Laws governing homosexual conduct



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The Law Reform Commission

Of Hong Kong

Report

Laws Governing Homosexual Conduct
(Topic 2)
LAWS GOVERNING HOMOSEXUAL CONDUCT

WHEREAS :


On 15 January 1980, His Excellency the Governor of Hong Kong Sir Murray MacLehose, GBE, KCMG, KCVO in Council directed the establishment of the Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong and appointed it to report upon such of the laws of Hong Kong as may be referred to it for consideration by the Attorney General and the Chief Justice;
On 14 June 1980, the Honourable the Attorney General and the Honourable the Chief Justice referred to this Commission for consideration a Topic in the following terms :
"Should the present laws governing homosexual conduct in Hong Kong be changed and, if so, in what way?"
On 5 July 1980, the Commission appointed a Sub-committee to research, consider and then advise it upon aspects of the said matter;
On 28 June 1982, the Sub-committee reported to the Commission, and the Commission considered the topic at meetings between July 1982 and April, 1983.
We are agreed that the present laws governing homosexual conduct in Hong Kong should be changed, for reasons set out in our report;
We have made in this report recommendations about the way in which laws should be changed;

NOW THEREFORE DO WE THE UNDERSIGNED MEMBERS OF THE LAW REFORM COMMISSION OF HONG KONG PRESENT OUR REPORT ON LAWS GOVERNING HOMOSEXUAL CONDUCT IN HONG KONG :



Hon John Griffiths, QC

(Attorney General)

(祈理士)


Hon Sir Denys Roberts, KBE

(Chief Justice)

(羅弼時)








Hon G.P. Nazareth, OBE, QC

(Law Draftsman)

(黎守律)


Robert Allcock, Esq.

(歐義國)








Hon Mrs Selina Chow, JP

(周梁淑怡)


Hon Mr Justice Fuad

(Justice of Appeal)

(傅雅德)








Hon HU Fa-kuang, JP

(胡法光)


Dr Ambrose King

(金耀基)








Dr. Philip Kwok, JP

(郭志權)


Andrew Li, Esq.

(李國能)








David Li, Esq. JP

(李國寶)


Hon T.S. Lo, CBE, JP

(羅德丞)








Brian McElney, Esq., JP

(麥雅理)


Professor Peter Willoughby

(韋彼得)


Dated this 15th day of April 1983.


The Law Reform Commission


of Hong Kong

Report
Laws Governing Homosexual Conduct

______________________________________




CONTENTS


Frontispiece
















Terms of Reference




(i)










Signature Page




(iii)










List of Contents




(iv)




Chapter

Title

Paragraph

Page











I


Introduction




1













II

Our Approach




4
















The Role of This Commission

2.1

4




The Role of Law

2.5

4













III

Who Is Homosexual? A Medical View




8
















Introduction

3.1


8




Definition

3.2

8




Epidemiology

3.5

8




Causes

3.10

9




Psychopathology

3.19

11




Viral Hepatitis

3.20

11




Psychological Tests

3.25

12




Treatment

3.26

12




Conclusion

3.27

13




Acknowledgement

3.30

13













IV

Homosexuality In Traditional China




14
















Introduction

4.1

14




Homosexuality Throughout History

4.2

14




Conclusion

4.11

17




Social Sanctions

4.12

17




Acknowledgement

4.13

17













V

Homosexuality In Modern Hong Kong





18
















Homosexual Behaviour

5.1

18




The Incidence of Homosexual Offences

5.9

23




Official Reactions to Homosexuality

5.16

24




Commentary

5.27

30




Civil Service Employment

5.36

32




Epilogue

5.41

33













VI

The Laws In Hong Kong




34
















Introduction

6.1

34




General Protection

6.6

35




Life Liberty and Bodily Injury

6.6

35




Marriage and Divorce

6.8

35




Public Behaviour

6.13

36




Public Performances

6.28

41




Publications

6.39

43




Specific Protection

6.52


46




Women

6.53

46




Women and Children under 21

6.62

48




Mental Defectives

6.65

49




Venereal Disease

6.71

50




School Children

6.73

50




Prisoners

6.75

51




The Armed Services

6.78

51




The "Abominable Offences"

6.79

52


Background

6.79

52




The Present Law

6.82

52




Buggery

6.83

53




Attempted Buggery and Inchoate Offences

6.84

53




Liability of Secondary Parties

6.87

54




Gross Indecency

6.91

55




Indecent Assault

6.94

56




Summary

6.95

56




Sexual Offences - Proof and Evidence

6.98

57





Prosecution of Offences

6.103

58













VII

Comparative Law - The East




60
















The East

7.1

60




Australia

7.2

60




The Commonwealth

7.2

60




The States

7.3

60




India

7.10

61




Japan

7.12


62




Malaysia

7.15

63




Pakistan

7.17

63




People's Republic of China

7.18

64




The Philippines

7.22

66




Singapore

7.23

66




South Korea

7.26

66




Taiwan

7.28

67




Summary

7.30

67











VIII


Comparative Law - The West




69
















The West

8.1

69




Canada

8.4

69




United Kingdom

8.7

71




England and Wales

8.7

71




Northern Ireland

8.16

77




Scotland

8.29

81




United States of America

8.56

88



International Conventions

8.64

89













IX

Our Public Consultation and Local Research




92
















Television, Radio and the Press

9.1

92




Public Appeal

9.5

93




Direct Appeal

9.7

93




Employers

9.13

94




Other Organizations

9.15

95


District Boards


9.18

96




Personal Meeting

9.21

97




The Prisons

9.35

100




The Police

9.37

101




The MacLennan Commission

9.38

101




Survey of Public Opinion

9.41

102




Miscellaneous Matters

9.44

102




Consultations Outside Hong Kong

9.48

103





Materials

9.51

104




Summary

9.52

104













X

Consequences of Change




105
















Introduction

10.1

105




England and Wales

10.11

107




Scotland

10.14

108



Australia


10.16

108




United States of America

10.17

109




Our Conclusions

10.24

111













XI

Our Reasoning and Conclusions




113
















Introduction : Our Guiding Principles

11.1

113




Marriage

11.8

114



Youth Under 21 Years Old


11.10

115




Prostitution, Procuration and Sexual Intercourse

11.10

115




Indecent Assault

11.17

116




Public Behaviour

11.21

117




Other Areas of Concern

11.30

119




Child Stealing and Selling

11.31

119




Obscene Telephone Calls

11.32

120




Peeping Toms

11.33

120




Indecent Publications and Films

11.34

120




Sex Shops

11.37

121




Employment

11.38

121




Consensual Homosexual Conduct by Adults

11.39

121




Consenting Adult Males in Private

11.42

122




Arguments for retaining the present law

11.42

122




Our own reasoning and views

11.43

123




"In Private"

11.51


126




Procuration

11.53

126




The Age of Adult Responsibility

11.55

127




Lesbianism

11.56

127




Penalties

11.57

128




Prisons

11.58

128




Armed Services

11.59

128




Consequential Matters

11.60

129



The Scope of Our Proposals


11.65

130













XII

Summary of Our Work and Recommendations

12.1

12.12


131

133














XIII

Summary in the Chinese Language




133













XIV

List of Annexures




Ai
















1 Sub-Committee :








(I) Membership





A1




(II) Terms of Reference




A3
















2 Acknowledgements




A4
















3 List of Materials




A8
















4 The Press




A26
















5 Public Appeal:










(I) The Form




A37




(II) The Responses




A37
















6 Summary of the Laws in Hong Kong relating to Homosexuality




A45
















7 (I) Form of Questionnaire to Business Houses




A48




(II) Analysis of Results




A57
















8 (I) Form of letter to Organisations




A64


(II) List of Organisations





A66




(III) Analysis of Results




A69
















9 Hong Kong University Academic Staff Association - Survey of Members




A79
















10 Hong Kong Polytechnic Staff Association - Survey of Members




A103
















11 Views of District Boards and Fight Crime Committees










(I) List of District Boards



A108





(II) Extracts of Replies




A109
















12 "Movement for Homosexual Law Reform" – Proposals




A115
















13 Notes of Meeting with Representatives of Kowloon Chamber of Commerce, Hong Kong Residents Society and Others




A120
















14 Letter from Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce




A124
















  1. Notes of Meeting with Mr George Chang




A125
















16 Statement of a Chinese Homosexual




A127
















17 Notes of Meeting with 4 young Chinese Homosexuals




A135
















  1. Statement by Mr. W




A139
















19 Submissions by a Homosexual




A153














20 Views of Inmates of Drug Addiction Treatment Centres




A156
















21 Survey of Public Opinion (1980)




A164
















22 Survey of Public Opinion (1982)




A175
















23 Reported Offences relating to Homosexuality




A178














24 Details of Court Cases from 1979 to 1981




A179
















25 Submission by Scottish Organisation




A184
















26 Schedule of Miscellaneous Statistics




A185
















27 Summary of Evidence given publicly by Male Prostitutes before The Commission of Inquiry into the death of Inspector John MacLennan




A193















28 Letter of 31 August 1979 from the Attorney General





A198
















29 Civil Service Circular on Employment




A201
















30 Laws in Hong Kong




A202
















  1. Miscellaneous Legal Provisions




A216
















  1. Crimes (Sexual Offences) Act, 1980 (Victoria)




A226














33 Sexual Offences Act, 1967 (England and Wales)




A249



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