S. Alhassan, J. R. Sirard, T. R. Spencer, A. Varady and T. N. Robinson. (2008). Estimating Physical Activity From Incomplete Accelerometer Data in Field Studies. Journal of Physical Activity & Health. 5, S112.
Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven approach for analyzing incomplete accelerometer data from field-base studies. Methods: Multiple days of accelerometer data from the Stanford Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (N = 294 African American girls) were summed across each minute of each day to produce a composite weekday and weekend day. Composite method estimates of physical activity were compared with those derived from methods typically described in the literature (comparison methods). Results: The composite method retained 99.7% and 100% of participants in weekday and weekend-day analysis, respectively, versus 84.7% to 94.2% and 28.6% to 99.0% for the comparison methods. Average wearing times for the composite method for weekday and weekend day were 99.6% and 98.6%, respectively, 91.7% to 93.9% and 82.3% to 95.4% for the comparison methods. Composite-method physical activity estimates were similar to comparison-methods estimates. Conclusion: The composite method used more available accelerometer data than standard approaches, reducing the need to exclude periods within a day, entire days, and participants from analysis.
A. A. Beaton and D. C. Funk. (2008). An evaluation of theoretical frameworks for studying physically active leisure. Leisure Sciences. 30, 53-70.
Recent reviews demonstrate participation in active recreation and the development of an active lifestyle is important to a broad spectrum of society. Reviews further highlight the presence of an underdeveloped knowledge base for active leisure. Theory development is required to guide researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Specifically, evaluating the theoretical frameworks applied to active recreation is needed to foster collaboration and enhance the research-practice relation as well as to allow for rigorous testing and evaluation of theories, policies, programs, and interventions. Our paper responds to this call by developing five criteria to assess a selection of theoretical frameworks. The assessment demonstrates the limitations and advantages of various frameworks. Five propositions are presented to illustrate future theory development.
L. M. Candib, M. Silva, S. B. Cashman, D. Ellstrom and K. Mallett. (2008). Creating open access to exercise for low-income patients through a community collaboration for quality improvement: if you build it, they will come. J Ambul Care Manage. 31, 142-50.
Community health centers face the need for safe, accessible, and affordable exercise for low-income patients to implement self-management strategies. This study reports on one federally qualified health center's experience developing a partnership with a local YWCA to offer open access to patients for physical activity. Over a 24-month period, 1060 adult patients made at least 1 visit to the YWCA, logging a total of 14,276 visits. Among the exercisers, 112 had diabetes and made 3225 visits. Frequent users (> or =24 visits), had an HbAlc reduction of 1% (P =.02). Community health centers can collaborate with local exercise facilities to ensure that patients have opportunities to pursue healthier lifestyles.
G. R. Flores. (2008). Active living in Latino communities. Am J Prev Med. 34, 369-70.
B. Hutto, P. A. Sharpe, M. L. Granner, C. L. Addy and S. Hooker. (2008). The Effect of Question Order on Reporting Physical Activity and Walking Behavior. Journal of Physical Activity & Health. 5, S16.
Background: Question order might affect self-reported regular physical activity (PA) measured with items from the Behavioral RiskFactor Surveillance System (BRFSS) PA module. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted using 2 forms (N = 1004, N = 212) with varying PA question order. The standard form presented moderate- PA, vigorous-PA, and walking questions, in that order, whereas the alternate form presented walking questions, followed by moderate-PA, and then vigorous-PA questions. Weighted, adjusted rates of vigorous PA, walking, meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendation for moderate or vigorous PA, and moderate PA from each form were compared. Results: Vigorous PA and walking were similar regardless of question order. Meeting the CDC recommendation for moderate or vigorous PA was reported less often with the alternate form among 18- to 34-year-olds. Less moderate PA was reported with the alternate form overall and among 18- to 34-year-olds, women, whites, and those with a high school education or less. Conclusion: Estimating PA and walking across sociodemographic strata with differing patterns of PA requires asking moderate-PA and vigorous-PA questions before walking questions. Asking walking questions first might lead to bias, especially for moderate PA. Walking, added to a survey with BRFSS moderate and vigorous PA items, should be placed after moderate and vigorous PA. Walking questions first may cause bias, especially for moderate PA.
H. J. Moore, L. J. Ells, S. A. McLure, S. Crooks, D. Cumbor, C. D. Summerbell and A. M. Batterham. (2008). The development and evaluation of a novel computer program to assess previous-day dietary and physical activity behaviours in school children: the Synchronised Nutrition and Activity Program (SNAP). Br J Nutr. 99, 1266-74.
Self-report recall questionnaires used to measure physical activity and dietary intake in children can be labour intensive and monotonous and tend to focus on either dietary intake or physical activity. The web-based software, Synchronised Nutrition and Activity Program (SNAP), was developed to produce a novel, simple, quick and engaging method of assessing energy balance-related behaviours at a population level, combining principles from new and existing 24 h recall methodologies, set within a user-friendly interface. Dietary intake was measured using counts for twenty-one food groups and physical activity levels were measured in min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A combination of the mean difference between methods, type II regression and non-parametric limits of agreement techniques were used to examine the accuracy and precision of SNAP. Method comparison analyses demonstrated a good agreement for both dietary intake and physical activity behaviours. For dietary variables, accuracy of SNAP (mean difference) was within +/- 1 count for the majority of food groups. The proportion of the sample with between-method agreement within +/- 1 count ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. For min of MVPA, there was no substantial fixed or proportional bias, and a mean difference between methods (SNAP - accelerometry) of -9 min. SNAP provides a quick, accurate, low-burden, cost-effective and engaging method of assessing energy balance behaviours at a population level. Tools such as SNAP, which exploit the popularity, privacy and engagement of the computer interface, and linkages with other datasets, could make a substantial contribution to future public health monitoring and research.
A. Pirasteh, A. Hidarnia, A. Asghari, S. Faghihzadeh and F. Ghofranipour. (2008). Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls. Bmc Public Health. 8,
Background: The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. Results: The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. Conclusions: These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.
J. J. Reilly, V. Penpraze, J. Hislop, G. Davies, S. Grant and J. Y. Paton. (2008). Objective measurement of physical activity and sedentary behaviour: review with new data. Archives Of Disease In Childhood. 93, 614-619.
Objective methods are being used increasingly for the quantification of the amount of physical activity, intensity of physical activity and amount of sedentary behaviour in children. The accelerometer is currently the objective method of choice. In this review we address the advantages of objective measurement compared with more traditional subjective methods, notably the avoidance of bias, greater confidence in the amount of activity and sedentary behaviour measured, and improved ability to relate variation in physical activity and sedentary behaviour to variation in health outcomes. We also consider unresolved practical issues in paediatric accelerometry by critically reviewing the existing evidence and by providing new evidence.
J. F. Sallis. (2008). Angels in the details: comment on "The relationship between destination proximity, destination mix and physical activity behaviors". Prev Med. 46, 6-7.
F. J. van Lenthe, S. P. Kremers and J. Brug. (2008). Exploring environmental determinants of physical activity--the road to the future is always under construction. Public Health. 122, 329; author reply 330.
S. E. Wiehe, S. C. Hoch, G. C. Liu, A. E. Carroll, J. S. Wilson and J. D. Fortenberry. (2008). Adolescent travel patterns: Pilot data indicating distance from home varies by time of day and day of week. Journal Of Adolescent Health. 42, 418-420.
We conducted a pilot study using new technology to track adolescent "place." Using Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled cell phones, we recruited and tracked 15 female adolescents for a 1-week period. Distance away from home was greatest in the evenings on weekends or holidays. The greatest percentage of time spent more than 1 kilometer away from home was also during these times. Such GPS technology holds promise for future adolescent health research in allowing more specific and dynamic measurement of where adolescents spend time. (c) 2008 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.
D. K. Wilson. (2008). Commentary for Health Psychology special issue: theoretical advances in diet and physical activity interventions. Health Psychol. 27, S1-2.
This issue of Health Psychology includes original contributions for advancing research on theoretical issues such as mediation and moderation effects in promoting healthy diet and physical activity behavior change. This special issue was developed to highlight some of the fundamental issues from a biological, cognitive, social, and environmental perspective for understanding the impact of intervention effects on behavior change processes and ultimate health. Given the increasing prevalence of health-related problems, such as the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States, the perspective presented in this issue should be very useful to researchers, scientists, scholars, and a wide range of health professionals who hope to curb these critical public health problems.
N. Yphantides. (2008). For parents. Community solutions to childhood obesity. Diabetes Self Manag. 25, 60, 62-4.
An Active Living program supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by San Diego State University.