These are the latest Standards, which were revised in 2010. These are only a portion of the standards, those that pertain specifically to the role of the reading specialist/coach. For a complete listing of the standards, please refer to the webpage:
Standard 1. . Foundational Knowledge. Candidates understand the theoretical and evidence-based foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction.
Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but is not limited to, the following –Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates…
1.1 Understand major theories and empirical research that describe the cognitive, linguistic, motivational, and sociocultural foundations of reading and writing development, processes, and components, including word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading-writing connections.
Interpret major theories of reading and writing processes and development to understand the needs of all readers in diverse context.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach and/or classroom teacher, I will understand the major theories of reading and writing processes and development. An understanding of these theories will allow me to interpret theorist ideas to understand the needs of all readers in diverse contexts. The following theories have emerged in history:
Engaged learning is the present model driving reading and writing processes and development to meet the needs of all readers. The engaged learning era emerged as research on motivation led to the consideration of learners’ interest, goals, self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulation, cultural backgrounds, and active participation in reading and writing. Students need to become more activated and motivated in their learning experiences. In addition, as the digital age expands, it has evolved the needs of readers and writers within technology contexts.
Analyze classroom environment quality for fostering individual motivation to read and write (e.g., access to print, choice, challenge, and interests.)
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will assist teachers with analyzing classroom environment quality for fostering individual motivation to read and write. I can support teachers in providing choice of texts and matching students’ interests, as well as helping students’ access print that challenges them in the following ways:
I will suggest the text Assessment for Reading Instruction (2nd Edition) by Michael C. McKenna and Katherine A. Dougherty Stahl to support the teacher with identifying students’ interests. Chapter nine, “Affective Factors”, provides numerous affective assessments such as: Elementary Reading Attitude Survey; Motivations for Reading Questionnaire; Reader Self-Perception Scale; Reading Activity Inventory; Title Recognition Test; and Adolescent Reading Attitudes Survey.
I will suggest the website resource Kansas.bookconnect.com to assist teachers with searching for texts to match students’ interests. The website allows teachers to search for materials by topics of interest and sub-topics. The website also includes reading levels for teacher’s to locate materials of interest on the students’ appropriate reading level.
I will suggest the teacher administer a formal or an informal interview with the students and parents at the beginning of the year to learn more about the students’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
As a classroom teacher, I will use a variety of affective and cognitive assessment measures to analyze the classroom environment quality and my students’ motivation levels to read and write. I will support their affective development of reading and writing by providing choice in our reading and writing activities. In addition, I can provide my students with easy access to reading materials based on their independent and instructional levels that also appeals to their individual interests. In standard 5.2, I have described in depth different instructional practices that foster the motivation to read and write as well.
Demonstrate a critical stance toward the scholarship of the profession.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach and/or classroom teacher, it will be important to participate in on-going, job-embedded research for best practices in literacy teaching and learning. Research and inquiry-based discussions will drive my reflections on my instructional practices for students. According to Kathleen McKinney in What is the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) in Higher Education?, “Scholarly teachers do things such as reflect on their teaching, use classroom assessment techniques, discuss teaching issues with colleagues, try new things, and read and apply the literature on teaching and learning in their discipline and, perhaps, more generally”. I can also share my knowledge of the profession with other teachers and professionals in a variety of formats such as: presentations at conferences, publications, or professional development opportunities.
Read and understand the literature and research about factors that contribute to reading success (e.g., social, cognitive, and physical.)
As a reading specialist/literacy coach and/or classroom teacher, I will read and understand the literature and research about social, cognitive, and physical factors that contribute to reading success. Research that is helpful in current understandings of the factors that contribute to the reading success are the ideas of Lev Vygotsky. Nancy Cecil, Joan Gipe, and Marcy Merrill in Literacy in Grades 4-8: Best Practices for a Comprehensive Program (3rd Edition) state, “At the heart of the constructivist model of learning is the belief that students must actively build their own understandings of all literacy activities. Vygotsky further asserted that all learning is basically a social and psychological process that takes place through interactions between students and others in their environment” (p. 3, 2014). Furthermore, social-learning perspectives and collaborative learning is relevant in supporting students’ reading and writing successes. In addition, students’ personal interpretations and background knowledge becomes important within the context of reading and writing instruction within the classroom.
Inform other educators about major theories of reading and writing processes, components, and development with supporting research evidence, including information about the relationship between the culture and native language of English learners as a support system in the learning to read and write in English.
As a reading specialist and/or literacy coach, I can inform other educators about information regarding the relationship between culture and native language and how they influence ELL students’ abilities in learning to read and write. This information about ELL students would be presented through professional development opportunities where I would specifically discuss the three theoretical perspectives (Behaviorist, Innatist, and Interactionist) that fit into the First and Second Language Acquisition Theories. In these professional development opportunities, I can provide activities that educators can use to support ELL students in their Second Language Acquisition such as age appropriate reading and writing activities that promote social interaction and foster cultural and native differences.
Resource for Activities: Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL by Suzanne F. Peregoy and Owen Boyle
1.2 Understand the historically shared knowledge of the profession and changes over time in the perceptions of reading and writing development, processes, and components.
Interpret and summarize historically shared knowledge (e.g., instructional strategies and theories) that addresses the needs of all readers.
As a classroom teacher, I will interpret and summarize historically shared knowledge of instructional practices and theories that address the needs of all readers. It is important to interpret historically shared knowledge of these theories to understand which instructional strategies, aligned with specific theories, are most appropriate and effective for all learners.
According to Don W. Edgar in his article Learning Theories and Historical Events Affecting Instructional Design in Education: Recitation Literacy Toward Extraction Literacy Practices, “The ways that learners process information are being understood more each day with discoveries about the mind, cultural attributes that affect learning, and how to make learning positive for today’s learners. We must understand that not one theory or belief is the cure in education today. All learners are different, and that individualized instruction and education facilitates learning” (p. 8, 2012). Therefore, understanding historically shared knowledge, such as the historical theories listed in the timeline below, will help address the needs of all learners in my classroom.
Inform educators and others about the historically shared knowledge base in reading and writing and its role in reading education.
As reading specialist/literacy coach, I can inform educators and others about the historically shared knowledge base in reading and writing and its role reading education. I can inform these other professionals of relevant theories and instructional practices that have emerged within the following historical eras:
These eras and relevant theories have impacted reading and writing instruction within our education systems. Within PLC meetings and professional development opportunities, I can share my knowledge of these historical implications for reading education. In my graduate program, my colleagues and I compiled a Google Doc to demonstrate our knowledge of each historical time period. This Google Doc chart divides each historical era into conditions for change, guiding views, resulting principles, and rival views of learner and learning process.
1.3 Understand the role of professional judgment and practical knowledge for improving all students’ reading development and achievement.
Model fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior when teaching students and working with other professionals.
As reading specialist/literacy coach and/orclassroom teacher, I will model fair-mindedness, empathy, & ethical behavior for my students by treating each of my students equally and with respect. In addition, I will be fair, consistent, and avoid bias opinions when teaching my students. When working with other professionals, I will model this same behavior by: acting in a professional manner; maintaining open lines of communication with all other professionals regarding student progress; and respecting the opinion of others.
Communicate the importance of fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior in literacy instruction and professional behavior.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will provide other professionals, as well as students, with culturally diverse texts and resources.
As a classroom teacher, I will communicate the importance of fair-mindedness, empathy, and ethical behavior in literacy instruction by:
Emphasizing the importance of the acceptance of all cultures through social interactions with peers
Allowing students to share about their cultures and their backgrounds
Utilizing ELL parents and families as a resource
Incorporating and honoring home languages within literacy lessons
Standard 2. Curriculum and Instruction
Candidates use instructional approaches, materials, and an integrated, comprehensive, balanced curriculum to support student learning in reading and writing.
Evidence that demonstrates competence may include, but it not limited to, the following—Reading Specialist/Literacy Coach Candidates…
2.1 Use foundational knowledge to design or implement an integrated, comprehensive, and balanced curriculum
Demonstrate an understanding of the research and literature that undergirds the reading and writing curriculum instruction for all pre-K-12 students.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach I will need to demonstrate an understanding of the research and literature that undergirds the reading and writing curriculum instruction. It will be important for me support teachers and administrators in developing a literacy curriculum based on the pre-K-12 Standards of Learning (SOL). These standards are created with research-based instructional practices and theories in mind to meet the curriculum needs of all students. I will remain up-to-date on current research and literature by maintaining a literacy membership in organizations such as the Virginia State Reading Association (VSRA). In addition, I will subscribe to literacy research magazines and journals that would allow me to have an understanding of current research and instructional practices.
Develop and implement the curriculum to meet the specific needs of students who struggle with reading.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will provide additional support for students who struggle with reading through a variety of intervention methods in heterogeneous groups or one-on-one tutoring sessions.
As a classroom teacher, I will develop and implement the curriculum to meet the needs of students who struggle with learning. I can do this by adapting instructional practices and differentiating instruction of the curriculum to the meet the individualized needs of students in my classroom. I will implement research-based instructional practices through modeling, guided practice, and independent practice while scaffolding curriculum material for students.
Support teachers and other personnel in the design, implementation, and evaluations of the reading and writing curriculum for all students.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will support teachers and other personnel in the design, implementation, and evaluations of the reading and writing curriculum for all students. Specifically, I will assist teachers and personnel with analyzing and interpreting student data to facilitate inquiry discussions about areas of need for students within the reading and writing curriculum. I will support teachers in implementing curriculum through model lessons that target areas of needs for the students. Also, I will observe the implementation of curriculum instruction through lesson observations and debriefing sessions.
Work with teachers and other personnel in developing a literacy curriculum that has vertical and horizontal alignment across pre-K-12.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will work with teachers and other personnel to implement curriculum standards into instruction throughout the school year. I will work with teachers and other personnel in developing a literacy curriculum that has vertical alignment across pre-k-12 by assisting individuals with matching their instruction with literacy curriculum for each grade level. In addition, I will work with teachers and other personnel in developing a literacy curriculum that has a horizontal alignment by assisting them with assessments that match literacy curriculum objectives for each grade level. Also, I will assist teachers and other personnel with progress-monitoring for students in each grade-level throughout the school year.
2.2 Use appropriate and varied instructional approaches, including those that develop word recognition, language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading-writing connections.
Use instructional approaches supported by literature and research for the following areas: concepts of print, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, critical thinking, motivation, and writing.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will support teachers in using instructional approaches that are supported by literacy in research. I can suggest the resource Best Practices in Literacy Instruction (4th Edition) which is compiled book of research based approaches and best practices in the following areas: early literacy, struggling readers, ELL students, adolescent literacy, motivation, teaching phonological awareness, vocabulary instruction, comprehension instruction, fluency instruction, writing instruction, and assessment. I can also model these instructional practices in demonstration lessons for teachers as needed.
As a classroom teacher, I can use instructional approaches that are supported by literature and research such as those written in the resource Best Practices in Literacy Instruction (4th Edition). A few of these instructional approaches included in the resource are:
Concepts of Print- Direct instruction and modeling of skills such as finger-pointing (p. 74)
Phonemic Awareness- Focus on Rhymes in chants, jingles, and songs (p. 203)
Phonics- Using a variety of approaches such as analogy-based and word building instruction (p. 201)
Vocabulary- Using a variety of materials such as semantic webs, maps, and organizers (p. 233)
Comprehension- Explicit instruction and guided practice of comprehension strategies in a variety of contexts (p. 259)
Fluency- Wide and repeated readings of texts (p. 280)
Critical Thinking- The need for a ‘critical stance’ with regard to any position (p. 164)
Motivation- Providing choice in student learning (p. 187)
Writing- Authentic writing for a variety of audiences and purposes (p. 301)
Provide appropriate in-depth instruction for all readers and writers, especially those who struggle with reading and writing.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will support teachers in providing appropriate in-depth instruction for all readers and writers, especially those who struggle with reading and writing. I can model appropriate instruction for teachers, as well as provide coaching support as needed.
As a classroom teacher, I will provide appropriate in-depth instruction for all readers and writers, especially those who struggle with reading and writing. I will do this by using a variety of instructional strategies and practices in my instruction that meet the needs of my students. An example of a writing lesson that incorporates writing strategies for struggling writers is the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model. The STOP strategy, as well as the DARE strategy, can be used within this lesson to help struggling writers with persuasive writing. These strategies are listed below.
Suspend judgment- Did I list ideas for each side? Can I think of anything else? Try to write more. Another side I haven’t considered yet is…
Take a side- Decide which side you believe in or which side can be used the make the strongest argument
Organize ideas- Place a star next to the points you plan to use and number them in the order you plan to use them
Plan more as you write- DARE: Develop your topic sentence, Add supporting details, Reject arguments for the other side, and End with a strong conclusion
Support classroom teachers and education support personnel to implement instructional approaches for all students.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will support classroom teachers and educational support personnel by:
Modeling instructional approaches such as the STOP and DARE strategies within the SRSD model for these individuals
Supporting these individuals with locating, selecting, and using a variety of reading and writing materials to implement with these instructional approaches
As needed, adapt instructional materials and approaches to meet the language-proficiency needs of English learners and students who struggle to learn to read and write.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will be responsible for assisting language arts and content-area teachers with meeting the language-proficiency needs of English Language Learners and adapting instructional materials to meet these needs. I will provide professional development workshops and small-group, content-specific meetings that will communicate the following ideas to classroom teachers and other professionals:
Use hands-on activities and encourage group work
Engage students in simulation games, experiments, field trips, and films to help build students’ background knowledge
Incorporate visual aids and graphic organizers within lessons to scaffold material and build comprehension (maps, story maps, anticipation guides, learning logs, ect.)
Pre-teach vocabulary and key terms in a variety of formats (vocabulary clusters, visuals, ect.)
Incorporating gestures, illustrations, and facial expressions into explanations of material
Adapting assessments to meet proficiency levels (orally or using a tape recorder)
Using simple language by avoiding slang and speaking naturally
Labeling classroom objects
Explicitly teaching comprehension and vocabulary strategies and scaffolding these strategies as needed
Allow ELL students to work in pairs to write about topics they have background knowledge of
Allow ELL students with limited English proficiency to use a variety of ways to communicate material (illustrations, journals, gestures, ect.)
2.3 Use a wide range of texts (e.g., narrative, expository, and poetry) from traditional print, digital, and online resources.
Demonstrate knowledge of and a critical stance toward a wide variety of quality traditional print, digital, and online resources.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will support teachers in selecting a wide variety of traditional print, digital, and online resources that are appropriate for their students’ developmental literacy levels. Using a variety of materials will appeal to the different types of learners in teachers’ classrooms.
As a classroom teacher, I will incorporate a wide variety of quality literacy materials that are appropriate for my students. In my Graduate Program, I created a Literacy Text Set that included a wide variety of traditional print, digital, and online resources. The text set was centered on a content area, science, and a theme, “Wild Weather”. The text set included both non-linguistic and linguistic representations such as:
Fiction & Non-fiction Books
Support classroom teachers in building and using a quality, accessible classroom library and materials collection that meets the specific needs and abilities of all learners.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will help support the classroom teachers in building and using a quality, accessible classroom library and materials collection that meets the specific needs and abilities of all learners. I will assist the teachers in analyzing assessment data to determine independent, instructional, and frustrational levels for the students. I will explain to the classroom teachers the importance of selecting materials for students on their appropriate instructional levels. I will build my own classroom library for teachers to utilize, as well as support teachers in borrowing appropriate leveled materials from the school library. In addition, I will suggest online resources for teachers to access to locate materials. For instance, the website resource Kansas.bookconnect.com would assist teachers with searching for texts to match students’ interests. The website allows teachers to search for materials by topics of interest and sub-topics. The website also includes reading levels for teacher’s to locate materials of interest on the students’ appropriate reading level.
Lead collaborative school efforts to evaluate, select, and use a variety of instructional materials to meet the specific needs and abilities of all learners.
As a reading specialist/literacy coach, I will be responsible for leading collaborative school efforts to evaluate, select, and use a variety of instructional materials to meet the specific needs and abilities of all learners. In grade-level PLC meetings, I can collaborate with teachers in evaluating instructional materials for their students based on independent, instructional, and frustration levels of students. I can support teachers in selecting materials for students based on developmental levels and interests of all students. To share these materials with others and encourage the use of these instructional materials within the classroom, I can create Google Docs to share instructional materials with other teachers within each grade level. Teachers would be able to also add the materials that they use into the document.