley, a winding valley where any bend may reveal a totally new landscape....Sometimes the surprise is the opposite one; you are presented with exactly the same sort of country you thought you had left behind miles ago. That is when you wonder whether the valley isn’t a circular trench. But it isn’t. There are partial recurrences but the sequence doesn’t repeat.”
clix Rees and Lutkins, op. cit.,
clx Robert Kavanaugh, Facing Death (New York: Penguin Books, 1972).
clxi Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954), 51-92.
clxii. Hayim Perelmuter, Siblings: Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity at their Beginnings (New York: Paulist Press, 1989); on the close relation of early Christianity and Judaism, see Daniel Boyarin, Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Making of Christianity and Judaism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999).
clxiii. Arthur Cohen, The Myth of the Judeo-Christian Tradition (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), xviii.
clxiv. Elie Wiesel, Messengers of God (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1976), 76.
clxv. Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy of Morals (Garden City: Doubleday, 1956).
clxvi. Wayne Meeks, The Moral World of the First Christians (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986), 40.
clxvii. Gerard van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation (Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1967), 112.
clxviii. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Questions and Answerson Death and Dying (New York: Collier Books, 1974), 162.
clxix. Tertullian, Apology, 39.2; 32.1.
clxx. In 2003, the Vatican’s Order of Christian Funerals approved the U.S. guidelines that include a friend or family member speaking at the funeral mass after the communion; New York Times, January 23, 2003, 5.
clxxi David Stannard, The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Culture and Social Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 117-18.
clxxii. Karl Rahner, Belief Today (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1967), 111.
clxxiii. Karl Rahner, Christianity at the Crossroads (London: Burns and Oates, 1999), 23.
clxxiv. Nicholas Lash, Easter in Ordinary (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1988), 265.
clxxv14. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, cited in Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (New York: Schocken Books, 1941), 11.
clxxvi. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologia, 1.1.3.
clxxvii. Frank Tobin, Meister Eckhart: Thought and Language (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986), 86.
clxxviii. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 2, Vol. 14 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1956), 318.
clxxix. Christians who believe that abortion is the taking of human life would seem to need a doctrine of reincarnation.
clxxx. Hebert McCabe, What is Ethics All About? (Washington: Corpus Books, 1969), 142.
clxxxi. Joseph Sittler, Ecology of Faith (Minneapolis: Muhlenberg, 1961), 40.
clxxxii. Peter Selby, Look for the Living (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976), 179.
clxxxiii. Lionel Blue, To Heaven with Scribes and Pharisees (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).
clxxxiv. Gerard Sloyan, Jesus in Focus (Mystic: Twenty-Third Publication, 1980), 146.
clxxxv. Karl Rahner, Foundations of Christian Faith (New York: Seabury Press), 436; see also Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963) III, 416.
clxxxvi. Robert Wilken, “The Immortality of the Soul and Christian Hope,” Dialog (Spring, 1976), 110-17. Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), 51: “The idea of the immortality of the soul came eventually to be identified with the Biblical doctrine of the resurrection of the body, a doctrine one of whose original targets was the immortality of the soul.”
clxxxvii. Oscar Cullman, “Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead?” in Immortality and Resurrection, ed. Krister Stendahl (New York: Macmillan, 1965), 9-53; John Hick, Death and Eternal Life (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1976), 180.
clxxxviii. Tertullian seems to have been the first to refer to an interim state between individual death and the last day; see Jeffrey Russell, A History of Heaven (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), 67.
clxxxix. The lines are from the medieval hymn, Dies Irae.
cxc. Philippe Aries, The Hour of Our Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1982), 31.
cxci. Aries, The Hour of Our Death, 36.
cxcii. Ladislaus Boros, The Mystery of Death (New York: Herder and Herder, 1965); Karl Rahner, Theology of Death (New York: Herder and Herder, 1961).
cxciii. William Lynch, Images of Hope (Baltimore: Helicon, 1965), 108.
cxciv. Jacques Le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
cxcv. Hick, Death and Eternal Life, 202.
cxcvi. Jerry Walls, Hell: The Logic of Damnation (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992), 154; Jonathan Edwards, The Works of Jonathan Edwards (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), 7: 504-05.
cxcvii. Wayne Meeks, The Origin of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), 176.
cxcviii. Augustine, Commentary on the Gospel of Mark; John Wesley, The Works of John Wesley (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1984), 3:37.
cxcix. Hick, Death and Eternal Life, 199.
cc. Augustine, City of God (Hyde Park: New City Press, 2001), 21:9.
cci. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologia, Suppl. Part III, q.98, a.9.
ccii. Dante, Inferno, Canto 14: 60-63.
cciii. Milton, Paradise Lost, 4:75.
cciv. George Bernanos, Diary of a Country Priest (New York: Macmillan, 1962), 127; Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Dostoyevsky (New York: Signet, 1957), 297.
ccv. Walls, Hell, 150
ccvi. Cited in Morton Kelsey, Afterlife: The Other Side of Dying (New York: Crossroad, 1982), 176.
ccvii Tibetan Book of the Dead: The Great Book of Liberation through Understanding in the Between (New York: Bantam Press, 1993).
ccviii. Origen, First Principles, 3:1:7.
ccix. A text in the Qur’an speaks of eternal fire (23:105) but the Qur’an adds “unless God decides differently.”(11:09)
ccx. Hick, Death and Eternal Life, 250.
ccxi. Russell, A History of Heaven, 85.
ccxii. The Revised Standard Version of New Testament translates the text as “the kingdom of God is among you.”
ccxiii. Augustine, City of God, 20:7, where he laments the millennialists who are awaiting “the most unrestrained material feasts.”
ccxiv. Summa Theologia, II.II. 12.1-5.
ccxv. Caroline Walker Bynum, The Resurrection of the Body (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), 329.
ccxvi. D. T. Suzuki, Mysticism: Buddhist and Christian (Westport: Greenwood, 1975).
ccxvii. Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling; Sickness Unto Death (Garden City: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1954), 248.
ccxviii Chapter Nine
1. George Steiner, In Bluebeard’s Castle (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 55.
ccxix. Jean Paul Sartre, The Flies (New York: Vintage Books, 1989)
ccxx. Leo Tolstoy, A Confession, The Gospel in Brief and What I Believe (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), 26.
ccxxi. Miguel de Unamuno, The Tragic Sense of Life (New York: Dover Publications, 1954), 20.
ccxl Gerald O’Collins, Salvation for God’s Other Peoples (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 215-16.
ccxli Karl Rahner, Christianity and Nonchristian Religions,” Theological Investigations (Baltimore: Helicon, 1966), 115-34.
ccxlii. John Ziesler, Pauline Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 86.
ccxliii. Consultation of the National Council of Synagogues and the Bishops’ Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs; see The Hebrew Catholic, 77(Fall, 2002), 39-47.
ccxliv J. J. Goldberg, “A Counter Revolution in Jewish-Catholic Ties,” The Jewish Daily Forward, Sept. 4, 2009, 1.
ccxlv. Gates of Prayer (New York, CCAR Press, 1975), 615.
ccxlvi. Michael Fishbane, “Torah and Tradition” in Tradition and Theology in the Old Testament, ed. Douglas Knight (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977), 278 calls this “the most extreme transposition of a national historical memory conceivable.”
ccxlvii. C. G. Montifiore and H.Loewe, The Rabbinic Anthology (New York: Schocken Books, 1970), 52.
ccxlviii. Cohen in Studies in Rationalism, Judaism and Universalism, 63.
ccxlix. Michael Rosenak, Commandment and Concerns: Jewish Religious Education in Secular Society (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1987), 90.
ccl. Frank Crusemann, The Torah: Theology and Social History of Old Testament Law (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1996),9; Mekita Bahodesh, 5.
ccli. Jonathan Bishop, The Covenant: A Reading (Springfield: Templegate, 1983), 40.
cclii. S.H. Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam (Boston: Beacon Press, 1972),86.
cclv. Karl Rahner, The Theology of Death (New York: Herder and Herder, 1961).
cclvi. On the origin of “Christian revelation,” see Gabriel Moran, Both Sides: The Story of Revelation (New York: Paulist Press, 2002), chapter 4.
cclvii.William Temple, Nature, Man and God (London: Macmillan, 1951), 306.
cclviii. Victor Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning (Boston: Beacon Press, 2006), 68-69; Eliezer Berkovitz, With God in Hell (New York: Sandhedrin, 1979), 69.
cclix. William Temple, Nature, Man and God, 306.
cclx. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969), 276.
cclxi. William Ernest Hocking, Living Religions and a World Faith (New York: Macmillan, 1940), 57.
cclxii. Paul Knitter, No Other Name (New York: Orbis Books, 1985), 186.
cclxiii. Plato, Apology, 38c-42a.
cclxiv. Plato, The Republic, 588c-590a.
cclxv. Robert Herford, The Pharisees (Boston: Beacon Press, 1962), 155. There are two inclinations or impulses: yetzer hara and yetzer hatob. Sometimes yetzer hara is said to be the source of evil. More accurately, the two have to be held in tension, similar to Plato’s lion and hydra.
cclxvi. C.F. Kelly, Meister Eckhart on Divine Knowledge (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977).