Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов Saint Petersburg corona print Uchitel & Uchenic

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English & American Literature

A course of lectures for schools and universities

Английская и американская литература

Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов
















Saint Petersburg

CORONA print

Uchitel & Uchenic

2002


Санкт-Петербург

КОРОНА принт

Учитель и ученик

2002


ББК 81.2 Англ Ан64

Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.
тж. _„_. ,■ ■ '-1 Л/ЧТТ'ТТГ TII

Оптовая торговля: (812) 251-33-94,259-68-17; (095) 148-35-12 Книга - почтой: 191119, Санкт-Петербург, а/я 55. Для К. II.

ОТ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВА

Издательский центр «Учитель и ученик» и издательство «КОРОНА принт» выпустили немало книг и учебных пособий для изучающих иностранные языки в школах и вузах. Эти книги оказывают неоценимую помощь в учебном процессе как преподавателям, так и учащимся.

Среди них особое место занимают издания на английском языке. Это такие бестселлеры, как: «Разговорные темы к экзаменам по английскому языку» (семь изданий общим тиражом более ста тысяч экземпляров); «Ролевые и ситуативные диалоги к экзаменам по английскому языку» (более 70 диалогов на все темы, изучаемые в школе, и более 100 сюжетов и ситуаций для самостоятельной работы); книги о Шекспире, Лонгфелло, сестрах Бронте; серия книг «История Англии в рассказах для детей» (с древнейших времен до XX века), в том числе «Короли и королевы» (42 рассказа об английских королях и королевах, включая Елизавету II); «Это Лондон» (история, архитектура, традиции, культура и быт, достопримечательности столицы Великобритании) и другие.

Книга «Английская и американская литература» представляет историю этих литератур в достаточно кратком, но очень информативном виде. Автор вводит читателя в круг писателей разных эпох и стилей, знакомит с историей создания произведений с древнейших времен до наших дней.

Отличительной особенностью данного издания является расширение временных рамок. Читатель узнает о модернистах XX века Джеймсе Джойсе и Вирджинии Вульф, о литературе военного и послевоенного времени, о театре абсурда, о прозе Джека Керуака, Джона Апдайка, Кена Кизи и, наконец, о Джоне Р. Р. Толкиене, авторе культового романа «Властелин колец».

Предлагаемое пособие является первой частью издательского проекта. Вторая — это хрестоматия по английской и американской литературе. Она включает лучшие образцы англоязычной прозы и поэзии. Неадаптированные отрывки из произведений позволят учащимся получить представление об их содержании и ощутить красоту английского языка.

Авторы и издатели надеются, что предлагаемые книги не только помогут изучить язык, но и доставят удовольствие от общения с прекрасным.


...'

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4 © Учитель и ученик, 2002

ОТ АВТОРА

Настоящее учебное пособие по английской и американской литературе ориентировано преимущественно на учащихся IX — XI классов школ с углуб­ленным изучением английского языка. Оно может быть использовано на уро­ках литературного чтения и устной практики.

В книге изложена краткая история английской и американской литературы начиная с древних времен и до XX века включительно, дана характеристика той или иной исторической эпохи, в которую жил писатель, его биография, сведения о творчестве и анализ основных произведений. Изложение ряда произведений иллюстрируется отрывками из оригинала. Содержание одного из основных произведений писателя представлено полностью.

К каждому разделу пособия предлагаются вопросы и задания для контроля усвоения изученного материала и развития навыков устной речи. Некоторые задания могут быть использованы в качестве тем для докладов.

Трудные для понимания слова и выражения, встречающиеся в тексте, снабжены объяснительными примечаниями. В пособии дана транскрипция имен собственных.

Книга снабжена тематическим англо-русским словарем и списком произведений с переводом их заголовков на русский язык.

Пособие может быть также использовано на факультативных занятиях и во внеклассной работе в старших классах средней школы, на младших курсах языковых вузов, на курсах английского языка и всеми изучающими английский язык самостоятельно.



English Literature

The Dawn of English Literature

THE ANCIENT BRITONS AND THEIR LANGUAGE

Literature is closely connected with the life and history of the people. In order to understand English literature it is necessary to know the history of the country.

In the 4th century В. С.1 the country we now call England was known as Britain. One of the tribes who lived there was named the Britons. They belonged to the Celtic race and spoke Celtic. There are still some traces of this language found in the English of today. Most of all we find them in geographical names:

dun/dum = down, dune (the towns of Dunscore, Dunedin, Dum­barton);

avon = river (Stratford-on-Avon); kil = wood (Kilbrook).


1 В. С (before Christ [kraist]) — before our era

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Another Celtic tribe Gaels [geilz] lived in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Their descendants still live there and use some words of Celtic origin, such as Loch Lomond, loch
[k>h] — lake.

The life of the ancient Britons was very primitive. They be­lieved that different gods lived in the darkest parts of the woods. Some plants such as mistletoe and the oak-tree were considered to be sacred. Ancient Britons planted corn, lived upon fish and the flesh of their cattle, made coarse cloth for their clothes, and were good warriors. They also built many temples and altars, frag­ments of which can still be seen in Great Britain.

The Britons had a strange and cruel religion — the religion of the Druids. They sacrificied human beings and often burnt men and their animals together with them.

Some customs of the Druids are kept in England nowadays. On New Year's Day the mistletoe, which becomes green at this time of the year, is hung up in all houses.

Vocabulary

altar ['o:lta] n алтарь mistletoe ['misltau] n омела

ancient ['emjbnt] а древний origin |'Dna^in| n происхождение

cloth [klrjG] n ткань, материал primitive ['pnmitiv] о примитивный

coarse [ko:s] а грубый ч race [reisj n род; племя

custom ['kAstam] n обычай sacred f'seikrid] а священный

dawn [do:n] n рассвет; начало sacrifice ['ssknfais] v приносить жертвы

descendant [di'sendant] n потомок temple ['tempi] n храм

fragment ['frsegmgnt] n обломок, ос- tribe [traib] n племя

колок; pi остатки warrior ['wonal n воин



  1. What customs of the Druids are still kept in the country nowadays?


  2. What traces of the Celtic language can we find in the English of today?

  3. What Celtic tribe lived in Ireland, Scotland and Wales?

THE ROMAN INVASION

In the year 55 В. С Britain was conquered by the Romans. Their language was Latin. The Romans were very practical men. They were good at building many-storeyed houses, bridges and roads.

The Romans had heard from travellers about some valuable metals which had been found in Britain. Julius Caesar [' chirijas' si:za] was the first Roman who invaded the country in the 1st century B.C. To conquer the Britons the Romans had to encamp troops all over the country. The English cities later rose from these camps. The word castra — camp was later pronounced fkesta], ['Jesta] and fsesta]. Now there are many English towns which have the Latin ending, such as Lancaster, Manchester, Worcester and others.

The Romans brought their civilization with them and taught the Britons to build bridges, houses and roads.

In England one can still find interesting remains of the Roman times, such as some ruins of public baths and tiled floors of Roman villas. Many of the great highways of England have been built on the military roads once made by the Romans. A large number of English words come from the Latin language, e. g. street comes from strata, wall from vallum, port from portus, etc.

The Roman occupation lasted for more than 400 years till 407 A. D. when the Romans troops left Britain.




Questions and Tasks

  1. When was England called Britain?

  2. What people lived there?

  3. What race did they belong to?

  4. What language did they speak?
  5. What can you say about their culture?


  6. Prove that their culture was very primitive.

  7. How did the ancient Britons live?

  8. By whom were the Britons governed?

  9. Prove that the religion of the Druids was cruel.

Vocabulary

bath [ba:9] n баня

civilization [sivilai'zeijsn] n цивилиза­ция; культура

encamp [т'кагтр] v располагать ла­герем

' A. D. (Anno Domini) — in our era

highway ['haiwei] n шоссе, автома­гистраль invade [m'veid] v вторгаться military ['militan] а военный remains [n'meinz] n pi остатки




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ruin [rum] n pi развалины, руины troop [tru:p] n войска

tiled [taild] а покрытый плиткой valuable ['vaeljuabl] а ценный

Questions and Tasks


  1. By whom was Britain conquered in the year 55 before our era?

  2. What language did the Romans speak?

  3. What were the Romans good at?

  4. Why did they decide to occupy the island?

  5. Who commanded the Romans?

  6. What did the Romans have to do to conquer the Britons?

  1. Prove that there are still some traces of the Romans' influence in modern English.

  1. What interesting remains of Roman times can you still find in England?

THE INVASION BY GERMANIC TRIBES

When in about 410 the Romans were withdrawn to protect Rome itself the Germanic tribes—Angles [ 'asnglz], Saxons [ 'sseksnz] and Jutes [ 'd3u:ts] began their invasion of Britain. They came from the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic and settled in what is now the county of Kent. They spoke different dialects of the West Ger­manic language. From this language modern German was deve­loped.

The Britains fought many battles until at last they were either made slaves or driven to the west and the north of Britain (Wales, Cornwall and Scotland).

The Angles, Saxons and Jutes were pagans. They believed in many gods: Tu, or Tuesco, — god of Darkness, Woden — god of War, Thor — the Thunderer, and Freia — goddess of Prosperity. When people began to divide time into weeks and weeks into days, they gave the days the names of their gods.

Sunday is the day of the sun, Monday — the day of the moon, Tuesday — the day of the god Tuesco, Wednesday — the Woden's day, Thursday — Thor's day, Friday — Freia's day and Saturday — Saturn's day.

All these invaders created the Anglo-Saxon England — "An­gle-land" . During that period the land was divided into little kingdoms. The most important were Mercia ['imtjja], North-umbria [ 'по:0лтЬпэ], Kent and Wessex. The political power soon shifted to Wessex.


trtfTU

Runes (letters carved on stone and wood, 5th century)

The Anglo-Saxons were comparatively well-developed. They liked to hold meetings in which people could express what they thought and left. They were brave, hardy, artistic, poetic people who had a highly developed feeling for beauty. The Anglo-Saxons had no written language when they con­quered Britain, but they had letters called runes, which they carved on wood and stone. The songs, stories and poems they made up had to be memorized and were handed down from generation to generation. One Saxon poem called Beowulfh&s reached our days. We can call this period the dawn of English literature.

Vocabulary



pagan ['peigsn] n язычник

prosperity [pros'penti] n процветание

rune [ru:n] n руна

settle ['setl] v поселяться, обосновы­ваться

shift [fift] v перемещаться

withdraw [wi6'dro:] v (withdrew; with­drawn) забирать; отзывать

withdrawn [wi6'dro:n] p.p. от withdraw


artistic [a:'tistik] а артистический comparatively [kam'pasretrvli] advсрав­нительно express [iks'pres] v выражать generation [^dsera'reijbn] n поколение goddess [gndis] n богиня hardy ['ha:di] а выносливый, стойкий invader [m'veida] n захватчик invasion [m'vei39n] n вторжение memorize [ 'memaraiz] v запоминать; заучивать наизусть


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After Christianity was officially adopted by the ruling classes monastic schools were established where Latin was taught.

The most learned people of that time were monks. Some of them began to put in writing poems and songs that reached them. Such people were called "scribes". "Scribe" comes from the Latin word "scribere" — "to write". The written Anglo-Sax­ons language developed on the basis of the Latin alphabet.



Questions and Tasks


  1. What literature did the Germanic Tribes have?

  2. Why didn't the poems remain unchanged?

  3. Were there professional poets at that time too?

  4. What did they do?

  5. What were most of the early poems based on?

  6. Were the Germanic tribes pagans or Christians before the 7th century?

  7. When did Anglo-Saxons become Christians?

  8. Who were the most learned people of that time?

  9. What did some of the monks begin to do?

10. Prove that the written Anglo-Saxon language developed on the basis
of the Latin alphabet.

Questions and Tasks

  1. When did the Romans leave Britain?

  2. By whom was Britain conquered?

  3. What dialects did they speak?

  4. What happened to those who stayed in Britain? ,

  5. What were the gods of the Anglo-Saxons?

  6. How did people name the days?

  7. What land did all the invaders create?

  8. What were the most important kingdoms the land was divided?

  9. Prove that the Anglo-Saxons were comparatively well-developed.




  1. Did the Anglo-Saxons have letters of their own by the time they conquered Britain?

  2. What were the names of the letters?

  3. Did the Anglo-Saxons have a written language?

  4. What did they have to do with their songs, stories and poems?

  5. What poem has reached our own time?

LITERATURE OF THE GERMANIC TRIBES

The Germanic tribes had a literature, but it was not written down. The stories and poems they made up were repeated and remem­bered. The Germanic tribes were fond of poetry. Their poems did not remain unchanged. Poets improved them in form and some­times they changed them to make them more interesting.

At that time there were professional poets too, who went from one place to another or had positions at the courts of kings. They sang songs in which they enlarged and magnified the deeds and events, which the songs were describing. They even sometimes added super natural qualities to a hero.

Most of those early poems were based on historic facts but historic elements were obscured by poetic and mythical addi­tions.

At first all the Germanic tribes were pagans, but then in the 7th century the Anglo-Saxons were converted to Christianity by missionaries who came from the continent. So in the 7th century the Anglo-Saxons became Christians and began composing reli­gious works.

Vocabulary

add [aed] v добавлять addition [s'dijbn] n дополнение adopt [g'dDpt] v принимать Christian ['knstjan] n христианин Christianity Lkristi'asnrti] n христианство compose [ksm'psuz] v сочинять, созда­вать convert [kan'v3:t] v обращать (в дру­гую веру) establish [is'taeblij] v основывать; созда­вать

magnify ['msegmfai] v восхвалять

missionary ['гш/пэп] п миссионер

monk [тлпк] п монах

mythical ['гш01кэ1] о фантастический, вымышленный

obscure [sb'skjus] v затемнять

position [pa'zifsn] n должность

quality ['kwoliti] n качество

supenatural [,sju:p3'naetfr3l] а сверхъ­естественный



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Beowulf



Beowulf f beiawulf] is the most important poem of the Anglo-Saxon period. Though the Angles brought Beowulf with them to England, it has nothing to do with it. The epic is not even about the Anglo-Saxons, but about the Scandinavians when they lived on the continent in the 3rd or 4th cen­tury.

The story of Beowulf was written down in the 10th century by an unknown author, and the manuscripts is now kept in the British Museum. Its social interest lies in the vivid description of the life of that period, of the manners and customs of the people at that time, of the relations among the members of the society and in the portrayal of their towns, ships and feasts.


Aglo-Saxon warriors

The scene takes place among the Jutes, who lived on the Scandinavian peninsula at the time. Their neighboms were the Danes. The Jutes and the Danes were good sailors. Their ships sailed round the coast of the peninsula and to far-off lands.

The poem describes the warriors in battle and at peace, during their feasts and amusements. The main hero, Beowulf, is a strong, courageous, unselfish, proud and honest man. He defends his peo­ple against the unfriendly forces of nature and becomes the most beloved and kindest king on the earth as the theme of the poem is the straggle of good against evil. Beowulf fights not for his glory, he fights for the benefit of his people.

Although Beowulf was a Jute and his home is Jutland we say that The Song of Beowulf is an English poem. The social conditions it depicted are English. Both the form and the spirit of the poem are English. The poem is a true piece of English literature. The poem is composed with great skill. The author used many vivid

words and descriptive phrases. It is not only the subj ect of the poem that interests us but also its style. Beowulf is one of the early master­pieces of the Anglo-Saxon or Old English language. The poem is famous for its metaphors. For instance, the poet calls the sea "the swan's road", the body — "the bone-house", a warrior — "a hero­in-battle", etc.


The Story




The epic consists of two parts. The first part
tells us how Beowulf freed the Danes from two
monsters. Hrothgar [' hroGga:], King of the
Danes, in his old age had built near the sea a hall
called Heorot. He and his men gathered there
for feasts. One night as they were all sleeping a
frightful monster called Grendel broke into the
hall, killed thirty of the sleeping warriors, and
carried off their bodies to devour them in his lair
under the sea. The horrible half-human crea­
ture came night after night. Fear and death
reigned in the great hall. For twelve winters
Grendel's horrible raids continued. At last
the rumour of Grendel and his horrible deeds
crossed over the sea and reached Beowulf
who was a man of immense strength and Aglo-Saxon warrior

courage. When he heard the story, Beowulf decided to fight the monster and free the Danes. With fourteen companions he crossed the sea. This is how his voyage is described in the poem:

The foamy-necked floater fanned by the breeze

Likest a bird glided the waters

Till twenty and four hours hereafter

The twist-stemmed vessel had travelled such distance,

That the sailing-men saw the sloping embankments,

The sea-cliffs gleaming, precipitous mountains.




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The Danes receive Beowulf and his companions with great hospitality, they make a feast in Heorot at which the queen pass­es the mead cup to the warriors with her own hand. But as night approaches the fear of Grendel is again upon the Danes. They all withdraw after the king has warned Beowulf of the frightful danger of sleeping in the hall. Beowulf stays in the hall with his warriors, saying proudly that since weapons cannot harm the monster, he will wrestle with him bare-handed. Here is the description of Gren­del's approach to Heorot:

Forth from the fens, from the misty moorlands, Grendel came gliding — God's wrath be bore — Came under clouds, until he saw clearly, Glittering with gold plates, the mead hall of men. Down fell the door, though fastened with fire bands; Open it sprang at the stroke of his paw. Swollen with rage burst in the bale-bringer; Flamed in his eyes a fierce light, likest fire.

Breaking into the hall, Grendel seizes one of the sleepers and devours him. Then he approaches Beowulf and stretches out a claw, only to find it clutched in a grip of steel. A sudden terror strikes the monster's heart. He roars, struggles, tries to free his arm; but Beowulf leaps to his feet and grapples his enemy bare­handed. After a desperate struggle Beowulf manages to tear off the monster's arm; Grendel escapes shrieking across the moor, and plunges into the sea to die.

Beowulf hangs the huge arm with its terrible claws over the king's seat; the Danes rejoice in Beowulf's victory. When night falls, a great feast is spread in Heorot. Beowulf receives rich presents, everybody is happy. The Danes once more go to sleep in the great hall. At midnight comes another monster, mother of Grendel, who wants to revenge her son. She seizes the king's best friend and councillor and rushes away with him over the fens. The old king is broken-hearted, but Beowulf tries to con­sole him:

Sorrow not, wise man. It is better for each

That his friend he avenge than that he mourn much.

Each of us shall the end await

Of worldly life: let he who may gain

Honour ere1 death.

Then Beowulf prepares for a new fight. He plunges into the horrible place, while his companions wait for him on the shore. After a terrible fight at the bottom of the sea in the cave where the monsters live, Beowulf kills the she-monster with a magic sword which he finds in the cave. The hero returns to Heorot, where the Danes are already mourning for him, thinking him dead. Trium­phantly Beowulf returns to his native land.

In the last part of the poem there is another great fight. Beowulf is now an old man; he has reigned for fifty years, beloved by all his people. He has overcome every enemy but one, a fire dragon keep­ing watch over an enormous treasure hidden among the moun­tains. Again Beowulf goes to fight for his people. But he is old and his end is near. In a fierce battle the dragon is killed, but the fire has entered Beowulf's lungs.

He sends Wiglaf, the only of his warriors who had the courage to stand by him in his last fight, to the dragon's cave for the treasures. Beowulf dies, leaving the treasures to the people.

Vocabulary


companion [кэт'рэегуэп] п товарищ compose [кэт'рэш] v сочинять console [ksn'sgul] v утешать contents ['kontgnts] n содержание councillor ['kaunsita] n советник courageous [ka'reid^as] а смелый, от­важный creature ['kritjb] n создание; живое

существо deed [di:d] n поступок; подвиг



avenge [a'vencfo] v мстить

bale [beil] n несчастье; горе

band [bsnd] n полоса

bare-handed ['beg'haendid] а голыми

руками (без оружия) bear [Ьеэ] v (bore; borne) нести benefit ['benifit] n польза, благо breeze [bri:z] n (легкий) ветерок claw [klo:] n лапа с когтями; коготь clutch [kktj] v зажать


ere [еэ] — поэтич. перед




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Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций для школьников старших классов и студентов / Тексты, примеч. Н. Л. Утевской. — СПб.: Учитель и ученик КОРОНА принт, 2002. — 384 с.

ISBN 5-7931-0176-4

Книга представляет собой лекции по программе, утвержденной для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка. Лекции включают краткий и емкий обзор различных литературных направлений, стилей, школ, а также жизнеописание и анализ творчества писателей и поэтов за последние де­сять веков. Пособие окажет неоценимую помощь учащимся и преподавате­лям школ и вузов, а также всем изучающим английский язык.

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