Introduction to the Active Living Research Reference List 2007


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M. Adachi, K. Sasayama, Y. Hikihara, K. Okishima, H. Mizuuchi, Y. Sunami, M. Shiomi, M. Nishimuta, S. Kikunaga, H. Tanaka, S. Saitoh and Y. Yoshitake. (2007). Assessing daily physical activity in elementary school students used by accelerometer: A validation study against doubly labeled water method. Japanese Journal Of Physical Fitness And Sports Medicine.

The purpose of present study was to examine validity of accelerometer (Lifecorder; LC) and to assess the free-living physical activity (PA) in Japanese elementary school students used by LC method. Firstly, to examine validity of LC, twelve children, aged 11.2 +/- 1.0years, were measured total energy expenditure (TEE) by doubly labeled water method and resting energy expenditure (REE) by the expired gas analysis. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is calculated as 0. 9 TEE minus REE. At the same time, PA was evaluated by both daily walk count (WC) and vigorous activity time (LC7-9) using LC method. PAEE per 1 kg body weight significantly correlated with WC (r=0.785, p < 0.005) and LC7-9 (r=0.828, p < 0.001). Secondly, 140 boys and 167 girls, aged 8-11 years were measured PA by LC method. WC and LC7-9 each were 13000-18000 counts and 16-32 minutes in week-day, and 8000-12500 counts and 8-18 minutes in week-end. PA analyzed by MANOVA were significantly higher in boys than in girls, and lower in week-end than in week-day, and decreased in proportion as grade. Present study suggests that LC method is a good measure of PA in free-living condition for elementary school students.

B. Agbuga, P. Xiang and R. E. McBride. (2007). Pedometer-assessed physical activity level and body composition among minority children in an after-school physical education program. Research Quarterly For Exercise And Sport.

G. Baquet, G. Stratton, E. Van Praagh and S. Berthoin. (2007). Improving physical activity assessment in prepubertal children with high-frequency accelerometry monitoring: a methodological issue. Preventive Medicine.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the duration of physical activity (PA) bouts in prepubertal children with high-frequency accelerometry monitoring. METHODS: Thirteen boys and thirteen girls (aged 8-10 years) from one school in North of France had their PA recorded during 7 days using a uniaxial Actigraph accelerometer. To examine PA behavior patterns, the epoch was set at 2 s. Times spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and very high (VHPA) intensity activity and the daily number of PA bouts of different durations (from 2 to 1200 s) were calculated for each intensity level. Data were collected in 2004. RESULTS: The mean duration of PA bouts was 70.8+/-13.2 s for LPA, 9.0+/-2.8 s for MPA, 4.7+/-1.2 s for VPA and 3.9+/-1.6 s for VHPA. For the whole population, 80% of MPA, 93% of VPA and 96% of VHPA lasted less than 10 s. Although times spent in VPA and VHPA represented 2.4% of the total PA time, VPA and VHPA bouts accounted for 36.1+/-5.8% of the total amount of PA. CONCLUSION: Children's PA pattern is highly transitory and intermittent whatever its intensity. Physical activity assessed with a sampling interval related to children's behavior may improve our understanding of their PA patterns.

S. E. Benjamin, B. Neelon, S. C. Ball, S. I. Bangdiwala, A. S. Ammerman and D. S. Ward. (2007). Reliability and validity of a nutrition and physical activity environmental self-assessment for child care. International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity.

Background: Few assessment instruments have examined the nutrition and physical activity environments in child care, and none are self-administered. Given the emerging focus on child care settings as a target for intervention, a valid and reliable measure of the nutrition and physical activity environment is needed. Methods: To measure inter-rater reliability, 59 child care center directors and 109 staff completed the self-assessment concurrently, but independently. Three weeks later, a repeat self-assessment was completed by a sub-sample of 38 directors to assess test-retest reliability. To assess criterion validity, a researcher-administered environmental assessment was conducted at 69 centers and was compared to a self-assessment completed by the director. A weighted kappa test statistic and percent agreement were calculated to assess agreement for each question on the self-assessment. Results: For inter-rater reliability, kappa statistics ranged from 0.20 to 1.00 across all questions. Test-retest reliability of the self-assessment yielded kappa statistics that ranged from 0.07 to 1.00. The inter-quartile kappa statistic ranges for inter-rater and test-retest reliability were 0.45 to 0.63 and 0.27 to 0.45, respectively. When percent agreement was calculated, questions ranged from 52.6% to 100% for inter-rater reliability and 34.3% to 100% for test-retest reliability. Kappa statistics for validity ranged from -0.01 to 0.79, with an inter-quartile range of 0.08 to 0.34. Percent agreement for validity ranged from 12.9% to 93.7%. Conclusion: This study provides estimates of criterion validity, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability for an environmental nutrition and physical activity self-assessment instrument for child care. Results indicate that the self-assessment is a stable and reasonably accurate instrument for use with child care interventions. We therefore recommend the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) instrument to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy weight intervention in child care. However, a more robust, less subjective measure would be more appropriate for researchers seeking an outcome measure to assess intervention impact.

I. Cook. (2007). Physical activity in rural South Africa--are current surveillance instruments yielding valid results? South African Medical Journal.
L. Dubois and M. Girad. (2007). Accuracy of maternal reports of pre-schoolers' weights and heights as estimates of BMI values. International Journal of Epidemiology.

BACKGROUND: Data is lacking on the reliability of weight and height for young children as reported by parents participating in population-based studies. We analysed the accuracy of parental reports of children's weights and heights as estimates of body mass index, and evaluated the factors associated with the misclassification of overweight and obese children. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on a population-based birth cohort of 1549 4-year-old children from the province of Quebec (Canada) in 2002. Mothers reported weights and heights for the children as part of the regular annual data collection. Within the following 3 months, children's weights and heights were measured at home as part of a nutrition survey. RESULTS: This study indicates that mothers overestimate their children's weight more than their height, resulting in an overestimation of overweight children of more than 3% in the studied population. Only 58% of the children were reported as overweight/obese with reported values. Maternal misreporting is more important for boys than girls, and for low socioeconomic status children compared with high socioeconomic status children. CONCLUSIONS: Research on the prevalence of overweight and obesity has often used self-reported measures of height and weight to estimate BMI. However, the results emphasize the importance of collecting measured data in childhood studies of overweight and obesity at the population level.

D. DuBois, S. Baldwin and W. D. King. (2007). Accuracy of weight estimation methods for children. Pediatric Emergency Care.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate differences in accuracy of 2 weight estimation methods for children when compared with measured weights: the Broselow-Luten tape (patient's height as the predictor) and the devised weight estimation method (DWEM) (patient's height and body habitus as predictors). METHODS: Information was obtained prospectively on a convenience sample of patients presenting through triage on nonconsecutive days at the Children's Hospital Emergency Department. Weight was measured in kilograms, and a measured length or height in centimeters was obtained, as well as 2 independent assessments of body habitus. Weights were then estimated using the Broselow-Luten tape and the DWEM. This study evaluated 4 separate weight classes: less than or equal to 10 kg, 10.1 to 20 kg, 20.1 to 36 kg, and 36.1 kg or more. One hundred children were recruited into each weight class, for a total of 400 children. Comparisons of estimations with measured weights were made using the Pearson correlation coefficient method. Mean percentage errors were calculated for weight estimations by both methods. RESULTS: Both the Broselow-Luten and DWEM weight estimations when compared with measured weights showed statistical correlation (using the Pearson correlation coefficient). However, the Broselow-Luten method had a negative mean percentage error in all weight classes, and the DWEM had a negative mean percentage error in classes greater than 20 kg, indicating an underestimation of weight in those classes. CONCLUSIONS: Although both the Broselow-Luten and DWEM weight estimations show statistical correlation with measured weights, the Broselow-Luten method underestimates weights in all weight classes, and the DWEM underestimates weights in the weight classes greater than 20 kg.

M. J. Duncan and W. K. Mummery. (2007). GIS or GPS? A comparison of two methods for assessing route taken during active transport. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine.

Introduction: Current methods of assessing routes taken during active transport rely on subjective recall of trip length and barriers encountered enroute or the utilization of objective measures (Geographic Information Systems -[GIS]) that may not represent actual travel patterns. This study examined the utility of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to measure actual routes taken compared with GIS-estimated travel distance and barriers encountered. Methods: Comparisons between GPS and GIS routes were performed for 59 of 75 children who wore a GPS during the journey to school on a single occasion. Home and school addresses were reported by parents and geocoded in GIS. Children were provided with a GPS and were instructed to travel their normal route to and from school. Data were collected between March and November 2005 and exported to the GIS to determine travel distance, number of busy streets crossed, and the ratio of busy streets to the total streets traveled on. Data analysis was performed in August 2006. Results: No differences were observed between GPS-measured journeys to and from school on any of the examined variables. No differences were observed between GIS and GPS measures of travel distance (p > 0.05). GIS-estimated travel routes crossed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of busy streets (GIS: 1.68 +/- 0.12 vs GPS: 1.19 +/- 0.11) and traveled on a higher ratio of busy streets to total streets traveled on (GIS: 0.46 +/- 0.03 vs GPS: 0.35 +/- 0.04) (p < 0.05) compared with GPS-measured actual travel routes. Conclusions: Geographic Information Systems provides estimates of travel distance similar to GPS-measured actual travel distances. Travel routes estimated by GIS are not representative of actual routes measured by GPS, which indicates that GIS may not provide an accurate estimate of barriers encountered. The continued use of GPS in active transport research in encouraged.

M. J. Duncan, Y. Al-Nakeeb, L. Woodfield and M. Lyons. (2007). Pedometer determined physical activity levels in primary school children from central England. Preventive Medicine.

Objective. To assess ambulatory physical activity in school children from central England, to examine any variation in activity between weekdays and weekends and to determine the percentage of children meeting recently identified cut-off steps/day for health. Method. 208 British primary school children (101 boys and 107 girls, mean age 9.3 +/- 0.9 years) from central England wore a sealed pedometer for 4 consecutive days (2 weekend and 2 weekdays) during 2006 from which daily step counts were determined. Data were collected over winter, spring and summer terms. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine potential time (weekend versus weekday), gender and age differences in steps/day. Results. Children attained significantly higher mean steps/day during weekdays than weekends (p<0.001), and boys attained significantly higher mean steps/day than girls (p<0.05). Mean steps/day values were 13,827 (38,201) and 10,334 (4436) for weekdays and weekends and 12,263 (3789) and 11,748 (33 10) for boys and girls respectively. 28.7% of boys and 46.7% of girls met or exceeded the BMI referenced cut-offs for health. Conclusion. Physical activity was greater during weekdays compared to weekends and boys were more active than girls but the majority of children did not meet the health-related cut-off points. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

M. J. Duncan, W. K. Mummery and B. J. Dascombe. (2007). Utility of global positioning system to measure active transport in urban areas. Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine test-retest reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring distance traveled when walking and cycling (AT), and to determine whether GPS unit placement influences accuracy. Methods: Participants (N = 19) completed two walking and cycling trials at self-selected speeds on a measured 1489-m course wearing two Garmin GPS units, worn in lanyard and Waistband placements. GPS estimates of travel distance were compared with actual distance, and test-retest reliability was examined. Data-cleaning protocols were developed to remove signal noise. Results are presented for both raw and cleaned data. Results: For both raw and cleaned data, no significant differences were observed between trials (trial 1 vs trial 2), unit placement (lanyard vs waistband), or AT mode (walk vs cycle) (P >= 0.05). Both lanyard and waistband units significantly overestimated distance traveled during walking trials (P <= 0.05), but not cycling trials (P >= 0.05). The relative technical error of measurement (TEM) of the raw data ranged from 3.74 to 15.51%, and average absolute errors ranged from 5.03 to 8.53% for all trials. A significant position by AT mode interaction was observed for clean data (P < 0.05). Relative TEM for the clean data ranged from 1.42 to 1.98%, and average absolute errors ranged from 0.32 to 1.97%. Intraclass correlations (ICC) were poor to fair for all trials using raw and cleaned data. Conclusion: Signal noiSEuring unit initialization may adversely affect unit performance; however, application of data-cleaning procedures to remove data associated with signal noise improves unit ability to measure distance. Results suggest that the lanyard position is the optimal placement for units during data collection.

K. R. Evenson, R. W. Motl, A. S. Birnbaum and D. S. Ward. (2007). Measurement of perceived school climate for active travel in children. American Journal of Health Behavior.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. METHODS: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. RESULTS: The CFA supported the fit of a 3-factor (encouragement, praise, and importance) correlated model for the school climate for active travel measure. This hierarchical model was invariant between sex and across a 7-month time period, and initial evidence for construct validity was provided. CONCLUSIONS: School climate for active travel is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests relationships with more support for active travel from friends and family.

T. Galloway and T. Mof-Fat. (2007). Measuring children: Methodological aspects of collecting growth and obesity data from children in a School setting. American Journal Of Human Biology.

S. V. Graser, R. P. Pangrazi and W. J. Vincent. (2007). Effects of placement, attachment, and weight classification on pedometer accuracy. Journal of Physical Activity and Health.

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to determine if waist placement of the pedometer affected accuracy in normal, overweight, and obese children, when attaching the pedometer to the waistband or a belt. METHODS: Seventy-seven children (ages 10-12 years) wore 5 pedometers on the waistband of their pants and a belt at the following placements: navel (NV), anterior midline of the right thigh (AMT), right side (RS), posterior midline of the right thigh (PMT), and middle of the back (MB). Participants walked 100 steps on a treadmill at 80 m x min(-1). RESULTS: The RS, PMT, and MB sites on the waistband and the AMT and RS sites on the belt produced the least error. CONCLUSIONS: Of these sites, the RS placement is recommended because of the ease of reading the pedometer during activity. Using a belt did not significantly improve accuracy except for normal weight groups at the NV placement site.

K. S. Hamrick, M. Andrews and J. Guthrie. (2007). Collecting data on eating patterns, obesity risk, and food access: The food & eating module. Faseb Journal.
L. L. Hardy, M. L. Booth and A. D. Okely. (2007). The reliability of the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire (ASAQ). Preventive Medicine.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the test-retest reliability of a self-report questionnaire (the Adolescent Sedentary Activities Questionnaire; ASAQ) which assesses the time spent in a comprehensive range of sedentary activities, among school-aged young people. METHOD: Two-hundred and fifty school students aged 11-15 years from four primary and four high schools in metropolitan Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) completed the questionnaire under the same conditions on two occasions, 2 weeks apart during Autumn, 2002. RESULTS: Test-retest correlations for time total spent in sedentary behavior were >or=0.70, except for Grade 6 boys (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.57, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.76). Repeatability was generally higher on week days compared with week end days. ICC values for travel and social activities tended to be lower than for the other categories of sedentary behavior. There was little difference in the reliability across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: ASAQ has good to excellent reliability in the measurement of a broad range of sedentary behaviors among young people. ASAQ has good face validity, but further validity testing is required to provide a complete assessment of the instrument.

C. M. Hoehner, Ivy, A., Brennan Ramirez, L.K., Handy, S., Brownson, R.C. (2007). Active Neighborhood Checklist: A User-Friendly and Reliable Tool for Assessing Activity Friendliness. American Journal of Health Promotion.

Purpose. To test the reliability of the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a user-friendly audit tool for assessing neighborhood environmental supports for physical activity.

Methods. Sixty-four street segments in St. Louis and southeastern Missouri were selected among diverse areas that varied with respect to socioeconomic levels, urbanization, and land use. Fifteen public health researchers and seven community stakeholders conducted audits in April 2005 following a two-hour training session. Interrater reliability was measured for the items in each section of the Checklist (land use characteristics, sidewalks, shoulders and bike lanes, street characteristics, and quality of the environment for a pedestrian) using observed agreement and the κ statistic.

Results. The mean observed agreement for 57 evaluated items was 0.87 (range, 0.61–1.00). The mean κ statistic was 0.68 (range, 0.21–1.00).

Discussion. With minimal training of the auditors, the Checklist demonstrated strong reliability. Future studies are needed to provide information about its usability for various stakeholders and across different settings.

Y. Jang, S. Shin, J. W. Lee and S. Kim. (2007). A preliminary study for portable walking distance measurement system using ultrasonic sensors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.

Efforts have been made to measure the distance traveled by humans in motion, in ways that are compact and accurate, for a long time. There are several ways to measure the distance moved by walking or running in daily life, some of which already use commercial products, but those methods are inaccurate. In this study, a new method is provided using ultrasonic sensors, and this is the fundamental study. The newly devised;Portable Walking Distance Measurement System' was developed using ultrasonic wave characteristics and has approximately 90% accuracy. This result provides an opportunity to estimate human activities and the developed system would provide more comfort and an exact way to measure the walking distance in daily life and could be applied to exercise.
A. Le Faucheur, P. Abraham, V. Jaquinandi, P. Bouye, J. L. Saumet and B. Noury-Desvaux. (2007). Study of human outdoor walking with a low-cost GPS and simple spreadsheet analysis. Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise.

Purpose: To determine whether a low-cost, commercially available global positioning system (GPS) can be used to study outdoor walking of healthy subjects, allowing the detection of walking and resting (nonwalking) periods and the accurate estimation of speed and distance of each walking periods. Methods: The same EGNOS-enabled GPS receiver was used for all experiments, In experiment 1, various signal-processing methodologies were tested for the detection of both walking and resting bouts from a prescribed walking protocol (PWP) that was performed 21 times by six healthy subjects on an outdoor athletic track. In experiment 2, the accuracies of these processing methodologies were then tested through a blinded analysis of different PWP for 10 other healthy subjects in a designated public park. In experiment 3, speed and distance calculated by the GPS receiver during series of 100-400 in on an outdoor athletic track were compared with actual speed and distance. Results: Raw data were inaccurate, but the combination of a low-pass filter, an adapted high-pass filter, and artifact processing enabled one to detect walking and resting bouts with an accuracy of 89.8% (95% CI, 84.4-93.4). A manual post-processing methodology, used to complete previous automatic processing results, provided the highest concordance with the PWP reaching an accuracy of 97.1% (95% CI, 93.5-98.8). There was an excellent relationship both between actual and processed distances (R-2 = 1.000) and between actual and processed speeds (R-2 = 0.947). Conclusion: Low-cost, commercially available GPS may be accurate in studying outdoor walking, provided that simple data processing is applied. Future validation in diseased subjects could allow for the study of free-living walking capacity, such as maximal walking distance in vascular patients.

M. S. Mujahid, A. V. Diez Roux, J. D. Morenoff and T. Raghunathan. (2007). Assessing the measurement properties of neighborhood scales: from psychometrics to ecometrics. American Journal Of Epidemiology.

Most studies examining the relation between residential environment and health have used census-derived measures of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP). There is a need to identify specific features of neighborhoods relevant to disease risk, but few measures of these features exist, and their measurement properties are understudied. In this paper, the authors 1) develop measures (scales) of neighborhood environment that are important in cardiovascular disease risk, 2) assess the psychometric and ecometric properties of these measures, and 3) examine individual- and neighborhood-level predictors of these measures. In 2004, data on neighborhood conditions were collected from a telephone survey of 5,988 residents at three US study sites (Baltimore, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and New York, New York). Information collected covered seven dimensions of neighborhood environment (aesthetic quality, walking environment, availability of healthy foods, safety, violence, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors). Neighborhoods were defined as census tracts or census clusters. Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.73 to 0.83, with test-retest reliabilities of 0.60-0.88. Intraneighborhood correlations were 0.28-0.51, and neighborhood reliabilities were 0.64-0.78 for census tracts for most scales. The neighborhood scales were strongly associated with neighborhood SEP but also provided information distinct from neighborhood SEP. These results illustrate a methodological approach for assessing the measurement properties of neighborhood-level constructs and show that these constructs can be measured reliably.

A. J. Nihiser, S. M. Lee, H. Wechsler, M. McKenna, E. Odom, C. Reinold, D. Thompson and L. Grummer-Strawn. (2007). Body mass index measurement in schools. Journal of School Health.

BACKGROUND: School-based body mass index (BMI) measurement has attracted much attention across the nation from researchers, school officials, legislators, and the media as a potential approach to address obesity among youth. METHODS: An expert panel, convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2005, reviewed and provided expertise on an earlier version of this article. The panel comprised experts in public health, education, school counseling, school medical care, and a parent organization. This article describes the purposes of BMI measurement programs, examines current practices, reviews existing research, summarizes the recommendations of experts, identifies concerns, and provides guidance including a list of safeguards and ideas for future research. RESULTS: The implementation of school-based BMI measurement for surveillance purposes, that is, to identify the percentage of students in a population who are at risk for weight-related problems, is widely accepted; however, considerable controversy exists over BMI measurement for screening purposes, that is, to assess the weight status of individual students and provide this information to parents with guidance for action. Although some promising results have been reported, more evaluation is needed to determine whether BMI screening programs are a promising practice for addressing obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available information, BMI screening meets some but not all of the criteria established by the American Academy of Pediatrics for determining whether screening for specific health conditions should be implemented in schools. Schools that initiate BMI measurement programs should evaluate the effects of the program on BMI results and on weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of youth and their families; they also should adhere to safeguards to reduce the risk of harming students, have in place a safe and supportive environment for students of all body sizes, and implement science-based strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating.

M. Nyholm, B. Gullberg, J. Merlo, C. Lundqvist-Persson, L. Rastam and U. Lindblad. (2007). The validity of obesity based on self-reported weight and height: Implications for population studies. Obesity (Silver Spring).

OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported information on weight and height in an adult population and to find a useful algorithm to assess the prevalence of obesity based on self-reported information. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This was a cross-sectional survey consisting of 1703 participants (860 men and 843 women, 30 to 75 years old) conducted in the community of Vara, Sweden, from 2001 to 2003. Self-reported weight, height, and corresponding BMI were compared with measured data. Obesity was defined as measured BMI > or = 30 kg/m2. Information on education, self-rated health, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean differences between measured and self-reported weight were 1.6 kg (95% confidence interval, 1.4; 1.8) in men and 1.8 kg (1.6; 2.0) in women (measured higher), whereas corresponding differences in height were -0.3 cm (-0.5; -0.2) in men and -0.4 cm (-0.5; -0.2) in women (measured lower). Age and body size were important factors for misreporting height, weight, and BMI in both men and women. Obesity (measured) was found in 156 men (19%) and 184 women (25%) and with self-reported data in 114 men (14%) and 153 women (20%). For self-reported data, the sensitivity of obesity was 70% in men and 82% in women, and when adjusted for corrected self-reported data and age, it increased to 81% and 90%, whereas the specificity decreased from 99% in both sexes to 97% in men and 98% in women. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of obesity based on self-reported BMI can be estimated more accurately when using an algorithm adjusted for variables that are predictive for misreporting.

J. L. O'Neill, S. N. McCarthy, S. J. Burke, E. M. Hannon, M. Kiely, A. Flynn, M. A. T. Flynn and M. J. Gibney. (2007). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish school children, using four different definitions. European Journal Of Clinical Nutrition.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish children using four different weight-for-height methods and to examine secular trends from previous national data. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Weight and height were measured according to standard procedures and used to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity using four weight-for-height methods of assessment, actual relative weight, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index (BMI) for age charts for boys and girls, the BMI reference curves for the UK 1990 and the International Obesity Task Force age-and sex-specific BMI cutoffs. Setting: The survey was carried out between 2003 and 2004 in the Republic of Ireland. Subjects: Random representative sample of 596 children aged 5-12 years. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish children is high, but varies considerably with each method. The prevalence of obesity in boys ranged from 4.1 to 11.2 % and in girls from 9.3 to 16.3%. Between 1990 and 2005, depending on the method used, there was a two-to-fourfold increase in obesity in children aged 8-12 years. Conclusion: It is evident given the variation displayed in the prevalence of obesity when using the different methods, that there is a discernible need for a single definition to identify the obese child in Ireland. The findings show a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish school children and the increase in the prevalence of obesity over the last 15 years highlights this growing public health issue.

P. F. Pearce, J. Williamson, J. S. Harrell, B. M. Wildemuth and P. Solomon. (2007). The children's computerized physical activity reporter: children as partners in the design and usability evaluation of an application for self-reporting physical activity. Comput Inform Nurs.

The objectives of this three-phased study were to design and evaluate the usability of a computerized questionnaire, The Children's Computerized Physical Activity Reporter, designed with and for middle school children's self-report of physical activity. Study design was qualitative, descriptive, and collaborative, framed in a usability engineering model, with 22 participating children (grades 6-8; mean age, 12.5 years; range, 11-15 years) of three ethnic backgrounds. In Phase 1, children's understanding of physical activity and needs for reporting were determined, which were then translated in Phase 2 to the design features and content of the questionnaire; content validity, readability, and algorithm reliability were completed. Phase 3 involved children's evaluation of the questionnaire's usability (ease of use, efficiency, and aesthetics). The children all liked the questionnaire but identified several usability issues within instructions and reports. Working collaboratively with children was highly effective in ascertaining their understanding of physical activity and their self-reporting needs. Thus, the questionnaire's design was created from children's understanding of physical activity and their needs for recalling activities. The development of the questionnaire and its usability evaluation contribute to understanding children's physical activity and to the importance of designing for usability. Additional research is needed to ascertain reliability and validity of data derived from its use and to explore its usefulness in clinical or research venues.

B. Resnick and E. Galik. (2007). The reliability and validity of the physical activity survey in long-term care. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a measure of physical activity for residents in long-term-care facilities, the Physical Activity Survey in Long-Term Care (PAS-LTC). Sixty-six activities are included in the PAS-LTC: routine physical activity, personal-care activities, structured exercise, recreational activities, caretaking activities, and repetitive activities. The study included 13 residents in a long-term-care facility, most of whom were women (62%), with an average age of 84 years (+/- 6.0) and an average Mini Mental State Examination score of 6 (+/- 6.9). There was evidence of interrater reliability of the PAS-LTC with intraclass correlations of.83-.94. There was some evidence of validity of the measure with statistically significant correlations between PAS-LTC recorded during the evening and night shifts and the number of counts of activity per the ActiGraph (r =.60 and r =.57, respectively, p <.05) and the calories estimated (r =.58 and r =.60, respectively, p <.05). The PAS-LTC completed during the day shift and total activity based on the PAS-LTC showed nonsignificant correlations of.40 or greater with the ActiGraph activity counts and calories.

A. V. Rowlands. (2007). Accelerometer Assessment of Physical Activity in Children: An Update. Pediatric Exercise Science.

Accelerometry is frequently used to assess physical activity in children. The number of articles in this area has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. The aim of this article is to provide a contemporary overview of accelerometry research in children. Specifically, the review addresses the choice of monitor, choice of epoch, when and for how long activity should be measured, the lack of consensus over how to define a complete day of activity data, issues of compliance, methods for the calibration of activity output, and the richness of data available from accelerometry.

P. W. Scruggs. (2007). A comparative analysis of pedometry in measuring physical activity of children. Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the step and physical activity time output features of the Walk4Life LS2505 pedometer under field physical activity conditions. METHODS: Data were collected on 288 (12.62 +/- 1.23 yr) participants during a school-based structured physical activity program. Participants' physical activity levels were concurrently measured via the Yamax SW701 (Yamax Corp., Japan) and Walk4Life LS2505 (Walk4Life Inc., Plainfield, IL) pedometers, and System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) physical activity coding mechanism. Relative and absolute agreement between SW701 (criterion) and LS2505 steps per minute, and SOFIT (criterion) and LS2505 physical activity time (min) were analyzed overall, and across physical activity content themes and physical activity quartiles. RESULTS: Physical activity measure correlations were moderately strong to strong (r = 0.85-0.98, P < 0.05); however, the LS2505 significantly underestimated steps per minute (M(diff) = 6.37 +/- 5.79, P < 0.05) and overestimated physical activity time (M(diff) = -7.73 +/- 3.13, P < 0.05). When LS2505 steps per minute were examined across physical activity themes and quartiles, clinically acceptable absolute error scores (

P. W. Scruggs. (2007). Middle school physical education quantification: A pedometer physical activity steps/min guideline. Research Quarterly For Exercise And Sport.

The objective of the study was to improve physical activity (PA) surveillance of the Healthy People 2010 Objective 22:10 (i.e., 50% of the lesson time engaged in PA) by establishing a pedometer steps/min guideline to quantify time engaged in PA during physical education. A sample of 180 middle school students had their PA measured via pedometry (steps/min) and behavioral observation (PA time). Factorial analyses of variance were used to examine PA differences. Linear and logistic regression, decision accuracy, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) statistics were used to test steps/min cut points against the 50% PA recommendation. PA differences were not found (p >.01). Steps/min was a significant (p <=.01) predictor of PA time, and the binary outcome of meeting or not meeting the PA recommendation. A steps/min interval of 82-88 was an accurate indicator of the 50% PA recommendation. The ROC statistic was. 97 (p <=.01), suggesting steps/min was an excellent discriminator of the binary outcome. Pedometer steps/min is a valid, objective, and practical approach for surveillance of physical education PA, a key physical education and public health outcome.

P. W. Scruggs. (2007). Quantifying activity time via pedometry in fifth- and sixth-grade physical education. Journal of Physical Activity and Health.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to advance physical activity (PA) surveillance in physical education (PE) by establishing a steps/min guideline that would accurately classify fifth and sixth graders as engaging in PA for 10 min or one-third of the PE lesson time. METHODS: Data were collected on 147 (11.48 +/- 0.83 y) girls and boys in 14 intact classes from five schools. PA was assessed via behavioral observation (i.e., criterion) and pedometry (i.e., predictor). Logistic and linear regression techniques were employed to generate pedometer steps/min cut points. Classification of outcome probability (c), sensitivity, specificity, and receiveroperating- characteristic (ROC) curve statistics tested the decision accuracy of generated steps/min cut points. RESULTS: PA measures were strongly correlated (r = 0.80, P < 0.01). A steps/min interval of 60 to 62 was the best cut point indicator of students meeting the PA guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support steps/min as an accurate quantifier of PA time in structured PA programs. PA surveillance via pedometry in PE using empirically derived criteria is an objective, valid, and practical mechanism for assessing a primary PE and public health outcome.

P. W. Scruggs, Y. Oh and J. D. Mungen. (2007). RC grant findings: Quantifying physical activity time via pedometry in high school physical education. Research Quarterly For Exercise And Sport.
J. O. Spengler, M. F. Floyd, L. Suau, D. P. Connaughton and J. Maddock. (2007). Measuring physical activity in public playgrounds. Research Quarterly For Exercise And Sport.

M. R. Stone, Esliger, D.W., Tremblay, M.S. (2007). Comparative Validity Assessment of Five Activity Monitors: Does Being a Child Matter? Pediatric Exercise Science.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age and leg length on the energy-expenditure predictions of five activity monitors. Participants (N=86, ages 8-40 years) performed three progressive bouts of treadmill activity ranging from 4 to 12 km/hr. Differences between measured energy expenditure and activity-monitor-predicted energy expenditure were assessed across five leg length categories to determine the influence of leg length. Accelerometer counts or pedometer steps along with age, weight, and leg length accounted for 85-94% of measured energy expenditure. The addition of age and leg length as predictor variables explained a larger amount of variance in energy expenditure across all speeds. Differences in leg length and age might affect activity-monitor validity and, therefore, should be controlled for when estimating physical activity energy expenditure.

P. R. Stopher and S. P. Greaves. (2007). Household travel surveys: Where are we going? Transportation Research Part A-Policy And Practice.

In this paper, we commence by reviewing the recent history of household travel surveys. We note some of the problems that contemporary surveys are encountering throughout the world. We also review the data demands of current and emerging travel demand models, concluding that there are many new demands being placed on data, both in terms of the extent of the data required and the accuracy and completeness of the data. Noting that the standard method for conducting most household travel surveys is, and has been for some years, a diary, we briefly explore the evolution of the diary survey from the late 1970s to the present. In the next section of the paper, we explore a number of facets of potential future data collection. We include in this the use of GPS devices to measure travel, the potential of panel designs and some of the alternatives within panel designs, the development of continuous household travel surveys, especially in Australia, and the emerging capabilities in data fusion. Using some of these emerging methods for data collection and data simulation, we then propose a new paradigm for data collection that places the emphasis on a paid, national panel that is designed as a rotating, split panel, with the cross-sectional component conducted as a continuing survey. The basis of the panel data collection is proposed as GPS with demographic data, and the continuing national sample would also use GPS at its core. The potential to add in such specialised surveys as stated choice and process surveys is also noted as an advantage of the panel approach. We also explore briefly the notion that a special access panel or panels could be included as part of the design. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

S. Tessier, A. Vuillemin and S. Briancon. (2007). Psychometric properties of a physical activity questionnaire for school children aged between 6 and 10 years: QAPE-semaine. Science & Sports.

Aims. - To elaborate a physical activity questionnaire for school children aged between 6 and 10 years (QAPE-semaine) and to study the psychometric properties (face validity, acceptability, test-retest reproducibility, criterion validity). Methods. - The questionnaire measures physical activities at school, during leisure-time and other activities. Three scores are calculated: variety of physical activities, intensity and sedentary. The questionnaire was pre-tested to study the content validity, and was administered twice to 185 children from two elementary schools. The validity was studied by comparing the results of the questionnaire outcomes with a one day-recall (QAPE-hier) filled out in two occasions (to measure activities during a non school-day and a school-day). The statistic used was the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. - The QAPE-semaine was acceptable. The ICC for the reproducibility of variety of physical activities, intensity and sedentary scores were 0.54, 0.47 and 0.68, respectively; and 0.54, 0.56 and 0.64 for the criterion validity of variety of physical activities, intensity and sedentary scores, respectively. All the ICC were significant (P < 0.000 1). Conclusion. - The psychometric properties of the QAPE-semaine are satisfactory (moderate to good). Its administration in classes with school professor's help seems however essential. (C) 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits reserves.

S. Walker. (2007). Assessing fitness levels in an upstate New York middle school population using longitudinal FitnessGram standardized fitness test scores. American Journal Of Human Biology.
N. Wang, E. Ambikairajah, N. H. Lovell and B. G. Celler. (2007). Accelerometry Based Classification of Walking Patterns Using Time-frequency Analysis. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.

In this work, 33 dimensional time-frequency domain features were developed and evaluated to detect five different human walking patterns from data acquired using a triaxial accelerometer attached at the waist above the iliac spine. 52 subjects were asked to walk on a flat surface along a corridor, walk up and down a flight of a stairway and walk up and down a constant gradient slope, in an unsupervised manner. Time-frequency domain features of acceleration data in anterior-posterior (AP), medio-lateral (ML) and vertical (VT) direction were developed. The acceleration signal in each direction was decomposed to six detailed signals at different wavelet scales by using the wavelet packet transform. The rms values and standard deviations of the decomposed signals at scales 5 to 2 corresponding to the 0.78-18.75 Hz frequency band were calculated. The energies in the 0.39-18.75 Hz frequency band of acceleration signal in AP, ML and VT directions were also computed. The back-end of the system was a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) Neural Networks (NNs) classifier. Overall classification accuracies of 88.54% and 92.05% were achieved by using a round robin (RR) and random frame selecting (RFS) train-test method respectively for the five walking patterns.

F. Witlox. (2007). Evaluating the reliability of reported distance data in urban travel behaviour analysis. Journal Of Transport Geography.

The objective of the present paper is to analyze the accuracy of reported distances in travel behaviour research, and to distil from this analysis some useful recommendations for data collection and handling in activity-based modelling. This issue is important because we know from the literature on distance cognition that conjecture, perception and rounding in distance reporting is a rule, rather than an exception. The outcome is a biased transport modelling result. The paper introduces some theoretical reflections on distance measurements and cognition. Next, using household travel survey data collected in 2000 for the city of Ghent, Belgium, the problem of reported distance reliability is examined. A comparison of travel distances using detour factors revealed that self-reported distances provide reasonable estimates of shortest distance path distances. With respect to the effect outliers and rounding have on the reliability of reported distances it is found that mean detour factors are very much dominated by outliers over short distances, but that rounding has little impact. The accuracy of self-reported distances is also influenced by the socio-demographic profile of the respondents, the characteristics of the trip, and the type of transport mode used. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

K. D. M. Wittmeier, T. R. Kozyra, R. C. Mollard and D. J. Kriellaars. (2007). Interval pedometry to quantify physical activity patterns in rural children. Faseb Journal.

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