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INTRODUCTION

1. Rationale

1.1. After 1986, Vietnamese novels gradually changed the concept of genre to reach the satisfying level of novels and the expectations of contemporary readers. Innovations in writing novels, therefore; appreciate both the creative subject and the receiving subject. An author's effort to innovate requires readers to be proactive in reading, know how to appreciate the work and avoid traditionally passive reading habit.

1.2. In the practice of composing, especially in the first ten years of the 21st century, historical novelists have been conscious of exploring, renewing the art and the tecHNiques of writing novels on the basis of attaching it to humanity and society. This is to promote the development of genres, to innovate and modernize modern Vietnamese prose. The innovation of historical novels both reflected the general innovation and specifically contribute to the narrative art of literature.

1.3. In the first ten years of the 21st century, with the changes in writers’ aesthetic consciousness, historical novels have gained valuable remarks with typical works such as Gian Thieu of Vo Thi Hao, Ninh Su of Thai Ba Loi, Dan Day of Tran Thu Hang, Mac Dang Dung of Luu Van Khue, Nguyen Du of Nguyen The Quang, Ho Quy Ly and Mau Thuong Ngan of Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Hoi The of Nguyen Quan Than, Tay Son Bi Hung Truyen of Le Dinh Danh, Tam Trieu Vua Ly of Hoang Quoc Hai, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Bi Mat Hau Cung of Bui Anh Tan.

1.4. To gain deep understanding of the artifacts of Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century is to better understand the efforts to seek for new artistic thinking of writers. The examined writers historical novels include writers in the period of the early 21st century and contemporary Vietnamese novelists. From that, fair judgments about the degree of contribution of this genre to the development of contemporary Vietnamese novels were made.


2. Research subjects and Research scope

2.1. Research subjects

The thesis explores the comprehensive features of historical novels in the first ten years of the early 21st century. Due to the large number of historical novels in this period, the thesis focuses only on outstanding works with distinctive features for historical novels in this period. (Appendix 1)



2.2. Research scope

The thesis focuses on understanding the basic characteristics of the genre of historical novels in terms of genre trend and genre, character world, narrator, narrative point of view and narrative discourse.



3. Theoretical background

The thesis uses theories of poetic study, narrative study and the theory of neo-history.



4. Research method

The following research methods were employed: Genre-based method; Structure - System Approach; Comparative method; Interdisciplinary Approach, Statistic – Classification


5. Scientific contributions of the thesis

First, through the examination and systematization of Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century, the thesis provides an overview of the appearance of historical novels in the early years of the 21st century.

Second, pointing out the innovations in the concept of historical novels, the thesis is based on the theme and structure of the work to identify some typical trends and patterns.

Third, from a topological point of view, the thesis categorizes and identifies certain types of characters and methods of building characters basing on the characteristics of the genre. Also, the thesis pointed out the movement of genres through artistic view about human.

Fourth, comparing with historical novels of the previous period dirty, the thesis clarifies three narrative modes with distinctive features of historical novels in the early 21st century: narrator, narrative point of view and narrative discourse.


6. Structure of the thesis

In addition to the Introduction, Conclusion and References, the main content of this dissertation is divided into four chapters:



Chapter 1. Overview of the research status

Chapter 2. Distinctive features of Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century - From the perspectives of trend and genre

Chapter 3. Distinctive features of Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century - From the perspective of character world

Chapter 4. Distinctive features of Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century - From the perspective of narrative discourse
Chapter 1

OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH STATUS

1.1. The study of historical novels in Vietnam

The term historical novels (HN) appeared quite early in the West and is widely used in the world. There were a large number of concepts of about the characteristics of this category by professionals of HN such as A Dumas, HS Hassass, P.Louis - Rey, Lucacs, D.Brewster and J. Burell. In Vietnam, the term historical novels are well explained. According to the Glossary of Literary Terms, a historical novel is "A works written on a historical theme contain characters and fictional details, but the main characters and the main events are created on authentic historical figures. Historical literary works often talk about life from ancient tales, absorb the lessons of the past, express sympathy with the people and the past.” [51, 109]. In addition, many studies on the nature and characteristics of HN distinguish between a historian and a writer, the empathy of writers with human beings, historical objects and historical era. This changed the view that consider HN historical discourse. The relationship between the objectivity, the truth of history and the role of art fiction in HN is one of the important issues considered by researchers as well as many writers such as Nguyen Vo Thi Hao, Nguyen Quang Than, Hoang Quoc Hai, Thai Ba Loi, Bui Anh Tan, Nguyen The Quang, Pham Ngoc Canh Nam. In general, HN is a dynamic genre and is gradually asserting its role in contemporary novels. Genre studies often refer to the concept of writing, the relationship between history and fiction, character, interaction, and between history and the present.



1.2. Research status of the studies about Vietnamese historical novels in the early 21st century

HN in the early 21st century has been more innovative than ever from artistic thinking, genre tendencies, ideological tendencies, type of character to narrative mode, which has attracted large attention of the research community and readers. Some works and articles showed the movement of character type and mode of character building in HN in the first ten years of the 21st century. There were typical works such as Nguyen Thi Kim Tien with Tieu Thuyet Lich Su Vietnam Voi Quan Niem Ve Nghe Thuat Con Nguoi, Le Van Duong with Van De The Loai Va Nghe Thuat Xay Dung Nhan Vat Qua Mot So Tieu Thuyet Lich Su sau 1985 Ve Phong Trao Tay Son, Nguyen Van Hung with Nhan Vat Lich Su Va Nhung Bien Do Sang Tao Sau Doi Moi. Furthermore, many works and debates showed many directions for research and ways to approach HN as the mode of choice of historical reality, fictional art, innovation of historical discourse, the art of storytelling, the way of arranging space, time, texture. Typical works are Pham Xuan Thach with Qua Trinh Ca Nhan Hoa Hu Cau (Tu Su Duong Dai Vietnam Ve De Tai Lich Su - Truyen Thong Va Hien Dai) at the 2nd international conference on Vietnamese Studies (14-16 July 2004, Ho Chi Minh City), Do Hai Ninh, with Van De Ngon Ngu Trong Tieu Thuyet Lich Su Vietnam Duong Dai. Contemporary Male (Nha Van Journal, March 38, 2012), He Bieu Tuong Nghe Thuat Trong Tieu Thuyet Vietnam Duong Dai by Nguyen Duc Toan (Journal of Science, No. 41 (020/2016), Ha Noi University of Pedagogy). With his dissertation Tieu Thuyet Lich Su Vietnam Sau 1986 Tu Goc Nhin Tu Su, Nguyen Van Hung studied narrative modes such as narrator, narrative point of view, narrative time, narrative structure and narrative discourse. In addition, there are many seminars, research works, articles on individual works and authors HN. The achievements of HN in the first ten years of the 21st century, besides HN by Nguyen Xuan Khanh, contemporary literature also recorded many valuable works such as: Gian Thieu of Vo Thi Hao, Dan Day of Nguyen Quang Than, Tam Trieu Vua Ly of Hoang Quoc Hai, Tay Son Bi Hung Truyen, Neo Ve Van Kiep of Le Dinh Danh, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Bi Mat Hau Cung of Bui Anh Tan, Minh Su of Thai Ba Loi, Nguyen Du of Nguyen The Quang, The Ky Bi Mat of Pham Ngoc Canh Nam. In addition, there were quite a lot of graduate theses studied each work and specific author on contemporary communication.


1.3. Overview of the research status and research direction

1.3.1. Overview of the research status

Three conclusions were drawn from the literature:

First, in the first ten years of the 21st century, with a plethora of the work as well as the "ripeness" of the author's novel teciques, the HN is a critically acclaimed subject. Through their works, critics contributed to pointing out changes in the concept of genre from traditional to modern, and at the same time, identify some of the basic features of modern HN.

Second, a considerable number of speeches, essays and articles mentioned basic features of HN in the early 21st century such as fictitious ability, imagination in reproducing historical reality. This is to increase the range of character types, to change the mode of narration, to study in depth and to broaden some aspects of the content and art form of the works of some authors such as Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Hoang Quoc Hai, Vo Thi Hao, Nguyen Quang Than, Nam Dao, Thai Ba Loi, Nguyen The Quang, Bui Anh Tan.

Third, although works, research articles on HN in the early 21st century witnessed changes in the writing style of writers, there was no satisfying work on genre characteristics and there was a lack of research on historical novels from the perspective of genre.

1.3.2. Research direction

Supporting previous works, this thesis employs a number of genre theories, poetic theories, narrative theories, neo-history theories and research methods on genre to focus on examining the distinctive features of HN in the early 21st century. The investigated aspects include trends, genre patterns (theme-based, structure-based), genre interaction; character world (identifying certain types of characters typical to the genre, at the same time pointing out special artistic methods in portraying characters); narrative mode (narrator, narrative point, narrative discourse) in view of the previous HN. Subsequently, the thesis proved the movement, the innovation in the concept of genre, and the artistic thinking of contemporary writers.


Chapter 2

DISTICNTIVE FEATURES OF VIETNAMESE HISTORICAL NOVELS IN THE EARLY 21ST CENTURY - FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF TREND AND GENRE

2.1. Innovation on art awareness and concept of genre

2.1.1. From the traditional view of "loyalty to history"

HN before 1986, based on the static view of the past, writers tend to consider accurate reproduction of historical events and historical atmosphere as important, and fictitious details were only seen as additional features that make the characters and the plot more vivid. Hence, history is always exploited mainly based on real heroes or real events.



2.1.2. The modern concept of "interpretation, dialogue, criticism of history"

With the new concept, history is not a complete, finished, "static" process, but history is still moving in essence. This concept has created fertile soil for writers to recreate history, filling the "blanks" of history. Writers such as Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Vo Thi Hao, Nguyen Mong Giac, Nguyen Khac Phuc, Nguyen Quang Than, Bui Anh Tan, Nguyen The Quang ... only consider history as material, even a means to write novels, the circuit of "analytical and deciphering" or "fiction" to help the history have strong development. History is not only reproduced exactly as it is on the surface of events, but also illuminated in many angles, in both "depths, superficies", hidden corners, the mysteries and conflicts of history are "decoded", so that history is condensed with endless fictitious events. In these works, the authors’ duty is to uncode it from their own views.



2.2. Trends and forms of historical novels in the early 21st century

2.2.1. Historical novels from the perspective of theme base

2.2.1.1. Event historical novels

In this format, the event plays a central role in the narrative structure of the work. Characters are the backdrop that contributes to historical reality. Therein, accurate reproduction of historical events, historical atmosphere is the target of Vu Ngoc Dinh, Ngo Van Phu, Tran Cu Sy, Le Dinh Danh. The works of Bui Anh Tan, Pham Ngoc Nguyen Khanh Phuc, Nguyen Quang Than have developed their fictional talents on the basis of having full knowledge of the system of historical works. The combination of reality and fiction, the historical events recorded in the book coincide with the message of events, fictitious events "never told all". In these works, historical events were the central object. The task of the writer was to seek to decode it in a personal way.


2.2.1.2. Historical novels of characters

One of the characteristics of HN of character is shown immediately in the title of the work: Ho Quy Ly, Mac Dang Dung, Huyen Tran, Nguyen Du, Le Loi, Ba Trieu, Truong Vinh Ky, Nguyen Trai (book 1: Oan hidden, book 2: Blood mail), ... The characters in HN character is both the main character and the central character. This type of character is not only the main character, but also a key role in the plot or plot line, which is the basis for the author to develop the basic theme of the work. It is "the place where the contradictions of the work are gathered, where the central problem of the work is expressed."

As art consciousness changes, writers have the need to recreate history, decipher hidden corners and mysterious regions, fill the blank space of history. Characters in the works of Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Luu Van Khue, Nguyen The Quang, Thai Ba Loi, Bui Anh Tan, Nguyen Quang Than, etc. are not merely describing and explaining history, analyzing, dialoguing with inspiration "solution", from which, the character is illuminated under many different angles: personality, fate, soul.


2.2.1.3. Historical novels of cultures and customs

Contemporary Vietnamese HN professionals are deeply aware of the connection between the two historical and cultural elements in their creation. History with fluctuations, events that are on the surface are hidden layers of values as constants that determine the prosperity of an age, a period of history. Typical for this trend is Mau Thuong Ngan, Doi Gao Len Chua of Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Dat Troi of Nam Dao, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang of Bui Anh Tan…



2.2.1.4. Historical novels of Analysis

Contemporary HN not only make assumptions for historical analysis but also explains the human condition in the transformation of the time. The heroic, talented, brilliant (Ho Quy Ly, Nguyen Trai, Le Loi, Tran Nguyen Han, Hoang Hoa Tham, etc.), or ordinary and fragile souls (Ly Chieu Hoang, Nguyen Thi Lo, Ngoc Tran, Thanh Mai, ...) suffered big changes of history. Look at history as a text with lots of white space, a kind of misleading or misleading speech, or there are delusions, limbs, novelists need to "re-read" history, "rewrite" history. The main inspiration in these novels is the re-evaluation of some controversial historical characters and events: Ho Quy Ly in the same name of Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Mac Dang Dung in Mac Dang Dung of Luu Van Khue, Le Loi in Hoi The of Nguyen Quang Than, Ly Thuong Kiet in Bi Mat Hau Cung, Tran Thu Do in Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang of Bui Anh Tan, King Gia Long in Nguyen Du of Nguyen The Quang…



2.2.2. Historical novels from the perspective of structure

2.2.2.1. Structural historical novels in a linear way

Some HN phases continue to be implemented in a linear fashion, where the plot is built on the strict chronological order of the event. That is to follow the chronological order. It is easy to recognize the "frame size" of Le Loi, Ba Trieu (Han The Dung), Dat Troi (Nam Dao), Dan Day, Tam Trieu Vua Ly (Hoang Quoc Hai), The Ky Bi Mat (Pham Ngoc Canh Nam), Nguyen Du (Nguyen The Quang), Huyen Tran (Nguyen Huu Nam), etc. However, linearity in modern and contemporary fiction differs from that of medieval fiction, due to the interweaving of psychological fragments of characters, which is inverted locally.

Innovative genres are made by contemporary writers through narrative teciques such as storyteller narrator diversity, mobile point of view, introverted mythology, stream of consciousness teciques. Typical as Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than), The Ky Bi Mat (Pham Ngoc Canh Nam), Nguyen Du (Nguyen The Quang), Bi Mat Hau Cung (Bui Anh Tan), Dan Day (Tran Thu Hang). The narrative is based on a single-line linear structure that is constantly expanding the storyline in a multidimensional direction: objective - subjective, private - world, etc - individual. At this time, history was not only interpreted in a straight line of time, but there was always a time distortion in the direction of the converse or projection.

In addition, the episodic structure is a form of traditional linear structure based on the historical framework of the dynasties to frame the narrative. Although using the traditional textural teciques, HN in the early 21st century has many modern language innovations on how to portray characters. Typical works of the HN are Muoi Hai Su Quan, Hao Kiet Lam Son, Ban Rung Mat Troi of Vu Ngoc Dinh, Nam Quoc Son Ha, Anh Hung Dong A Dung Co Binh Mong of Yen Tu Tran Dai Sy, Uy Vien Tuong Cong, Ly Cong Uan of Ngo Van Phu, Tay Son Bi Hung Truyen of Le Dinh Danh, Thang Long Ky of Nguyen Khac Phuc.


2.2.2.2. Historical novels in combining and co-existing structures

The tecique of film making is used by novelists as a "secret tecique" to bring the novel into "mazes full of locks," followed by the "call of the game" and move constantly. Using the docking structure through the memory flow of characters, reality is approached from many dimensions: time, space, point of view, historical events associated with human fate, strictly creating a continuity and stability for the structure of the work. Typical works are Gian Thieu (Vo Thi Hao), Mau Thuong Ngan (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang (Bui Anh Tan),…



2.3. Trends and forms of historical novels from the perspective of genre interaction

2.3.1. Penetration of short stories into historical novels

With novel thinking, short stories are compressed, problem-solving, open-ended and polyphonic at high level. Thus, the interaction between short stories and HN is the infiltration of small narratives into large narrative structures. From the perspective of the genre, HN can be seen in this stage of extending the structure of the genre, "broadening the field of view," contributing to the various voices in the novel. Intergalacticity is expressed in two main forms: storytelling and storytelling.


2.3.2. The penetration of poetry into historical novels

A large number of poems appear in the HN. According to a survey results, most of the works also have the penetration of poetry into the narrative structure. Poems appear in works that perform a variety of functions, in which poetry is used as a subject to direct the thought of the work or to inspire creativity. In addition, most of the poetry in the HN is a way of conveying the mood of the lyrical character, the character expressing thoughts, thoughts, emotions, as well as conveying the deep philosophies of human life of the author. The poems of the Han scripts are collected into a collection of Bac Hanh Tap Luc that records the names, images, characters, scenery and circumstances that Nguyen Du (in the same name) has experienced, with his own nostalgic memories. Feel in the mission trip to China. In particular, Doan Truong Tan Thanh is the cries of identity for the lives of many injustice, the left, "the artist's thirst for freedom before the grim reality." [65, 106]



2.3.3. The penetration of drama into historical novels

In a world of fragments, there exist many conflicting situations that arise: the conflict between the old and the new, between conservatism and innovation in Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), The Ki Bi Mat (Pham Ngoc Canh Nam); between the idea of human rights and robbery in Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than); between love and lust in Gian Thieu (Vo Thi Hao), Dan Day (Tran Thu Hang), Bi Mat Hau Cung (Bui Anh Tan); between freedom and power in Nguyen Du (Nguyen The Quang), Minh Su (Thai Ba Loi), Huyen Tran (Nguyen Huu Nam); between intellect with power, between desire, instinct and reason in Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than), Oan Khuat (Bui Anh Tan); between the way and the life in Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang (Bui Anh Tan), Tam Trieu Vua Ly (Hoang Quoc Hai). Many conflicts arise in the historical real life, Water (conflict between us and the enemy): Ba Trieu, Le Loi - Han The Dung; Tam Trieu Vua Ly - Hoang Quoc Hai, Hoi The - Nguyen Quang Than, Dat Troi - Nam Dao, etc. are interpreted by contemporary informants as a way of describing the direction of historical reality.

Contemporary novels tend to be shorter in length, as a result of the use of the centrality of drama. The choice of short writing compels writers to build works of art that are compact, compact, selective, and time-consuming. When creating the novel, Nguyen Quang Than chose a special time (seven days before the Battle of Xuong Giang), choosing a narrow space of Dong Quan and Kinh Bac, the outstanding characters (Le Loi, Nguyen Trai), the situation is rich in social significance. The work is a hollow of history with many reflections, including a flashback from the past 600 years, works that shook hearts and modern human thinking.

In addition, HN has appeared in many other genres such as mainstream essays and middle-class literary genres such as soap operas, plays, plays, fables, singing, singing, drama, freaks. For example, Binh Ngo Dai Cao of Nguyen Trai in Hoi the of Nguyen Quang Than, Dat Troi of Nam Dao; Hich Tuong Si, Nam Quoc Son Ha in Tam Trieu Vua Ly of Hoang Quôc Hải, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang of Bui Anh Tan, chants in trong Dan Day của Tran Thu Hang,…


In general, the interaction of many genres and elements outside the real system is a unique experience of historical novels. Looking at the process of movement and development of genres, it can be seen that the interaction with short stories, poetry, dramas, mythological elements, religions, beliefs, the synthesis of genres creates the diversity of trends and forms of historical novels. This caused the emerge of new genres: historical-cultural histories, legendary historical fiction, historical short stories. In addition, interaction in the genre composite facilitates HN in this stage to maximize the field reflecting reality and people in the new age.

Chapter 3

DICTINCTIVE FEATURES OF VIETNAMESE HISTORICAL NOVELS IN THE 21ST CENTURY - FROM THE PERSPECTIVE CHARACTER WORLD

3.1. Character types

3.1.1. Epic characters

HN Vietnam in the early twentieth century to 1945 with the transition from HN medium to modern HN in which the artistic concept of human beings has many changes and innovations in the spirit of receiving new wind of literature West: The heroic image is reflected from the extraordinary to the normal. Beside depicting the heroes' heroic qualities, HN at this stage paid close attention to the harmonious combination of the self with the self, the general of the nation, and the ideal. Some writers place the hero in relation to the individual, to the family. The hero is seen in a personal perspective with thoughts, concerns, cynicism, sadness, anger, personal aspirations full of humanity: Pham Ngu Lao (Tran Nguyen Chien Ky - Nguyen Tu Sieu), Phung Chinh (Le Dai Hanh - Nguyen Tu Sieu), ... Continuing the literary period of 1930 - 1945, HN 1945 - 1985 was accreted the epic spirit of the times, the epic man was linked between personal destiny with the fate of the community in striving for a common ideal - the ideal of national independence. At this stage, HN when building heroic characters often focus on the accuracy of history, put the character in the relationship with the community, the mainstream society, some of the work, the The writer takes notice of the character's private life. However, similar to HN in the period before 1945, HN before 1986 looked heroic people in the perspective of normal life but only the trait, transient, even life factors only contribute to enhance the beauty of the child. Community people, social people only. In the HN after 1986, in particular, in the first decade of the twentieth century, the spirit of interpretation, dialogue, and perception of history governed the concept of the art of man in the new age. Accordingly, the concept of the hero has a strong innovation: inspirational praise makes room for inspiration - privacy. HN goes into the exploitation of the human type of human life, the human person, the light and the dark, the high and the low, the glory and the bitter, heroic and heroic: Ho Quy Ly, Ly Thuong Kiet (Tam Trieu Vua Ly - Hoang Quoc Hai, Bi Mat Hau Cung - Bui Anh Tan), Tran Thu Do (Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giau Hoang - Bui Anh Tan), Le Loi (Dat Troi – Nam Dao), Gia Long (Nguyen Du - Nguyen The Quang), Nguyen Hoang (Minh Su - Thai Le Loi), ... Image Tran Thu Do is a great contributor in The construction of the Tran, but in the view of the times and the posterity, it is a heroic, carved silver. He is a vicious, cruel but he is always responsible for himself, his family and his people. In Thu, warm heart still burns. He fell in love with Tran Thi Dung, rich in love and compassion for Ly Chieu Hoang, devastated his conscience when thinking of forcing Tran Canh and Ly Chieu Hoang to live apart. Thus, the character Tran Thu Do from history into the novel with the light and dark has raised in the heart of the reader the respect, favor for a controversial historical figure. With the "historic" view, Le Loi's character (Hoi The - Nguyen Quang Than) has different characteristics from the historical prototype. It is a man full of heroism, fierce, smart but also mundane as a farmer. His talents helped him win the paintings, but his low selfisess pushed him into a family tragedy.


3.1.2. Legendary character

In the area of HN, the legendary novel remarked in the works of Nguyen Xuan Khanh (Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan, Doi Gao Len Chua), Nguyen Khac Phuc (Thang Long Ky), Vo Thi Hao (Gian Thieu). Multi-dimensional view of realities promoted the contemporary interculturalists to seek for innovations in art style to satisfy human’s aspirations of occupying the mystery, unexplored corners in human soul and philosophy about life experience

The world of anomalous characters, illusory or HN is very diversified and rich: Tu Lo, Dai Dien, Ngan La,…; With Mau Thuong Ngan, Nguyen Xuan Khanh used the legendary tecique to create fantasy characters such as God To Co, Ms. Mui and Mr. Hieu; With Doi Gao Len Chua, the mysterious people were her grandmother and Vo Uy monk. The characters in the Legendary HN are not only distorted, deformed by appearance but also anomalous in the soul and human nature.

Kind of illusory character or incarnation in normal human beings, sometimes referred to inconcrete terms, but sometimes just echoes, shadow or voiceless ambiguous voices or undecided people. It even hides in the vast array of plants and animals around us. All create an air of illusory or dense, just silver covering the story: Ca Bon, Da Nhan. The world of illusions may appear in the form of ghosts, past lives, afterlife, the rebirth of the dead soul and is further compounded by the overlapping layers of layers of life, the upper worlds A space-time axis.


3.1.3. Secularization character

Most of the HN before 1986 followed the inspiration of worship, aspiration, praise. The human being is largely seen in their original, single-dimensional way, adorned with "historical temples" in an inviolable relationship to worldly issues. However, as the view of the writer changes from epic thinking to fiction, from the inspiration of national history to the inspiration of the world, the human person in the novel is the human being. Individual human beings with aspirations and desires, human beings as members of society.


3.1.3.1. Character of desire and instinct

HN in the first ten years of the 21st century with a deeper approach to modern fiction teciques, has become increasingly diverse in character building. The characters in Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan, Doi Gao Len Chua (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Gian Thieu (Vo Thi Hao), Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than), Nguyen Thi Lo (Ha Van Thuy), The Ki Bi Mat (Pham Ngoc Canh Nam) were increasingly discovered and expressed in the psychological aspects in a humanitarian way.

The love in the previous period was included in the work as "a criterion that challenges the willpower and morality of heroic people." [83, 125]. For example, the love between Dang Thi Hue and Tinh Do Vuong in Ba Chua Che, the love between An Tu with Tran Thong in An Tu, love between Tran Nguyen Princess and Pham Ngu Lao in Tran Nguyen Chien Ky, love between Quynh Dao and Bao Kim in Dem Hoi Long Tri, between Bich Ha and Phung Chinh in Le Dai Hanh, etc. In the traditional view, love and sex are always dominated by social-cultural institutions. Harsh, constraining the instinct of human life. However, love in the eyes of the contemporary media people clinging to love and sexuality, is the fusion, the connection between the body and the soul. By discovering the sexual desire of human beings honestly, sometimes barely, some works of Vo Thi Hao, Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Nam Dao, Pham Ngoc Canh Nam, Ha Van Thuy has brought a true view of the hidden parts of people in the past.

3.1.3.2. Tragedy character

Tragedy characters are described by writers from the inside point of view to internal tug and through the character, helping the reader to recognize the historical tragedy and psychology of man in a calendar period. Certain specific uses. They may be the victims of the choice of history: Ly Chieu Hoang, Tran Canh, Nghe Tong, Ho Nguyen Trung, Nguyen Trai, ...; They may also be victims of power ambitions: Thuong Duong queen, Ly Hue Tong, Ho Quy Ly, ...; And the woman was the most pitiful victim in the storms of that era: Ly Chieu Hoang, Huyen Tran, Nhue Anh, Ngan La, Huy Ninh, Quynh Hoa, Thanh Mai, Nguyen Thi Lo, Bach Dung, Mui, Ba Vay, ...

HN in the period of 1986 on women often referred to their misery on the level of the commonwealth: the humiliation of dehydration, the pain of losing her husband to war (Dang Thi in Tran Nguyen Chien Ky, Lan Anh in Ai Len Pho Cat), aspiration to be devoted to the country (Chi in Trung Quang Tam Su, Trieu Thi Trinh in Vua Ba Trieu, Tiet Thi Hue in Tieng Sam Dem Dong, Ngoc Nuong in Viet Thanh Chien Su, An Tu in An Tu ...). HN is also exploiting the private life of the characters in the female perspective to realize the aspirations of instinct and the need to liberate ontologies such as Dang Thi Hue (Ba Chua Che), Duong Hau (Cai Hot Man)... but not deep and comprehensive enough. HN in the first decade of the 21st century is more literal and humane in portraying women's images from various points of view, in particular, in which the character's psychology is maximized to receive Out the cries of the body. Obsessive reader is the fate of the women in the regal but unhappy life as Huy Ninh, Quynh Hoa (Ho Quy Ly – Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Ly Chieu Hoang, Y Lan, Duong Queen (Tam Trieu Vua Ly - Hoang Quoc Hai), Huyen Tran (Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang - Bui Anh Tan, Huyen Tran - Nguyen Huu Nam), Ngoc Van (Cong nu Ngoc Van - Ngo Viet Trong), Bach Dung (Dan Day - Tran Thu Hang), Reu (Doi Gao Len Chua - Nguyen Xuan Khanh) Ngoc Lam, Tu Tra, Loc (Minh Su - Thai Ba Loi), Ta Thuan Khanh, My E, Tuat (Tam Trieu Vua Ly - Hoang Quoc Hai)…


3.2. The art of character building

3.2.1. Character portraying

3.2.1.1. Portraying characters through appearance

After 1986, especially in the early years of XXI century, HN still attach importance to the character's external appearance, but on the basis of the principle of character building to refresh the character, helping readers discover the character. The way, explain the fate of the character and the same dialogue with history.



3.2.1.2. Portraying characters through action

People in contemporary media represent themselves through action; however, their actions are always linked to psychological struggles, thoughts, concerns and torments to resolve conflict in a calendar's reality. The text is full of chaos, fluctuations.



3.2.2. Portraying characters’ philosophy

3.2.2.1. Portraying characters’ philosophy through unconsciousness

Applying modern psychology, some writers have come in the direction of unconscious exploration to explore the mysterious inner world of man: Gian Thieu (Vo Thi Hao), Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than), Dat Troi (Nam Dao), Dan Day (Trần Thu Hằng), Mau Thuong Ngan (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Nguyen Thi Lo (Ha Van Thuy), The Ki Bi Mat (Pham Ngoc Canh Nam), Nguyen Du (Nguyen The Quang), Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Bi Mat Hau Cung (Bui Anh Tan).


3.2.2.2. Portraying characters’ philosophy through dialogue and inner monologue

If in the HN during the period 1900 - 1945, HN writers are aware of the traditional manner of using the dialogue, such as the dialogue between Muong and Le Hoan in Le Dai Hanh, between Ho Lua and Thi Sach in Hai Ba Danh Giac, Tiet Thi Hue and Thu Kim in Tieng Sam Dem Dong, ..., but this form is still simple, the dialogue between the characters perform the function of dramatic character, Reveal the subject of the story. However, in the HN in the early decades of the 21st century, writers not only placed the character in conversations between one character and the other, with difficult situations that stressed not only the characters There is the opportunity to express oneself, to express oneself, but also to implicit in the text dialogue of ideas, views, dialogue of cultures, dialogue between the present and the past: dialogue between Nguyen Hoang with two guards in Minh Su, dialogue between Nguyen Du and Gia Long in Nguyen Du, dialogue between Ỷ Lan and Ly Dao Thanh in the Con Duong Dinh Menh, ...

HN stage previously had the sense of using the unique method of interior monologue in depicting character psychology but not much and did not create aesthetic effect, however, HN period in the first ten years of the century XXI, the change of genre thinking has led to a change in the way the new historical discourse has been created. At this point, the character is screened from a variety of discursive perspectives, in which the inner monologue and the stream of consciousness promote a positive effect in discovering the "truth of the human soul." According to the survey during this period, most of the works use the method of interior monologue, exploring the psychological depths of character: Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than), Gian Thieu (Vo Thi Hao), Dan Day (Tran Thu Hang), Tam Trieu Vua Ly (Hoang Quoc Hai), The Ki Bi Mat (Pham Ngoc Canh Nam), Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Bi Mat Hau Cung (Bui Anh Tan),...



Chapter 4

DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF VIETNAMESE HISTORICAL NOVELS IN THE 21ST CENTURY

- FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MONOLOGUE

4.1. The image of the narrator

4.1.1. Innovative storytelling method of the third narrator

HN before 1986, mainly in the form of NKC, in the third person. The NKC in the HN performs the objective narrative, the narrative from the non-characterized third person behind the author. In the years after 2000, NKC is still the third author in the trend of HN used as Ngo Van Phu, Yen Tu Tran Dai Sy, Vu Ngoc Dinh, Le Dinh Danh, Nguyen Khac Phuc However, at this stage, most of HN have been creative and use NKC third person is not full sense (next to NKC full circle). In the works of Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan, Doi Gao Len Chua (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Hoi The (Nguyen Quang Than), Gian Thieu (Vo Thi Hao), Dan Day (Tran Thu Hang), Minh Su (Thai Ba Loi), Bi Mau Hau Cung (Bui Anh Tan), Huyen Tran (Nguyen Huu Nam), Tam Trieu Vua Ly (Hoang Quoc Hai) ... the function of NKC is not only to reproduce the panorama of a volatile historical period on the "surface of events and events" but also to build on the historical reality through the stories of life. And the character's career, portraits, fates and tragedy in the whirlwind of history as "new occult attempts". N ..


4.1.2. Innovative storytelling method of the first narrator

Although this form of NKC still occupies a very small amount in contemporary HN (10% of the volume of novels), however, as a "witness," NKC has also brought about Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan (Nguyen Xuan Khanh), Oan Khuat, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang (Bui Anh Tan), The Ki Bi Mat (Phan Ngoc Canh Nam). With the self of narrative character (Ho Nguyen Trung - Ho Quy Ly, Ba Vay – Mau Thuong Ngan, Nguyen Trai - Oan Khuat, Tran Thai Tong, Tran Thu Do, Tran Tung, Bao Sat Master, Tran Nhan Tong. – Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Ca Hinh – The Ki Bi Mat).

The multi-subject narrative is a new experience in contemporary storytelling form. According to the HN survey in the early 21st century, we found that Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang of Bui Anh Tan was a multi-subject narrative, with 5 NKC claiming "I", in addition to NKC third person: Tran Thai Tong (NKC 2), Tran Thu Do (NKC 3), Tran Tung (NKC 4), Bao Sat Master (NKC 5), Tran Nhan Tong (NKC 6). Through these six forms of NKC, the history of the Tran dynasty has been restored in its entirety: since Ly Chieu Hoang ceded the throne to Tran Canh until the fierce resistance war against the Nguyen Mongol Empire of the Tran dynasty ended. Interwoven in the story of building and defending the country are the hidden parts of the life of the historical character set up by six NKC, discussed and interpreted thoroughly.

4.2. Narrative point of view

4.2.1. Outside View

The third viewpoint of NKC was used by the majority of HN authors before 1986, such as Song Mai Voi Thu Do, La Co Theu Sau Chu Vang (Nguyen Huy Tuong), Quan He Khoi Nghia, To Quoc Keu Goi (Ha An), Co Nghia Ba Dinh (Thai Vu), Bong Nuoc Ho Guom (Chu Thien), Nui Rung Yen The (Nguyen Hong), etc. With this view, NKC is able to cover the whole event. History without the participation of the character, limiting the ability to explore the inner world of man. HN continues to promote the role of NKC third, so the point of view of NKC third (outside view) is still dominant, especially in the works of the form Structured form of echoes. The point of view outside the circle, helping NKC in the work of Vu Ngoc Dinh, Le Dinh Danh, Han The Dung, Nguyen Khac Phuc, Hoang Quoc Hai ... reproduces the large historical reality of a period, a period Or a historical dynasty; The images of social life are reproduced in a vivid, vivid way through this point of view.

In addition, the external viewpoint in the HN phase has been changed in function and organization on the principle of interpretation and historical analysis to convey the artistic ideas of the writer on history. And human. These are thoughts about the national fate of the nation in the war against foreign invaders (Nam Quoc Son Ha, Anh Hung Bac Cuong, Anh Hung Tieu Son - Tran Dai Sy, Ba Trieu, Le Loi - Han The Dung); Is a reminder of the change of the dynasty (Ho Quy Ly - Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang - Bui Anh Tan, Hoang Hau Hai Trieu Duong Van Nga - Hoang Cong Khanh); The human side (Dan Day - Tran Thu Hang, Oan Khuat - Bui Anh Tan, Nguyen Du - Nguyen The Quang, Huyen Tran - Nguyen Huu Nam); are cultural, historical (Mau Thuong Ngan, Doi Gao Len Chua - Nguyen Xuan Khanh, The Ki Bi Mat - Pham Ngoc Canh Nam), are contemplating the issue of expanding the border (Huyen Tran - Pham Huu Nam, Minh Su - Thai Le Loi, Cong Nu Ngoc Van - Ngo Viet Trong), ...


4.2.2. Inside view

The inner view appears in the first NKC works, such as Oan of Bui Anh Tan (the view of Nguyen Trai before the night of the beatings), or works that are interwoven between the third person NKC and The first NKC as Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan of Nguyen Xuan Khanh (the view of Ho Quy Ly, Ho Nguyen Trung, Ba Vay), The Ki Bi Mat of Pham Ngoc Canh Nam (view of Ca Hinh), Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang of Bui Anh Tan (The view of Tran Thai Tong, Tran Thu Do, Tran Tung, Tran Nhan Tong ...), or works using NKC third person but the point of view is given to the character as Hoi The of Nguyen Quang Than (Nguyen Trai, Le Loi, Nguyen Thi Lo), Tam Trieu Vua Ly of Hoang Quoc Hai (Ly Cong Uan, Ly Thai Tong, Ly Thuong Kiet ...), Bi Mat Hau Cung of Bui Anh Tan (Ly Thuong Kiet, Ly Nhat Ton), Nguyen Du of Nguyen The Quang (Nguyen Du, Gia Long).



4.2.3. Diversifying narrative points of view

Along with the transformation of NKC's point of view and character is the transformation of the viewpoint from the outside into the back and vice versa. We find that, in Ho Quy Ly, Mau Thuong Ngan, Doi Gao Len Chua, Gian Thieu, Hoi The, The Ki Bi Mat, Tam Trieu Vua Ly, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Bi Mat Hau Cung, ... many of the scenes are outside view, then is replaced by the view point inside. Even thanks to the flow of intelligent point of view there are times when readers feel that there is a blurring of the boundary between the outer view and the inner view of the NKC implicit.



4.3. Narrative discourse

4.3.1. Narrator Discourse

4.3.1.1. Storytelling discourse

HN before 1986 largely uses the third-person NKC form with a holographic view, which extends the vast realism of narrative that prevails. Moreover, the historical discourse is dominated by epic feeling, praise and affirmation of national pride and nationality, so the discourse in the HN is predominantly patterned, identical little innovation. The neo-historical spirit, however, has helped contemporary writers to develop new discursive discourses on history in the direction of dialogue and commentary that inspire the world. NKC's narrative not only re-imagines the history of the dynasties (Ly, Tran, Le, Nguyen), but also enters into human identities in the twist of history. The discourse of this period is often noted for the tragedy of kings and mandarins (Tam Trieu Vua Ly, Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, Ho Quy Ly, Thang Long Ky); Loneliness, lost species of intellectuals (Hoi The, Dat Troi, Nguyen Du, Oan Khuat); The poor fate of the women (Dan Day, Sac Dep Khuynh Thanh, Mau Thuong Ngan, Gian Thieu); Victims of war, misfortunes, etc. In particular, in some works, the narrative narrative of NKC is transformed into the point of view of the character (Ho Nguyen Trung in Ho Quy Ly, Ba Váy in Mau Thuong Ngan, Tu Lo in Gian Thieu, Ca Hinh in The Ki Bi Mat, Nguyen Trai in Oan Khuat, and Nguyen Du in Nguyen Du ...) so that the characters can express themselves, from there, the reader feel Talent, character, habits, hobbies, and even the lifestyles of historical figures, make the characters appear lively, fuller and closer to real life. .


4.3.1.2. Descriptive narrative discourse

Using a richly visualized and profoundly visual language system, the description of NKC in the HN phase has created lively paintings of nature, royal life to villages and villages. Hamlets, cultural-historical spaces, festivals, celebrations and scenes of religious and religious activities.

Using the linguistic and profound visual language system, the narrator's narrative in the HN has created vivid portraits of historical figures, especially the character system female. Mau Thuong Ngan, Gian Thieu, Dat Troi, Nguyen Thi Lo,... the authors do not hesitate to describe the sensitive parts of the woman's body such as the breast, skin, Buttocks, thighs, ... to express the soft, sexy, feminine beauty.

The description in the HN phase is richly expressive through the artistic symbols: Fire, Water, Blood, Moon, Stone, ...



4.3.1.3. Commentary Discourse

In HN Vietnam in the first decade of the 21st century, we find that the NKC's comments often bring philosophies and reflections on the great problems of human life, especially the force of power in the court. feudatory.

NKC in the contemporary media also poses cultural-historical issues to interpret and seek for the eternal values of the national culture. The NKC's arguments in Mau Thuong Ngan about the power of the Mother Superior to carry, protect, and save souls are gradually dying out of exotic culture; Or the concerns and reflections of a Chinese on the strange, mysterious of indigenous culture; Buddhist cultural values are on the rise in Doi Gao Len Chua (Nguyen Xuan Khanh); The value of Buddhist culture in the creation of the state and the education of humanity in Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang (Bui Anh Tan).

4.3.2. Discourse of the character


4.3.2.1. Dialogue discourse

If the discourse of dialogue in the composition of some traditional textbooks before 1986 (Nguyen Trieu Luat, Nguyen Tu Sieu, Nguyen Huy Tuong, Ha An, Thai Vu ...) Solemn, ancient, to this stage HN has had significant innovation. Languages often have a combination of ancient dialects and the language of modern life, in which dialogue and individualisation of character language are manifested through the ability to express character and The inner life of the character.

One of the striking new features of the Dialogue of HN in this period is that it is highly conversational. In many works by Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Nguyen Quang Than, Vo Thi Hao, Bui Anh Tan, Nguyen The Quang, Thai Ba Loi, Hoang Quoc Hai, Pham Ngoc Canh Nam, Commentaries on culture, thought, philosophy, religion ...

4.3.2.2. Monologue discourse

If in the HN in previous periods monastic discourse appeared less or appeared in simple form, to this stage appear denser actually bring new aesthetic signals. Some writers have taken full advantage of the functions of inner monologue and the stream of consciousness of characters such as Nguyen Xuan Khanh, Vo Thi Hao, Nguyen Quang Than, Pham Ngoc Canh Nam, Bui Anh Tan, etc. Hidden, exposed dark corners, help readers perceive deep human psychological in the past.


CONCLUSION

1. Vietnamese historical novels after the renovation, especially in the early 21st century, have changed considerably in the process of searching for and experimenting new forms of art, which gave historical novels new face. Thus, identifying the artistic characteristics of the historical novels in the first decade of the early 21st century, we have explored the shift of the concept of genre from the traditional concept of "loyal to history" to the new one of "dialogue, analysis, re-perception of history." Despite certain limitations, it can be said that historical novels in this period have created a variety of personal style, themes, especially ways of presenting ideas, and there was innovation of art. These accomplishments were the result of the effort to innovate the novel thinking, the new concepts of genre thinking when history is placed in the present moment.

2. Compared to historical novels of the past, historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century experienced spectacular structures and art that deal with historical narratives. Previously, especially before 1986, writers of historical novels familiarized with organizing their works in a traditional way such as exploring textural structure or linear composition. At this stage, they were conscious of exploring, creating the art of structure based on the combination of tradition and modern. Historical novels of this period noted the remarkable success of the traditional textural style in the spirit of innovative form of expression. Particularly, the type of composite, co-existing, multi-layer structures have yielded certain effects in enhancing dialogue and historical interpretation. In addition, historical novels at this stage have expanded the creative margin. History in contemporary historical novels is not merely about worship, aspiration, one-side dignifying but history is also analyzed and discussed in the present. History is extended to the maximum range of issues such as cultures, customs, customs, religion, beliefs, etc. The penetration of genres such as short stories, poetry, drama into historical novels prompted the innovations in this genre. It is a co-occurring interaction in the form of genocide which makes historical novels of this period vivid, multi-dimensional, creating new signals of the genre. The extension of creative amplitude of the genre is a broadening of the dimension in reflecting historical reality and the past.

3. The changes in writers’ perception towards genre have prompted them to express character issues in a deeper and more comprehensive way. They demonstrated a more diverse view and fuller understanding of reality. From changes in their artistic thinking, writers have come up with a new way of exploring life and exploring people from individual view in the entire picture. A character is portrayed in a multidimensional, complex, intersecting way, interlocking people of high status and low status, good or evil people, etc. Characters are placed in many relationships with real life, with different roles and appearances. It can be seen that the shift from a historical perspective to an individual perspective has enabled writers to explore humanity from a variety of perspectives out of the traditional view. The concept of human art changed, allowing writers to explore the complex, multi-faceted, diverse, richer and more diverse epitomized human beings, legendary humans and secularized people. These types of characters are always interlocking and transforming, creating character complexity.

4. Changes in artistic thinking has led to innovations in the narrative thinking system on the basis of interpretation and dialogue of contemporary literature. Writers have sought to break the traditional narrative paradigm in light of reforming the narrative form. On that basis, some writers replaced the traditional form of the third narrator with the first narrator in storytelling. Even Bui Anh Tan tried the form of multi-narrator in Dam Dao Ve Dieu Ngu Giac Hoang, creating unique, new and attractive features to attract contemporary readers. In addition, the narrative point of view in historical novels of this stage is not homogeneous, but so flexible that creates a variety of viewpoint complexity. Within that, the point of view is placed on the character that makes the inner view, so that historical issues and historical figures are illuminated in different angles.

5. In the historical novels of the first decade of the 21st century, narrative discourse changes flexibly. A harmonious combination of narrator's discourse and character's discourse creates a perfect composition of the work. With description, narrative words and comments and a mix of these three types provide readers with a whole panorama of real life and the people of historic events. The correlation between the narrator's discourse and the dialogue discourse has made a unique point in the discourse of the works. Through the monologue discourse and the self-consciousness of the characters, writers have helped readers to deepen the psychological human exploration of the character in their life journey.

6. From the perspective of genre, the thesis has contributed to pointing out the characteristics of historical novels in the early 21st century in many aspects. However, besides the success of HN in this period, there were still limitations. Works exceeding acceptable lengnth such as Muoi Hai Su Quan, Hao Kiet Lam Son of Vu Ngoc Dinh, Tam Trieu Vua Ly of Hoang Quoc Hai, Anh Hung Dong A Dung Co binh Mong, Nam Quoc Son Ha of Tran Dai Sy created a feeling of boredom. This is because the authors covered too many events and fictional characters which are not necessary. This does not bring high artistic effectiveness. Besides, dogma and repetition at high level caused a feeling of burden and tiredness to the readers. Also, some novel authors made the characters imaged too distorted and made the story over fantasy. Examples were the character Nguyen Thi Lo in Nguyen Thi Lo of Ha Van Thuy, Nguyen Trai and Le Loi in Hoi The of Nguyen Quang Than. New experience in diversifying themes is the choice of Bui Anh Tan, however; with Bi Mat Hau Cung, it is the author who put too much concentration on describing the same-sex love of the character Gia Tan that he ignored issues related to history and the analysis, which made his works less convincing.

7. Contemporary Vietnamese historical novels are still ongoing and have achieved much more significant achievements. Within the scope of this thesis, the thesis has pointed out some basic characteristics of the genre in a relatively stable period. However, there are still many other important aspects that the thesis has not investigated such as the mode of historical reproduction, the time of narration, narrative space, the structure and the tone. At the same time, in the process of identifying, analyzing, and explaining the artifacts of the genre during the first decade of the 21st century, the thesis compares historical novels of the early 21st century with those of the previous period. However, this comparison should be more specific by using statistics. Therefore, our future research is planned to explore the uncovered aspects in details.



PUBLISHED RESEARCH

I. Published Articles

[1]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2011), "The narrator's image in the eight royal dynasties of King Hoang Quoc", Scientific Information No. 02 (December 2011), Dong Thap University.

[2]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2011), "Functions of Narrator in the Eight Dynasty of King Hoang Quoc", Journal of Science and Education, No. 04 (20) / 2011, Hue University of Education .

[3]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2013), "Legendary element in the historical novel of the Relic of Vo Thi Hao", Scientific Semantic Factors and myths in literature, Hue University.

[4]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2013), "The historical discourse in the Eighteenth Dynasty of King Hoang Quoc", the 8th Young Scientist Conference, Hue University.

[5]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2014), "A sense of homosexuality in the harem secrets of Bui Anh Tan", Seminar on Psychoanalysis and Literature, Hue University.

[6]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2016), "Character types in Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century", Journal of Saigon University, No. 17 (42), 6/2016, Sai Gon University.

[7]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2016), "Modern Vietnamese Modern Novels with Some Intimacy - From a Comparative Perspective", Journal of Science and Education, vol. 122, No. 08/2016, Hue university.

[8]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2016), "Contemporary Vietnamese Contemporary Fiction - Overall Achievement," Journal of Science and Education, No. 21 (08/2016), Dong Thap University.

[9]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2016), innovating genre thinking in Vietnamese historical novels in the first decade of the 21st century ", Vietnam National Literature Conference on Globalization Trends, Da Nang University of Education.

[10]. Le Thi Thu Trang (2017), "Vietnam Historical Fiction in the First Century of XXI Century - From the Trend of Genre Interaction", Journal of Science and Technology, No. 2/2017, Hue University of Sciences.

II. Undergone Dissertation

Le Thi Thu Trang (2011), Some narrative aspects of the eight royal dynasty of King Hoang Quoc Hai, the subject of science at the grassroots level, Dong Thap University.







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