Introduction Theoretical part Introduction 3 I. Theoretical overview 4



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Introduction


Theoretical part


Introduction 3

I. Theoretical overview 4

Definition 4

Terminology 5

Occurrence 5

Historical overview 6

Classification of SLD 7



Dyslexia 8

Dysgraphia 11

Dysortographia 12

Dyscalculia 13

II. The system of remedial provision in the Czech Republic 13

Legislation 13

Intervention in pre-school age 16

Intervention in school age 16

Intervention to the secondary and university students 18

IV. Psychological profile of a child with SLD 19

Perception 19

Cognition 19

Memory 20

Automation 21

Skill fluctuation 22

Emotional sphere 23



General factors 23

Self-image 25

Motivation 26

Specific psychological features of an upper primary learner 27

Relationships of the educational process participants 28


Child-parents relationship 28

Child-teacher relationship 29

Peers influence 30

Teacher-parent cooperation 31

V. Pedagogical intervention strategies 32

Class atmosphere 32

Behavior management 33

Misbehavior scenario 33

Pedagogical intervention 34

Auditory- visual perception support 37



Auditory perception 37

Pedagogical intervention 38

Visual support 42

Pedagogical intervention 43

VI. Multisensory approach 46

Definition and origin 47


The practice using the multisensory approach for teaching reading is called “Orton-Gillingham Method” according to the founder and his colleague Anne Gillingham, a psychologist and educator, who cooperated with Orton on the method. At present, some modifications of the method are used. A well-known one is Slingerland method, named after its author Beth Slingerland, who has adapted the Orton-Gillingham method for teaching adults with low reading skill. 48

Traditional mutlisensory practices 49


Dramatization 49

Miming 50

Role-play 51

Total Physical Response 51

Alternatives for upper primary learners 52



Vocabulary via M.A. 52

Grammar study 55

I. Action research 58

Introduction 58

Hypothesis 58

Research sample 59

Methods 60

Vocabulary Handouts – Procedure 60

Vocabulary Handouts – Findings 61

Word cards – Procedure 71

Word cards – Findings 72

Conclusions and recommendations 74

Conclusion 77

The aim of the work was to explore and trace the pedagogical intervention to the learners with specific learning difficulties in the class of foreign language. It seems that care of the pupils and students with SLD can be effective only if it is realized complexly and continually. 77

Resumé 78

Bibliography 79



Dictionaries 82

Idonline [online]. c2002. last rev. 2006-10-21. Multisensory Structured Language Programs: Content and Principles of Instruction. Available from www.ldonline.org/article/6332 83

Step into phonics. c 2003. [cit. 2007-03-15] The Orton Gillingham Approach. Available from www.stepintophonics.com/orton_gillingham.htm 83


The British Dyslexia Association [online]. C 1998. [cit. 2007-03-18]. Modern Foreign Languages and Dyslexia.Available from http://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/mfl.html 83

Appendix List 84



Introduction




It is better to light a little candle than keep cursing the dark.“

(uknown author)
I have chosen the topic of specific learning difficulties because I consider it as a topical and interesting issue. During my teaching practice I taught the mixed-ability classes including children with specific learning difficulties for several times and I found it rather challenging task. According to the surveys, the amount of the pupils with specific learning difficulties increases therefore it is very probable that the amount of mixed-ability classes will grow as well. The ability to communicate in a foreign language is one of the skills which determinates the individual’s future career and significantly affects his/her life. That’s why I think that provision of the modern and effective methods for teaching language to the students with specific learning difficulties should belong to a teacher’s professional competence.

In the theoretical part of my work I cover the theoretical background of the problem. In the first section I give the medical overview including the classification, etiology and the symptoms of SLD. Then the system of remedial care in the Czech Republic is described. In the following chapter I focus on the psychological features of the children with SLD. I discuss the specific cognitive and emotional manifestations and their effect on the relationships of the child with his parents, classmates and teachers. The following chapter is focused on the special methods and approaches applied in teaching a language. The last chapter focuses on the Multisensory Approach and its use in teaching upper primary learners with SLD.

The practical part covers an action research which analyzes use of several multisensory teaching aids in the class of upper primary learners with SLD and summarizes the findings of the research.
During the work on the thesis I use both Czech and foreign resources, the citations of the Czech authors are translated by me.
Theoretical part



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