Toss-Up Questions 1. The speech in which it was announced made frequent reference to an article published on December 17 in the Washington Union; the speaker noted that his response to that article was rebuked by Mr. Toombs. That speech also referred to a letter written by the speaker to Charles Lanphier of the State Register, in which he tried to ascertain the truth about a claim made by Major Thomas Harris. It was an attempt to compromise between an act of legislation passed four years earlier and a Supreme Court decision of the previous year, and proved to be a Pyrrhic victory, inasmuch as its creator won the election for which he was campaigning at the time but lost a more important election two years later. FTP, name this statement made on August 27, 1858 at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, in which Stephen Douglas suggested that slavery could be outlawed by a territory.
ANSWER: the Freeport Doctrine
2. He assumed a one-fluid model for a binary solution, and proposed a theory for capillarity that explained how surface tension varied as a particular temperature and pressure was approached. A graph of his equation has a portion that is modified by Maxwell's equal area rule to correct for the impossibility of negative compressibility, and gives a critical ratio of three-eighths. The space between planes of graphite is known as his gap, while his radius is calculated from interatomic distances in crystals and can be a term in the calculation of the Boyle temperature. Another term named for him includes Keesom and London varieties. FTP identify this man who developed the law of corresponding states and introduced excluded volume and attraction terms to the ideal gas law.
ANSWER: Johannes Diderik van der Waals
3. The antipenultimate one notes that the gods have heard the author’s prayers, inasmuch as Lyce has become an old woman who is disdained by Cupid. The second one of the second book deals with the uses and abuses of money, and is dedicated to Sallustius Crispus. The famous fifth one ends with an image of dripping robes hung on a votive wall, and wonders what youth is currently embracing a woman named Pyrrha. The 22nd begins “Integer vitae,” while one beginning “Diffugere nives” was thought by A. E. Housman to be the most beautiful Latin poem. FTP, name this collection of poems by Horace, whose title names a verse form used in a number of major poems by John Keats.
ANSWER: the Odes or Carmina
4. In one story, a king asks the magician Djedi to state the number of rooms in this god’s mansion. At his main cult center he was worshipped as the self-generating Lord of the Ogdoad, who produced the cosmic egg on the Island of Flame. He was responsible for the epagomenal days, and won the goddess Nehemtawy as his consort after pacifying the Distant Goddess in the form of a dog-faced baboon. When the heart of a deceased person was weighed, he was said to note the verdict in his capacity as record keeper of the gods. FTP name this god who served as a messenger between heaven and earth in his form as an ibis.
ANSWER: Thoth or Djehuti or Zehuti
5. A 2005 book by Susan Greenwood which was subtitled “an anthropology of consciousness” dealt with the “nature” of this concept. A 1950 book which offered a “theory” of this concept was written by Marcel Mauss. A 1971 study of “popular beliefs in 16th and 17th century England” dealt with the “decline” of this concept, and was written by Keith Thomas. The word denoting this concept derives from the title of Zoroastrian priests. The “sympathetic” version of this was discussed in the third chapter of a lengthy work which was itself subtitled “a study in” this concept and religion. That work, of course, was James Frazer’s The Golden Bough. FTP, name this concept which also identifies an NBA team based in Orlando.
6. This site features an observatory whose interior features a spiral stone staircase which led to the observatory being nicknamed “The Snail.” Following this city’s decline, a nearby city was ruled by the Cocom family until they were overthrown in the mid-15th century. Other buildings at this site include a complex in the Puuc architectural style, known as “Las Monjas,” and the Temple of the Warriors, which resembles Structure B at Tula. US consul Edward Thompson bought this site, and began dredging up treasures from a natural sinkhole known as the Cenote of Sacrifice, which was sacred to Chac. FTP, name this Mayan city in the Yucatan whose ruins feature the largest ballgame court in Mesoamerica.
ANSWER: Chichén Itzá
7. This particle was hypothesized as part of the GIM mechanism. The bound state of this particle with its anti-particle undergoes OZI-suppressed three pion decay in n = 1 and n = 2 states; for n greater than 2, it and its anti-particle form a quasi-bound state which decays into two D mesons. In the GIM mechanism, its neutral flavor-changing reactions cancel those of its second generation partner, explaining the observed suppression of certain modes of kaon decay. The first observations of its bound state with its antiparticle were made independently by teams led by Ting and Richter, who named that bound state the J/psi particle. FTP, name this fourth quark to be discovered, the partner of the strange, often symbolized c and named for a quality often identified with Mike Sorice.
ANSWER: charm quark
8. One of this artist’s paintings depicts an event that took place at 6 in the morning on October 21, 1938, and shows a woman falling to her death from a window in New York’s Hampshire House. In addition to The Suicide of Dorothy Hale, this artist created a painting in which a white and black bird hold up a banner over a scene in which a man in a black hat gives a mostly naked woman a few more of the so-called “small pricks” that have killed her. A building emerges out of a volcano which floats over the artist’s feet in a bathtub in What the Water Gave Me, which was painted in 1938. This artist also painted a Self Portrait with Monkey and a self-portrait “on the borderline between Mexico and the United States.” FTP, name this Mexican painter who was crippled in a bus accident but still proved attractive to Diego Rivera.
ANSWER: Frida Kahlo
9. In the first chapter of this book, the title figure notes that Henry James’s The Awkward Age would make a remarkable play and notes that her grandmother was a pupil of Clara Schumann’s father. The chapter on “The War” begins with a visit to John Lane’s house, and ends with a procession under the Arc de Triomphe which is observed with Auntie. The last section, “After the War 1919-1932,” ends with mentions of Paul Bowles and Aaron Copland and features such suggested titles for the book as “Wives of Geniuses I Have Sat With” and “My Life with the Great.” FTP, name this 1933 work which also features a chapter on “Gertrude Stein Before She Came to Paris,” which was ostensibly written by Stein’s female companion.
ANSWER: The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
10. Eugene Tallmadge died before he could begin serving his fourth term as governor of this state, leading to the “Three Governors” controversy which resulted in Tallmadge’s son Herman filling the position. A Democrat was elected governor of this state in 1999 by defeating Guy Millner, but he would only serve one term before being defeated by a Republican who had worked as a veterinarian before being elected to the Houston County Zoning Board. Noted racist and fried-chicken entrepreneur Lester Maddox was its governor in the early 1970s before being succeeded by a man who would later be elected president. More recently, its governors have included Roy Barnes and Sonny Perdue. FTP, name this state which has also been governed by Zell Miller and Jimmy Carter.
11. In this work, a prostitute discusses Henri Bergson’s Matter and Memory with a client after giving him a blow job. That client is a truck driver who discovers a passion for Beethoven’s Archduketrio at a coffee bar, and who later reads a biography of Beethoven at the library where several of the characters work. Among those who work at the library is a woman who dresses like a man and likes to have anal sex with men, while the library is run by Miss Saeki, who owns the titular painting and once had a recording hit with the titular song. Miss Saeki is probably the protagonist’s mother, though that doesn’t stop him from having sex with her after he runs away from home. After running away, the protagonist assumes the title name, which he thinks means “crow” in an Eastern European language. FTP, name this recent novel in which an adolescent named Temura finds himself by going to Shikoku, a work by Haruki Murakami.
ANSWER: Kafka on the Shore
12. He was presented as the impotent artist Guermann Regnier in the roman-à-clef Nélida, which was written by one of his lovers. While living in Rome, he wrote two oratorios on Saint Elizabeth and the life of Christ, while his later works include the atonal Grey Clouds and the mysterious Bagatelle Without Tonality. This man’s music is sometimes catalogued with the “R” numbers created by Peter Raabe, though Humphrey Searle’s “S” numbers are more often used. His works for piano include three sets of pieces called Years of Pilgrimage, as well as the Transcendental Etudes and the Mephisto Waltz. FTP, name this virtuoso pianist who composed the Hungarian Rhapsodies.
ANSWER: Franz Liszt
13. The conchocelis is the sporophyte in the Bangiophyceae, one subgroup of it. Female reproductive cells, known as carpogonia, are fertilized by male ones, called spermatia, via water currents since the spermatia are amotile. Carbohydrates are stored as floridean starch, and chloroplasts are dotted with phycobilisomes. The coralline type contains calcium carbonate in its cell wall; additionally, all of them possess two unique mucilaginous polymers in their cell walls. Notable for their production of carageenan and agar, FTP identify these organisms whose characteristic color results from the presence of the accessory pigment phycoerythrin.
ANSWER: Rhodophyta or red algae
14. One of this dynasty’s more hapless members ruled for about four months before being deposed, blinded, and castrated; he was known as “the Caulker” in reference to his father’s profession. One of its earlier rulers married the daughter of his advisor Zautzes, for whom he created the position of “father of the emperor” or basilopator. Another of them died after possibly being poisoned by his wife Theophano; his reign saw the capture of Crete by the general who succeeded him to the throne, Nicephorus Phocas. Its first ruler came to the throne after murdering Michael the Drunkard, which ended the Amorian Dynasty. Including Romanus I and Basil the Bulgar-Slayer, FTP, name this Byzantine dynasty whose name indicates that they came from northern Greece, as did Alexander the Great.
ANSWER: the Macedonian dynasty
15. In one of this author’s novels, Hugh de Cressi follows Sir Edmund Acour to Venice, where he see the arrival of Murgh’s boat which carries the Black Death to Europe. In addition to Red Eve, he wrote about the importance of vaccination in Dr. Therne and about the early Tudor period in Fair Margaret. In one of his better-known works, a priest named Kallikrates is seduecd by the witch Amenartas, while in another Leo Vincey is killed by the kiss of the title priestess, Ayesha. After working as an ostrich farmer, he wrote 1885’s King Solomon’s Mines. FTP, name this British author of Allan Quatermain and She.
ANSWER: Henry Rider Haggard
16. It begins when a man from Phaleron asks for a better account of the titular event than the one he received from Philip’s son Phoenix. He hears the account that Apollodorus heard from Aristodemus, who was brought along even though he wasn’t invited. Eryximachus offers a medical point of view, while Pausanias draws a distinction between Urania and Pandemos. The last opinion expressed is that authors should be able to write both tragedy and comedy. Before that, the words of a woman from Mantinea named Diotima are reported by the main character. Also featuring speeches by Agathon and Aristophanes, FTP, identify this Platonic dialogue about love whose title refers to a drinking party.
17. In the traditional picture of the 660-kilometer mantle discontinuity, the discontinuity is due to this mineral group’s post-spinel phase transitions from ringwoodite to perovskite and magnesiowüstite. Dunite is primarily composed of this mineral group, which has endmembers fayalite and forsterite. It crystallizes as isolated silicate tetrahedra, making it especially susceptible to chemical weathering, and it crystallizes first in the discontinuous branch of Bowen’s reaction series before pyroxene. Known in its gem form as peridot, FTP name this common mineral group of ultramafic rocks named for its green color.
18. Near the end of one season of this show, the rehearsal dinner for a wedding was disrupted when the groom’s future brother-in-law, Marco, tricked him into passing off a speech from When Harry Met Sally as his own wedding vows. The end of that season saw one character leave her boyfriend, a trainer at Sea World, while the next season saw the addition of Molly Clock, an absent-minded but attractive psychiatrist. Minor characters include a maintenance man who sometimes calls himself Jan Itor, a balding lawyer named Ted who is part of an a capella group, and the sinister Bob Kelso. More prominently, it features the married Carla and Turk, Elliot Reid, and a central male character known as J. D. FTP, name this NBC sitcom which stars Donald Faison and Zach Braff, a show about doctors.
19. It originally noted that a certain individual was better informed via Paris and Madrid than the author, and refers to an encounter which took place on a promenade. That individual had been instructed by Antoine Alfred to offer a suggestion which was rejected by the person he spoke to. It emerged from a concern that Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen had been offered the Spanish throne, which led Vincent Benedetti to present a demand about Hohenzollerns and Spain. It refers to an event which took place at a spa town on July 13, 1870. FTP, name this document which was edited by Bismarck, leading to the Franco-Prussian War.
ANSWER: the Ems Telegram or Ems Dispatch (accept equivalents)
20. At the beginning of Act Four, some people joke about Skipper Evensen’s big horn while standing in a room in Captain Horster’s house. At the beginning of the next act, the title character gathers stones in his study and discusses emigrating to the New World with his wife Katherine. The title character quarrels with the editor of the People’s Courier about whether some tanneries are culpable, having earlier quarreled with his brother Peter, the town’s mayor, about the pollution affecting the town’s mineral baths. FTP, name this 1882 play about Thomas Stockmann, a work by Henrik Ibsen.
ANSWER: An Enemy of the People
John Stuart Mill Bicentennial Open
May 20, 2006 Packet # 4
1. The interference patterns observed in Thomas Young’s double slit experiment due to this phenomenon provided the first evidence for the wave theory of light. FTPE:
 Name this phenomenon in which propagating waves bend around obstacles and spread from apertures.
 This man’s name, with that of Kirchhoff, is given to the central integral of scalar diffraction field. He also lends his name to near-field diffraction, as opposed to Fraunhofer diffraction.
ANSWER: Augustin Jean Fresnel
 This curve, also known as the clothoid or Euler’s spiral, is a parametric representation of the Fresnel integrals.
ANSWER: Cornu spiral
2. One of the earliest English biographies of this man was written by his longtime translator Aylmer Maude, and he appears with Casanova and Stendhal as an “adept in self-portraiture” in a work by Stefan Zweig. FTPE:
 Name this writer, whose stories include “Alyosha the Pot” and “Father Sergius.”
ANSWER: Leo Tolstoy
 Though Gerasim helps the title character of this short story by Tolstoy, he ends up screaming for three days before undergoing the title event.
ANSWER: “The Death of Ivan Ilych”
 After admiring a thistle plant, the narrator of this Tolstoy story is reminded of a “Caucasian episode” which began in 1851 when the title character rode into the Chechen village of Makhmet.
ANSWER: Hadji Murad
3. He is best known for sacred vocal works like his Mass for Saints Cyril and Methodius, and his 1771 Requiem was partly imitated by Mozart. FTPE:
 Name this composer who spent much of his career in Salzburg, where he collaborated with the 11-year-old Mozart on the oratorio Duty of the First Commandment.
ANSWER: Michael Haydn (prompt on “Haydn”)
 Michael Haydn taught this composer, who would later help to publish many of Haydn’s works. This man is best remembered today for a waltz on which Beethoven wrote a set of 33 variations for piano.
ANSWER: Anton Diabelli
 In 1797, this young composer began studying with Michael Haydn; his works include the lost opera The Power of Love and Wine and the not-lost opera Der Freischütz.
ANSWER: Carl Maria von Weber 4. This man was allowed to remain in his city after Phoebidas conquered it, and a few years later he assisted his friend Pelopidas in overthrowing the city’s puppet government. FTPE:
 Name this Greek leader of the 4th century BC.
 Epaminondas was a native of this city, whose most notorious military force was a corps of homosexual lovers known as the Sacred Band.
 Epaminondas was the Theban commander at this 371 BC battle, which was a huge defeat for the Spartan army of King Cleombrotus.
 Name this 1924 silent movie, parts of which were filmed on location in the Sierra Nevada.
 This European actor directed Greed, and would later be nominated for an Oscar for his role as Max in Sunset Boulevard.
ANSWER: Erich von Stroheim
 Erich von Stroheim’s directorial career was ended by the disastrous Queen Kelly, which starred this actress in the title role; in Sunset Boulevard, an actress played by this woman watches scenes of herself performing in Queen Kelly.
ANSWER: Gloria Swanson
6. It notes that we “have as short a spring” as the titular plants, which are invited to “stay” until “the hasting day” has run “but to the evensong.” FTPE:
 Name this 20-line poem in two stanzas, which concludes that we are like “pearls of morning’s dew.”
ANSWER: “To Daffodils”
 This English poet wrote “To Daffodils,” which appears in his collection Hesperides.
ANSWER: Robert Herrick
 Herrick reaches a similar conclusion about our life being short and comparable to a drop of rain which “once lost, can ne’er be found again” in a long poem about this woman “going a-Maying.”
ANSWER: Corinna [“Corinna Going a-Maying”]
7. Answer the following about enzyme inhibition FTPE:
 This type of enzyme inhibitor binds to the same site as the proper enzyme substrate but is not acted upon by the enzyme.
ANSWER: competitive inhibitor
 This plot is useful for obtaining a value for an inhibitor's inhibition constant or K-I. It plots the reciprocal of velocity vs. inhibitor concentration; the inhibition constant is the x-intercept.
ANSWER: Dixon plot
 The x-intercept can also give useful information about the inhibition constant in this double-reciprocal plot based on the Michaelis-Menten equation.
ANSWER: Lineweaver-Burk plot
8. Its third volume begins by considering “how religion may be an embodiment” of the title concept before considering “the Christian compromise” and “spirituality and its corruptions.” FTPE:
 Name this philosophical work in five volumes, which appeared in the first decade of the 20th century.
ANSWER: The Life of Reason
 This philosopher wrote The Life of Reason, as well as the novel The Last Puritan and Skepticism and Animal Faith.
ANSWER: George Santayana
 The first volume of The Life of Reason deals with “reason in” this concept. The section does not discuss Thomas Reid, though he founded a Scottish school of thought devoted to this concept.
ANSWER: common sense
9. In 1808 he painted three female nudes to be sent to Paris, two of which were the Sleeper of Naples and Oedipus and the Sphinx. FTP each:
 Name this artist, whose third major nude of 1808 was the Bather of Valpinçon.
ANSWER: Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
 At the center of this circular 1863 Ingres work is a seated nude woman playing a guitar with her back to the viewer. Lots of naked women surround her, including one whose hair is being perfumed.
ANSWER: the Turkish Bath or Le Bain Turc
 The companion piece to Henry IV Playing with His Children, this 1818 painting depicts the titular artist expiring in the arms of Francis I.
ANSWER: The Death of Leonardo da Vinci 10. He introduced the concepts of “oral resistance” and the “hunger instinct” in his first book. FTPE:
 Name this psychologist, whose first book was 1942’s Ego, Hunger, and Aggression: A Revision of Freud’s Theory and Method.
ANSWER: Fritz Perls (or Frederick Perls)
 Fritz Perls is best known for his work with this type of “therapy,” which he discussed in books like one subtitled “excitement and growth in the human personality.”
ANSWER: gestalt therapy
 Perls was influenced in developing gestalt therapy by this man, who was his therapist in the 1930s. This pioneer of “orgone” treatment wrote the always informative The Function of the Orgasm.
ANSWER: Wilhelm Reich
11. It was experimentally justified by data from the Hudson’s Bay Company, and has been modified by Holling, Hassell, and Varley. FTPE:
 Identify this system of two differential equations used to model predator-prey relationships and competition in an ecosystem, independently derived by an American and an Italian.
 The Lotka-Volterra equations are a modification of a logistic equation for growth that includes this term. Often abbreviated K, it is defined as the point at which birth rate is equal to death rate.
ANSWER: carrying capacity
 Additional experimental evidence for the relevance of the Lotka-Volterra equations has been provided by Gause’s studies on competition between two species in this genus of ciliates.
12. After refusing to take the position of Secretary of War, he agreed to serve as Alien Property Custodian in 1917. FTPE:
 Name this politician, who resigned from his Custodianship to replace Thomas Gregory as Attorney General.
ANSWER: Alexander Mitchell Palmer
 A. Mitchell Palmer built on his success as Attorney General to run for President in 1920, but he deadlocked at the convention with this Secretary of the Treasury under Wilson who also happened to be Wilson’s son-in-law.
ANSWER: William McAdoo
 When neither Palmer nor McAdoo could win the nomination, this governor of Ohio became the Democratic candidate for president in 1920; FDR was his running mate.
ANSWER: James Cox 13. Name these distinguished recipients of the Booker Prize, FTPE:
 This author of the poetry collection The Silences Between is better known for her 1985 Booker winner about the Maori, The Bone People.
ANSWER: Keri Hulme
 This prolific novelist won the Booker for The Sea, The Sea, while her numerous other works include The Sacred and Profane Love Machine and A Severed Head.
ANSWER: Iris Murdoch
 This author won for The Ghost Road, the final volume in her “Regeneration” trilogy about World War I which also included The Eye in the Door.
ANSWER: Pat Barker
14. The human body is a deadly place to be. FTPE:
 Both the classical and alternative pathways converge to result in the production of the membrane attack complex, which punches holes in the membranes of target cells in this immune pathway.
 Natural killer cells release perforins, granzymes, and chemokines to destroy cells that lack the class I variety of this antigen-presenting protein.
ANSWER: Major Histocompability Complex (accept Human Leukocyte Antigen)
 Class I MHC molecules are recognized by cytotoxic T cells, which induce this caspase-initiated process of programmed cell death in virus-infected cells.
15. It began with an attack on Graubünden, and ended later in 1499 with the Treaty of Basel. FTPE:
 Name this conflict in which Switzerland decisively asserted its independence; it was named for a German duchy which formed a namesake league in the 1330s.
ANSWER: the Swabian War (prompt on “Swabia”)
 This Austrian, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1493, launched the Swabian War in a sadly unsuccessful bid to dominate Switzerland. On his death in 1519, he was succeeded by his grandson Charles V.
ANSWER: Maximilian I
 Heinrich von Fursternberg was killed at this battle of July 22, 1499, the decisive engagement of the Swabian War; it was the last battle fought between the Swiss and the Holy Romans.
ANSWER: Dornach 16. In Chinese legend, female spirits associated with these animals were called Hu Xian or Hu Li Jing. FTPE:
 Name these animals, one of which ravaged the region around Teumessus before being turned to stone by Zeus.
ANSWER: foxes (accept vixens)
 Fox spirits known as kitsune served as messengers to the Shinto god Inari, who was associated with this staple grain.
 Zeus petrified the Teumessian vixen after this man borrowed the hound Laelaps from Cephalus. Soon afterwards, Zeus took his form to seduce his wife, resulting in the birth of Heracles.
17. To satisfy this tournament’s board games distribution, answer these questions about Monopoly: Magic Realm. If you’ve never played the game, don’t worry; the rules are identical to those of Monopoly. FTPE:
 This red property is said to be the most frequently landed upon space in Monopoly. It goes for $240, unlike the other two reds.
ANSWER: Illinois Avenue
 Ryan Westbrook always lights up when he receives the “you have won second prize in a beauty contest” Community Chest card. How much money does Ryan collect upon drawing that card?
 Seth Teitler’s effective strategy for winning at Monopoly involves grabbing the coveted dark purple properties. If you landed on Baltic Avenue after he managed to erect a hotel on it, how much would you owe Seth?
18. Answer the following about the spread of Buddhism FTPE:
 Buddhism was introduced to Japan during this period that can be divided into two periods, the Kofun and the Asuka, which began after the introduction of Buddhism in about 538 AD.
ANSWER: Yamato period
 In the history of this country, Buddhism was made the state religion in the kingdom of Lan Xang by Fa Ngum. Muang Sua, the capital of Lan Xang, was later called Luang Prabang after a statue of the Buddha that was placed there.
 Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism were the state religions of this empire, one of whose capitals was Angkor.
ANSWER: Khmer empire
19. This moon’s distinctive coloration results from sulfur splattering onto it from a nearby, volcanically-active moon. FTPE:
 Name this reddest object in the solar system, the first moon of Jupiter to be discovered after the four Galilean moons.
 This nearest Galilean moon is responsible for Amalthea’s coloration. It is the most volcanically active body in the solar system.
 This man discovered Amalthea as well as his namesake star, a nearby red dwarf which has the highest proper motion of any star, relative to the Sun.
ANSWER: Edward Emerson Barnard
20. The title character saves Arthur de Vere, the son of the Earl of Oxford, from death. FTPE:
 Name this 1829 novel about a “maiden of the mist,” which also features Charles the Bold and Margaret of Anjou.
ANSWER: Anne of Geierstein
 This 1908 novel, which gave rise to six sequels, was based on the author’s childhood on Prince Edward Island.
ANSWER: Anne of Green Gables
[5, 5] Name both the author of Anne of Geierstein and the author of Anne of Green Gables for a final five points each.