Rivers: All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds:
The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India
The Indo-Gangetic Plains==Popularly known as Ganga-Satluj Ka Maidaan(गँगा सतलुज का मैदान), this area is drained by 16 major rivers.
The major rivers in this system are (in order of merging, from west to east)
Yamuna - Starting from Mansarovar Lake in China
Chambal - Not Himalayan river, covers MP and UP before merging into Yamuna
Betwa - Not Himalayan river, covers MP and UP before merging into Yamuna
Ganga - Yamuna runs its most of the course parallel to Ganga before contributing its water to Ganga at Allahabad
Gomati - Starts near the junction of three borders viz. Nepal, Uttarakhand and UP
Ghaghra - Starts in Nepal near Uttarakhand
Son - Not Himalayan river, covers MP, UP, Jharkhand and Bihar. Largest of Ganga's southern tributaries
Gandak - Starts from Nepal
Kosi - Starts from Bihar, near Indo-Nepal border
Brahmputra- Merges with Ganga to form the grand river (but short in length) - Padma in Bangladesh. By now, flow velocity of both rivers slow down to considerable extent as they are in plains now.
Before entering Bangladesh, Ganga leaves a distributary Hugli, which provides water for irrigation in West Bengal
The major Himalayan Rivers are the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra.
The rivers empty themselves into:
Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Ganges, Kaveri, Godavari, Krishna
Arabian Sea: Narmada, Indus
Tributaries of Indus: Ravi, Chenub, Jhelum, Bias. Sutlej
Enters from Lake Mansarover Tibet, flows in Pak.
Brahmaputra (Tsangpo): enters from AP and Assam. On banks : Kaziranga National Park
Ganges starts as Bhagirathi and meets Alaknanda at Dev Prayag. Tributary: Yamuna
Ganga banks: Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna
Yamuna banks: Delhi, Agra
has been near Bhimbetka where civilization emerged. has Sardar Sarovar Dam
Some more info: Most of the major rivers of the peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers make delta at their mouth. The Narmada and Tapti are the only long rivers, which flow west and make estuaries.
Bone of contention: Teesta b/w Ind/ Bang
and Indus b/w Ind/China
The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act
The idea that produced the 73rd Amendment was not a response to pressure from the
grassroots, but to an increasing recognition that the institutional initiatives of the preceding
decade had not delivered, that the extent of rural poverty was still much too large and thus the
existing structure of government needed to be reformed. It is interesting to note that this idea
evolved from the Centre and the state governments. It was a political drive to see PRIs as a
solution to the governmental crises that India was experiencing. The Constitutional (73rd
Amendment) Act, passed in 1992 by the Narasimha Rao government, came into force on April
24, 1993. It was meant to provide constitutional sanction to establish "democracy at the
grassroots level as it is at the state level or national level". Its main features are as follows :
•The Gram Sabha or village assembly as a deliberative body to decentralised governance has been
envisaged as the foundation of the Panchayati Raj System.
•A uniform three-tier structure of panchayats at village (Gram Panchayat — GP), intermediate or
block (Panchayat Samiti — PS) and district (Zilla Parishad — ZP) levels.
•All the seats in a panchayat at every level are to be filled by elections from respective territorial constituencies.
•Not less than one-third of the total seats for membership as well as office of chairpersons of each tier have to be reserved for women.
•Reservation for weaker castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have to be provided at all levels in
proportion to their population in the panchayats.
•To supervise, direct and control the regular and smooth elections to panchayats, a State Election
Commission has to be constituted in every State and UT.
•The Act has ensured constitution of a State Finance Commission in every State/UT, for every five
years, to suggest measures to strengthen finances of PRIs.
•To promote bottom-up-planning, the District Planning Committee fDPC} in every district has been
accorded constitutional status.
•An indicative list of 29 items has been given in Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution. Panchayats
are expected to play an effective role in planning and implementation of works related to these 29
74 CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT RELATED TO MUNICIPAL COMMITTEES
EDUCATION AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT (86th CONSTITUTIONAL
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
_ Launched in 2001, 75:25 exp sharing during 10th Plan between Centre & States
_ All children in 6-14 yrs bracket in school
_ Bridge all gender & social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 & elementary stage by
_ Universal retention by 2010
_ Before 1976 education was the exclusive responsibility of the states
_ Central Advisory Board for Education was first established in 1920
_ National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education was launched in 1995
_ NCERT set up in 1961
_ National Literacy Mission was launched in 1988
_ Navodaya Schools launched in 1985
_ Mid-Day Meal Scheme –Launched 1995, aims to increase enrolment & retention in schools
_ Operation Blackboard –Launched 1987-88, 2 large classrooms, 2 teachers, essential
_ Lok Jumbish –Launched in Rajasthan with assistance from Sweden, aims for edu for all
_ Shiksha Karmi Project –aims at universalisation & qualitative improvement of primary edu
in remote places of Rajasthan, special emphasis on girl child
_ National Curriculum Framework was launched in 2005
_ UGC set up in 1953
_ IGNOU set up in 1985
_ National Book Trust set up in 1957
1] which of the following on April 2012 became the first state to ban all Gutka Products containing tobacco or nicotine under a new Law to govern food safety standards?
b) Madhya Pradesh c) Maharashtra
2] ‘Modernization of Indian Railways’ Agreement is signed by which two countries:
a) India and US
b) India and Belgium
c) India and Afghanistan
d) India and China
3] Which of the Bangladesh fish variety plays a significant role in the economy and contributing in the growth of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP)?
b) Hilsa c) Bau Mach
4] India has signed a Civil nuclear deal with which country besides U.S and FRANCE:
a) RUSSIA b) AUSTRALIA
5 ] Where was the 7th meeting of G-20 heads of Government held in 2012?
Margaret Chan heads which of the following agencies of the United Nations?
1) World Food Programme
2) United Nations Children’s Fund
3) International Court of Justice
4) World Health Organization
With which of the following will you associate the Indira Aawas Yojna?
1) Housing 2) Schooling
Which organization is the regulator for the securities market in India?
1) Bombay Stock Exchange
2) Securities and Exchange Board of India 3) Reserve Bank of India
4) Ministry of Finance.
Which of this is true with regards to the NYSE and NASDAQ?
1) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) comprises market makers and the NASDAQ
comprises specialist firms
2) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the NASDAQ both have only market
3) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) both comprise only specialist firms.
4) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) comprises specialist firms and the NASDAQ comprises market makers
Sections 378 to 462 of the Indian Penal Code deal with:
1) Offences against Property 2) Offences relating to Religion
3) Offences affecting the Public Health
4) Offences against the State
Which of these is/are true about ‘Mezzanine capital’?
A. It is a hybrid of debt and equity financing that is typically used to finance the expansion of existing companies.
B. It gives the lender the rights to convert to an ownership or equity interest in the company if the loan is not paid back in time and in full.
1) Only A
2) Only B
3) Both A and B 4) Neither A nor B
If one is a lepidopterist, one studies:
2) Moths 3) Whales
What is the name of the cyclone that made landfall near Mahabalipuram in late October 2012?
1) Cyclone Nilam 2) Cyclone Maria
3) Cyclone Candy
4) Cyclone Salam
Name the title sponsors of the 2012 Champions League Twenty20 cricket tournament that replaced Nokia?
1) A bond with a low interest rate to reward the lender for a high risk of default.
2) A bond with a high interest rate to reward the lender for a low risk of default.
3) A bond with a high interest rate to reward the lender for a high risk of default. 4) A bond with a low interest rate to reward the lender for a low risk of default.
19.In 2012, German pharmaceutical brand Bayer accused Indian pharmaceutical brand Cipla of breaching its patent rights by slashing the price of a generic version of its patent-protected cancer drug ____. Name the drug.
3) Nexavar 4) Vivecon
20.Passat, Polo and Beetle are automobile brands associated with which manufacturer?
3) Volkswagen 4) Renault
21.Just like NGOs, CBOs are nonprofit groups that work at local levels to improve life for residents. What does CBO stand for?
1) Corporate Based Organization
2) Class Based Organization
3) Community Based Organization 4) Caste Based Organization
22.Name the book by Hilary Mantel that won the 2012 Man Booker Prize.
1) Wolf Hall
2) Bring Up the Bodies 3) A Place of Greater Safety
4) Vacant Possession
23.Who among the following won the bid for the IPL Hyderabad franchise - Deccan Chargers – in October 2012?
1) Sun TV Network 2) STAR Sports
3) Sony PIX
4) Lotus News
24.Name the chief guest of the 2012 Indian Republic Day parade.
25.Which of the following was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2012?
1) United Nations
2) European Union 3) German Bolshevik Party
26.Which of these is not a metalloid?
27.The Gross World Product (GWP) is:
1) the combined gross national product of all the European countries in the world
2) the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world 3) the combined gross national product of all the developed countries in the world
4) the combined gross national product of all the Asian countries in the world.
28.Name the cruise ship that partially sank in January 2012 off the coast of Italy killing nearly 30 people.
1) Princess Dawn
2) Sail Bird
3) Costa Concordia 4) Tuscan Surprise
29.Name the author of ‘The Immortals of Meluha’ which is a fantasy related to the Indian deity Shiva’s life and adventures.
1) Amish Tripathi 2) Anu Garg
3) Amit Varma
4) Amitav Ghosh
30.Which bank recently announced a tie-up with Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. to utilize its Kisan Seva Kendras (KSKs) as the Bank’s Business Correspondents.
1) HSBC Bank
2) ICICI Bank
3) Deutsche Bank
4) HDFC Bank
11. Which film has won the Nargis Dutt Award for the Best Feature Film on National Integration in the 58th National Film Awards?
1) Do Dooni Chaar 2) Dabangg 3) Moner Manush 4) Champions 5) Aadukalam
12. A working group constituted by the Reserve Bank of India has submitted its report on non-banking finance companies (NBFCs). Who headed this committee?
Q1. What is the motto of the National Cadet Corps (NCC) ? Ekta Aur Anushasan
Q2. Nifty is the main share index of which stock exchange ? NSE
Q3. Which planet is nearest to Sun ? Mercury
Q4. According to Mahabahrat, who was Abhimanyu's mother ? Subhadra
Q5. What is the boundary line demarcating India and Pakistan known as ? Radcliffe Line
Q6. The name of which Indian classical dance style, originated in north India, literally means 'Story Teller' ? Kathak
Q7. Jama Masjid at Delhi, the largest in India, was built by which Mughal emperor ?Shahjahan
Q8. Which renowned vocalist was awarded Bharat Ratna in 2008 ? Pt. Bhimsen Joshi
Q9. The Althing, the oldest functioning legislative assembly in world, is the parliament of which country ? Iceland
Q10. To measure hardness of minerals, which scale is used ? Mohs
Tembhli is a village in Nandurbar district of Maharastra state in India, from where the ambitiousAadhar Scheme was launched on 29 September 2010. Ranjana Sonawane became the first woman to be given a Aadhar identity number
31. Recently the inventor of iPad died. He is ...........?
1) Edwin H. Armstrong 2) Charles Babbage 3) Steve Jobs 4) William Seward Burroughs 5) George Eastman
32. On 17th August 2011, ...........topped as most valuable firm crossing RIL ( Reliance Industries Limited) in market capitalization?
1) Income Tax 2) Corporate Duty 3) Service Tax 4) Sales Tax 5) Wealth Tax
The architects of Indian constitution were most heavily influenced by the British model of parliamentary democracy.
In addition, a number of principles were adopted from the Constitution of the United States of America, including the separation of powers among the major branches of government, the establishment of a supreme court.
The principles adopted from Canada were Unitary government with strong center and also distribution of powers between central government and provinces along with placing residuary powers with central government.
From Ireland, directive principle of state policy was adopted. From Germany the principle of suspension of fundamental rights during emergency was adopted.
From Australia the principle of Concurrent list and Language of preamble was adopted.
Q1. In 2007, which state re-established its Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council) after a gap of 22 years ? Andhra Pradesh
Q2. Which unit is used to measure the intensity of sound ? Decibel
Q3. Who wrote the patriotic song `Saare Jahan Se Achcha' ?Muhammad Iqbal
Q4. In which town of Uttar Pradesh did Gautam Buddha attain Mahaparinirvana (salvation) ? Kushinagar
Q5. Who presides over the joint sittings of both houses of Parliament ? Lok Sabha Speaker
Q6. Nathu La Pass, located in Sikkim, connects India with which country ? China
Q7. Who is the only Indian batsman to score Triple Century in Test Cricket ? Virender Sehwag
Q8. In which hill station is the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute (HMI) located ? Darjeeling
Q9. What term is used to refer the large number which is formed by writing digit 1 followed by 100 zeros ? Googol
Q10. Zakumi, a leopard, is the official mascot of which tournament ? FIFA Football World Cup 2010
Q1. What is the observation that `Supply creates its own demand' is popularly called ?Say's Law
Q2. In 1916, who founded Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi ? Madan Mohan Malaviya
Q3. Who was the first Jain Tirthankar ?Rishabh Dev
Q4. Where are the headquarters of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) situated ? Vienna
Q5. Which blood group is universal donor ? O
Q6. Who directed 8 Oscar awards winning film 'Slumdog Millionaire' ? Danny Boyle
Q7. Who became the first space tourist on 28 April, 2001 ? Dennis Tito
Q8. Khajuraho temples were built by rulers of which dynasty ?Chandela
Q9. The book `Beyond The Last Blue Mountain' written by R.M.Lala is the biography of which industrialist ? J.R.D.Tata
Temperature and related subjects The 10 °C mean isotherm in July, marked by the red line, is commonly used to define the
An isotherm (from θερμη or thermē, meaning 'heat') is a line that connects points on a map that have the same temperature. Therefore, all points through which an isotherm passes have the same or equal temperatures at the time indicated. Generally, isotherms representing 5 °C or 10 °F temperature differences are used, but any interval may be chosen.
An isogeotherm is a line of equal mean annual temperature. An isocheim is a line of equal mean winter temperature, and an isothere is a line of equal mean summer temperature.
An isohel (from ήλιος or helios, meaning 'Sun') is a line of equal or constant solar radiation.
Precipitation and air moisture
An isohyet or isohyetal line (from ύετος or huetos, meaning 'rain') is a line joining points of equal precipitation on a map. A map with isohyets is called an isohyetal map.
An isohume is a line of constant relative humidity, while a isodrosotherm (from δροσοςordrosos, meaning 'dew', and θερμη or therme, meaning 'heat') is a line of equal or constantdew point.
An isoneph is a line indicating equal cloud cover.
An isochalaz is a line of constant frequency of hail storms, and an isobront is a line drawn through geographical points at which a given phase of thunderstorm activity occurred simultaneously.
Snow cover is frequently shown as a contour-line map.
Wind An isotach (from ταχύς or tachus, meaning 'fast') is a line of constant wind speed. In meteorology, the term isogon refers to a line of constant wind direction.
Freeze and thaw An isopectic line denotes equal dates of ice formation each winter, and an isotac denotes equal dates of thawing.
* Which among the following variety accounts for maximum production of silk in India?
*Sant Kabir Award has been launched for the people who are related to ___?
*Maximum Jute mills in India are in ____?
*In which year National Seed Policy was announced?
*A controversial documentary ‘Super-Size Me’ had denounced one of the largest
Multinationals in the World. Who were they?
*National Research Centre for Litchi is located at which among the following places?
*Karnal Bunt affects which among the following cereal crops?
*All India Coordinated Research Project on Sub-Tropical Fruits is located at which among the following places?
*Which among the following country tops in FDI in India?
Q1. Who signs one rupee currency note of India ? Finance Secretary
Q2. Who wrote the 'Das Capital', an extensive treatise on political economy ? Karl Marx Q3. Who was the first law minister of independent India ? B.R.Ambedkar Q4. Arabica, Robusta and Liberica are the varieties of which popluar beverage ? Coffee Q5. Which Indian classical dance form, native of Andhra Pradesh, was developed by Siddhendra Yogi from Bhamakalapam dance drama ? Kuchipudi Q6. Where is the headquarters of the National Institute of Oceanography located ? Dona Paula (Goa) Q7. Which European country is known as the 'Land of a thousand lakes' ? Finland Q8. Which is the nearest star to the Sun ? Proxima Centauri Q9. Which gas is commonly known as 'Laughing Gas' ? Nitrous Oxide
Q10. Which is the only continent through which all three main latitude lines - Equator, Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn - passes ? Africa