Jiva-tattva as it is


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The Lord and His separated energies are ONE and the SAME while DIFFERING in their particular activities, since the Lord's energies are subordinate. The Lord has direct and separate identities with particular fields of activities, and His personal energies also follow his example.
SB. 4.28.52 (Puranjana Becomes a Woman in Next Life)

The brahmana inquired as follows: Who are you? Whose wife or daughter are you? Who is the man lying here? It appears you are lamenting for this dead body. Don't you recognize Me? I am your eternal friend. You may remember that many times in the past you have consulted Me.”


“When a person's relative dies renunciation is automatically visible. Consultation with the Supersoul seated within everyone's heart is possible only when one is completely free from the contamination of material attachment. One who is sincere and pure gets an opportunity to consult with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Paramatma feature sitting within everyone's heart. The Paramatma is always the chaitya-guru, the spiritual master within, and He comes before one externally as the instructor and initiator spiritual master. The Lord can reside within the heart, and He can also come out before a person and give him instructions. Thus the spiritual master is not different from the Supersoul sitting within the heart. An uncontaminated soul or living entity can get a chance to meet the Paramatma face to face. Just as one gets a chance to consult with the Paramatma within his heart, one also gets a chance to see Him actually situated before him. Then one can take instructions from the Supersoul directly. This is the duty of the pure devotee: to see the bona fide spiritual master and consult with the Supersoul within the heart.

When the brahmana asked the woman who the man lying on the floor was, she answered that he was her spiritual master and that she was perplexed about what to do in his absence. At such a time the Supersoul immediately appears, provided the devotee is purified in heart by following the directions of the spiritual master. A sincere devotee who follows the instructions of the spiritual master certainly gets direct instructions from his heart from the Supersoul. Thus a sincere devotee is always helped directly or indirectly by the spiritual master and the Supersoul. This is confirmed in Chaitanya-charitamrita: guru-krishna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija [Cc. Madhya 19.151]. If the devotee serves his spiritual master sincerely, Krishna automatically becomes pleased. Yasya prasadad bhagavad-prasadah. By satisfying the spiritual master, one automatically satisfies Krishna. Thus the devotee becomes enriched by both the spiritual master and Krishna. The Supersoul [WHOSE IDENTITY ONLY EXISTS WITHIN THE MAHA-TATTVA AND MUNDANE CREATION] is eternally the friend of the [CONDITIONED] living entity and always remains with him. The Supersoul has always been ready to help the living entity, even before the creation of this material world. It is therefore stated here: yenagre vicacartha. The word agre means "before the creation." Thus the Supersoul has been accompanying the living entity since before the creation.”

SB 4.28.53:

The brahmana continued: My dear friend, even though you cannot immediately recognize Me, can't you remember that in the past you had a very intimate friend? Unfortunately, you gave up My company and accepted a position as enjoyer of this material world.”


As stated in Bhagavad-gita (7.27): iccha-dvesha-samutthena / dvandva-mohena bharata

sarva-bhutani sammoham / sarge yanti parantapa

"O scion of Bharata [Arjuna], O conqueror of the foe, all living entities are born into delusion, overcome by the dualities of desire and hate." This is an explanation of how the living entity falls down into this material world. In the spiritual world there is NO DUALITY, NOR THERE IS HATE. The Supreme Personality of Godhead expands Himself into many. In order to enjoy bliss more and more, the Supreme Lord expands Himself in different categories. As mentioned in the Varaha Purana, He expands Himself in vishnu-tattva (the svamsha expansion) and in His marginal potency (the vibhinnamsha, or the living entity). These expanded living entities are innumerable, just as the minute molecules of sunshine are innumerable expansions of the sun. The vibhinnamsha expansions, the marginal potencies of the Lord, are the living entities. [THE LAW OF PARINAMAVADA (Cc. ADI 7.120-21-22-23) ESTABLISHES THAT THE TATASTHA-SHAKTI IS NOT AMALGAMATED WITH THE ANTARANGA-SHAKTI. TO THINK OTHERWISE IS MAYAVADA THEORY. THE LIVING ENTITY IS A PART AND PARCEL OF THE LORD, MANIFESTING AS VIBHINNAMSHA OR HIS SEPARATED EXPANSIONS AS CONSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS OF HIS INTERMEDIATE ENERGY OR TATASTHA-SHAKTI] When the living entities desire to enjoy themselves, they develop a consciousness of DUALITY and come to HATE THE SERVICE of the Lord [THE LIVING ENTITIES “HATE THE SERVICE” TOWARDS THE LORD, FROM THEIR PLATFORM OF SHANTA-RASA EXCLUSIVELY. THE TATASTHA-JIVAS EMANATE FROM KRISHNA’S BODILY RAYS WITH CONSTITUTIONAL IDENTITIES AS SPIRITUAL SPARKS, IN THE SHANTA-RASA STATUS. THUS THE JIVAS —AS CONSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS OF KRISHNA’S MARGINAL TATASHTA-SHAKTI ALSO, WHO FROM THE MARGINAL AREA DIVIDING THE SPIRITUAL AND MATERIAL WORLD CHOSE NOT TO DIRECT THEMSELVES TO BE PERSONALLY ENGAGED IN THE LORD’S SEVAMAINTAIN THEIR SHANTA-RASA WITH THE LORD ALTHOUGH “COME TO HATE THE SERVICE OF THE LORD,” THERE IS NO AMBIGUITY IN PRABHUPADA’S ASSERTIONS ABOVE IN BOLD TEXT]. In this way the living entities fall into the material world. In the Prema-vivarta it is said:

krishna-bahirmukha hana bhoga-vancha kare / nikana-stha maya tare japaniya dhare

The natural position of the living entity is to serve the Lord in a transcendental loving attitude [THE LIVING ENTITY IN THE DIRECT PERSONAL COMPANY OF THE LORD (PARIKARAS), NEVER FALL DOWN NEITHER HATE THEIR LORD]. When the living entity wants to become Krishna Himself or imitate Krishna, he falls down into the material world [A TATASTHA-JIVA EMANATES FROM KRISHNA’S BODY IN KRISHNALOKA, AS A SPIRITUAL SPARK WITH ETERNALLY INHERENT SERVICE PROPENSITY. WHEN SUCH LIVING ENTITY ENGAGES IN ACTION, IT DOES SO FROM THE TATASTHA AREA OR VIRAJA RIVER, WHICH IS FAR DISTANT FROM KRISHNALOKA]. Since Krishna is the supreme father, His affection for the living entity is eternal. When the living entity falls down into the material world, the Supreme Lord, through His svamsha expansion (Paramatma), keeps company with the living entity. In this way the living entity may some day return home, back to Godhead.

By misusing his independence, the living entity falls down from the SERVICE of the Lord and takes a position in this material world as an enjoyer [THE ABSOLUTELY IMPARTIAL PLACE FOR THE LIVING ENTITY TO ENACT ITS RIGHT FOR ABSOLUTE FREE WILL —THUS ENACTING PERFECT INDEPENDENT STATUS OF CHOICE— IS THE TATASTHA AREA, WHICH DIVIDES THE SPIRITUAL AND MUNDANE WORLDS. THE LIVING ENTITY IS CONSTITUTIONALLY POSITIONED IN SHANTA-RASA, ANS THUS FORGETS ITS NATURAL INHERENT PROPENSITY FOR THE DIRECT PERSONAL SERVICE TO THE LORD IN ANY OF THE OTHER FOUR RASAS, WHICH ARE ALSO ETERNALLY LYING WITHIN THEM. THE LIVING ENTITY AT THE TATASTHA AREA OR VIRAJA RIVER IS NOT DIRECTLY ENGAGED IN THE PERSONAL SERVICE WITH THE LORD, WHO ALWAYS IS IN KRISHNALOKA. THUS THE LIVING ENTITY IN THE TATASTHA AREA HAS BEEN NEVER ENGAGED IN A DIRECT PERSONAL SERVICE IN KRISHNALOKA OR VAIKUNTHALOKA]. That is to say, the living entity takes his position within a material body. Wanting to take a very exalted position, the living entity instead becomes entangled in a repetition of birth and death. He selects his position as a human being, a demigod, a cat, a dog, a tree, etc. In this way the living entity selects a body out of the 8,400,000 forms and tries to satisfy himself by a variety of material enjoyment. The Supersoul, however, does not like him to do this. Consequently, the Supersoul instructs him to surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord then takes charge of the living entity. But unless the living entity is uncontaminated by material desires, he cannot surrender to the Supreme Lord. In Bhagavad-gita (5.29) the Lord says:

yajna-tapasam / sarva-loka-maheshvaram

suhridam sarva-bhutanam / jnatva mam shantim ricchati

"The sages, knowing Me as the ultimate purpose of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attains peace from the pangs of material miseries."

The Supreme Lord is the supreme friend of everyone; however, no one can take advantage of the supreme friend's instructions while making his own plans to become happy and entangling himself in the modes of material nature. When there is creation, the living entities take on different forms according to past desires. This means that all the species or forms of life are simultaneously created. Darwin's theory stating that no human being existed from the beginning but that humans evolved after many, many years is simply a nonsensical theory. From Vedic literature we find that the first creature within the universe is Lord Brahma. Being the most intelligent personality, Lord Brahma could take charge of creating all the variety found within this material world.”

SB 4.28.54

My dear gentle friend, both you and I are exactly like two swans. We live together in the same heart, which is just like the Manasa Lake. Although we have been living together for many thousands of years, we are still far away from our original home.”


The original home of the living entity and the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the spiritual world. In the spiritual world both the Lord and the living entities live together very peacefully. Since the living entity remains engaged in the service of the Lord, they both share a blissful life in the spiritual world. However, when the living entity wants to enjoy himself, he falls down into the material world. Even while he is in that position, the Lord remains with him as the Supersoul, his intimate friend. Because of his forgetfulness, the living entity does not know that the Supreme Lord is accompanying him as the Supersoul. In this way the living entity remains conditioned in each and every millennium. Although the Lord follows him as a friend, the living entity, because of forgetful material existence, does not recognize Him.”

SB 4.28.55

[THE SUPERSOUL IS PRESENT ONLY WITHIN THE MUNDANE WORLD:] “My dear friend, you are now My very same friend. Since you left Me, you have become more and more materialistic, and not seeing Me, you have been traveling in different forms throughout this material world, which was created by some woman.”


“When the living entity falls down [AFTER HAVING ENACTED ITS PERFECT FREE WILL FROM THE IMPARTIAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE TATASTHA AREA, OR EITHER AFTER HAVING REJECTED THE DIRECT PERSONAL COMPANY OF THE LORD FROM HIS BHOUMA-LILA EXCLUSIVELY], he goes into the material world, which was created by the external energy of the Lord. This external energy is described herein as "some woman," or prakriti. This material world is composed of material elements, ingredients supplied by the mahat-tattva, the total material energy. The material world, created by this external energy, becomes the so-called home of the conditioned soul. Within this material world the conditioned soul accepts different apartments, or different bodily forms, and then travels about. Sometimes he travels in the higher planetary systems and sometimes in the lower systems. Sometimes he travels in higher species of life and sometimes in lower species. He has been wandering within this material universe since time immemorial. As explained by Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu:

brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva / guru-krishna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija

‘The living entity wanders into many species of life, but he is fortunate when he once again meets his friend, either in person or through His representative.’ [Cc. Madhya 19.151]

“Actually, it is Krishna who personally advises all living entities to return home, back to Godhead [WHETHER IN SRI KRISHNA’S OWN WORDS FOUND IN BG. OR SB, AND IN SRILA PRABHUPADA’S SANSKRIT TRANSLATIONS OR ENGLISH PURPORTS TO KRISHNA’S DIRECT PERSONAL WORDS, THE STATEMENT “BACK TO GODHEAD” IS NOT MENTIONED AS IN HERE. SRI KRISHNA AND SRILA PRABHUPADA BOTH CLEARLY USE THE WORDS “ATTAIN” “ACHIEVE” OR “REACH” TO DENOTE THE LIVING ENTITY’S ENTERING KRISHNALOKA OR VAIKUNTHALOKA WITH FULLY MANIFESTED SIDDHA-DEHA. THE TERM “BACK TO GODHEAD” MUST BE UNDERSTOOD AS “GOING BACK TO KRISHNA, SINCE ONLY KRISHNA AND HIS ENERGIES EXIST, AND ONE SHOULD UNDERSTAND THAT ULTIMATELY HIS ENERGIES ARE NOT ACTUALLY SEPARATED FROM HIM”]. Sometimes Krishna sends His representative, who, delivering Krishna's very message, canvasses all living entities to return home, back to Godhead. Unfortunately the living entity is so greatly attached to material enjoyment that he does not take the instructions of Krishna or His representative very seriously. This material tendency is mentioned in this verse as gramya-matih (sense gratification). The word mahim means "within this material world." All living entities within this material world are sensually inclined. Consequently they become entangled in different types of bodies and suffer the pangs of material existence.”


SB 3.16.26, BHAKTIVEDANTA PURPORT: “That a devote should come into an atheistic family is surprising, but it is simply a show. After finishing their mock fighting, both the devotee and the Lord are again associated in the spiritual planets. That is very explicitly explained here. The conclusion is that no one falls from the spiritual world, or Vaikuntha planet, for it is the eternal abode. But sometimes, as the Lord desires, devotees come into this material world as preachers or atheists. In each case we must understand that there is a plan of the Lord.”


A jiva falls down from the lord’s direct and personal engagement while in His bhouma-lila, due to time immemorial envy based in shanta-rasa, which is inherent in the nitya-baddha-tatastha-jiva. Therefore the shanta-rasa status —proper of a conditioned jiva— is NOT fully suitable to enter Krishnaloka, or is absent in Goloka Vrindavana. The shanta-rasa status —which is constitutional of the tatastha-jiva in the tatastha-shakti area of existence, i.e., the Viraja River— is mostly IMPERSONAL. Only great souls as Sanat, Prahlada, Shukadeva, Narada and others show the highest levels of self-realization after having established a pure personal relationship with the Lord from such status.

Cc Adi 5.40: “In that spiritual sky, on the four sides of Narayana, are the second expansions of the quadruple expansions of Dvaraka.”

BHAKTIVEDANTA PURPORT: “Within the spiritual sky is a second manifestation of the quadruple forms of Dvaraka from the abode of Krishna. Among these forms, which are all spiritual and immune to the material modes, Sri Baladeva is represented as Maha-Shankarshana.

The activities in the spiritual sky are manifested by the internal potency in pure spiritual existence. They expand in six transcendental opulences, which are all manifestations of Maha-Shankarshana, who is the ultimate reservoir and objective of all living entities. Although belonging to the marginal potency, known as jiva-shakti, the spiritual sparks known as the living entities are subjected to the conditions of material energy. It is because these sparks are related with both the internal and external potencies of the Lord that they are known as belonging to the marginal potency.”



The jivas are spiritual sparks, and as such they manifest activities from the neutral area known as tatastha or Viraja River. It is from this neutral area that the spiritual spark jivas execute their unconditional free will, and choosing to lean towards the side of the Viraja River that is in “touch” with the spiritual world, they become nitya-siddha-jivas in any of the eternally inherent five rasas. On the other hand, if they decide to lean towards the side of the Viraja river that is in “touch” with the material world, they become nitya-baddha-jivas and maintain the spiritual spark identity in their eternal constitutional rasa solely based in shanta-rasa.

Cc. Madhya 20.108-109

jivera ‘svarupa’ haya—krishera ‘nitya-dasa’ / krishnera ‘tatastha-shakti’ ‘bhedabheda-prakasha’

suryamsha-kirana, yaiche agni-jvala-chaya / svabhavika krishnera tina-prakara ‘shakti’ haya

jivera—of the living entity; svarupa—the constitutional position; haya—is; krishera—of Lord Krishna; nitya-dasa—eternal servant; krishnera—of Lord Krishna; tatastha—marginal; shakti—potency; bheda-abheda—one and different; prakasha—manifestation; surya-amsha—part and parcel of the sun; kirana—a ray of sunshine; yaiche—as; agni-jvala-chaya—molecular particle of fire; svabhavika—naturally; krishnera—of Lord Krishna; tina-prakara—three varieties; shakti—energies; haya—there are.

It is the living entity’s constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Krishna because he is the marginal energy of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire. Krishna has three varieties of energy.”

BHAKTIVEDANTA PURPORT: “Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explains these verses as follows: Sri Sanatana Gosvami asked Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, “Who am I?” In answer, the Lord replied, “You are a pure living entity. You are neither the gross material body nor the subtle body composed of mind and intelligence. Actually you are a spirit soul, eternally part and parcel of the Supreme Soul, Krishna. Therefore you are His eternal servant. You belong to Krishna’s marginal potency. There are two worlds—the spiritual world and the material world—and you are situated between the material and spiritual potencies. You have a relationship with both the material and the spiritual world; therefore you are called the marginal potency. You are related with Krishna as one and simultaneously different. Because you are spirit soul, you are one in quality with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but because you are a very minute particle of spirit soul [SPIRITUAL SPARK], you are different from the Supreme Soul. Therefore your position is simultaneously one with and different from the Supreme Soul. The examples given are those of the sun itself and the small particles of sunshine and of a blazing fire and the small particles of fire.” Another explanation of these verses can be found in Adi-lila, Chapter Two, Verse 96. [See it below]”

Cc. Adi 2.96: “One who knows the real feature of Sri Krishna and His three different energies cannot remain ignorant about Him.”

BHAKTIVEDANTA PURPORT: “Srila Jiva Gosvami states in his Bhagavat-sandarbha (16) that by His potencies, which act in natural sequences beyond the scope of the speculative human mind, the Supreme Transcendence, the summum bonum, eternally and simultaneously exists in four transcendental features: His personality, His impersonal effulgence, particles of His potency (the living beings), and the principal cause of all causes. The Supreme Whole is compared to the sun, which also exists in four features, namely the personality of the sun-god, the glare of his glowing sphere, the sun rays inside the sun planet, and the sun’s reflections in many other objects. The ambition to corroborate the existence of the transcendental Absolute Truth by limited conjectural endeavors cannot be fulfilled, because He is beyond the scope of our limited speculative minds. In an honest search for truth, we must admit that His powers are inconceivable to our tiny brains. The exploration of space has demanded the work of the greatest scientists of the world, yet there are countless problems regarding even fundamental knowledge of the material creation that bewilder scientists who confront them. Such material knowledge is far removed from the spiritual nature, and therefore the acts and arrangements of the Absolute Truth are, beyond all doubts, inconceivable.

The primary potencies of the Absolute Truth are mentioned to be three: internal, external and marginal. By the acts of His internal potency, the Personality of Godhead in His original form exhibits the spiritual cosmic manifestations known as the Vaikunthalokas, which exist eternally, even after the destruction of the material cosmic manifestation. By His marginal potency the Lord expands Himself as living beings who are part of Him [IN A TRANSCENDENTAL SHAPE AS SPIRITUAL SPARKS], just as the sun distributes its rays in all directions. By His external potency the Lord manifests the material creation, just as the sun with its rays creates fog. The material creation is but a perverse reflection of the eternal Vaikuntha nature.

These three energies of the Absolute Truth are also described in the Vishnu Purana, where it is said that the living being is equal in quality to the internal potency, whereas the external potency is indirectly controlled by the chief cause of all causes. Maya, the illusory energy, misleads a living being [THAT IS IN ITS SPIRITUAL SPARK-SHAPE IN THE TATASTHA AREA OR VIRAJA RIVER] as fog misleads a pedestrian by blocking off the light of the sun. Although the potency of maya is inferior in quality to the marginal potency, which consists of the living beings, who are part and parcel of the Lord, it nevertheless has the power to control the living beings, just as fog can block the actions of a certain portion of the sun’s rays although it cannot cover the sun. The living beings [IN THE VIRAJA RIVER, CHOSE TO BE] covered by the illusory energy [WHICH CANNOT EVEN ENTER INTO THE VIRAJA RIVER, AND WHAT TO SPEAK OF ENTERING INTO THE SPIRITUAL WORLD,] evolve in different species of life, with bodies ranging from that of an insignificant ant to that of Brahma, the constructor of the cosmos. The pradhana, the chief cause of all causes in the impersonal vision, is none other than the Supreme Lord, whom one can see face to face in the internal potency. He takes the material all-pervasive form by His inconceivable power. Although all three potencies—namely internal, external and marginal—are essentially one in the ultimate issue, they are different in action, like electric energy, which can produce both cold and heat under different conditions. The external and marginal potencies are so called under various conditions, but in the original, internal potencies there are no such conditions, nor is it possible for the conditions of the external potency to exist in the marginal, or vice versa [THOSE WHO CAN UNDERSTAND THE LAWS OF PARINAMAVADA, OR TRANSFORMATION OF THE LORD’S EVERGIES WILL CONCLUDE THAT NO ONE CAN FALL FROM KRISHNALOKA OR VAIKUNTHALOKA]. One who is able to understand the intricacies of all these energies of the Supreme Lord can no longer remain an empiric impersonalist under the influence of a poor fund of knowledge.”

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