Alakus, C., Conwell, R., Gilbert, M., Buist, A., & Castle, D. (2007). The needs of parents with a mental illness who have young children: an Australian perspective on service delivery options. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 53, 333-339.
The main focus of this article was to inform the parents with who suffers a mental illness about support programs and resources available for successful and independent parenting. Through various agencies,’ it was found that, there are not many resources currently assisting those affected with this type of illness. To attempt a solution to the problem focus groups were scattered among clinicians and other groups pertaining to parents and baby care like Mothers and Baby Unit at he Austin and Repatriation Hospital. The questionnaires were centered on identifying the types of services and resources that are available for parents and the gaps between an efficient support system. When the draft was completed, a number of important issues were found that needed immediate attention, for example, improved communication between agencies. Barriers of communication included staff shortages and high workload. The need for more accessible support groups was also in need of attention. With parents being able to attend group or individual intervention for support, they would have more control of their own care. Community and non-clinician staff awareness of parents with mental illness and their needs was also addressed. The last thing that was mentioned was the fact that these parents seek independence above all. Expanding home care and providing mentors to the whole family unit can increase self-confidence and in turn promote independence. Providing adequate support groups, interventions and community-awareness will ensure reduction in social isolation of these participants. There were no implications from this study, but if found successful the program can be replicated in other affected areas.
Alpern, L., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (1993). Preschool children at social risk: chronicity and timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems at school and at home. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 371-387.
The study focuses on whether the timing (previous, recent, chronic and never depressed) of low income mothers depressive symptoms affect their child’s behavior at home and at school. Previous research has only looked at cognitive and linguistic abilities among children of low income mother’s with depression. Fewer studies have looked at the behavior of children towards peers in preschool. Methodology consisted of a longitudinal experimental study. There were 64 children with depressed and non-depressed mothers. There were 183 control group children from the children’s school. The mother’s were measured on depression and reports of the child’s behavior. The children were measured on verbal and performance IQ scores. Finally, the teacher’s were measured on ratings of child behavior problems in school. The results showed that 45% of mothers had depressive symptoms and that 75% of that group was still in the same category when interviewed the second time about four years later. The teacher’s reports showed a significant correlation for children who were anxious and hyperactive with respect to child gender. The authors found that the children whose mothers have chronic depressive symptoms are more likely to display hostile behavior at school and at home. Children who displayed more anxiety symptoms had mother’s who had previously had depressive symptoms. Moreover, the researchers inferred that mothers with recent symptoms of depression had children who did not experience extreme levels of behavior problems. All things considered, maternal depressive symptoms are a detriment to a child’s secure and healthy development.
Duggan, A. K., Berlin, L. J., Cassidy, J., Burrell, L., & Tandon, D. S. (2009). Examining maternal depression and attachment insecurity as moderators of the impacts of home visiting for at-risk mothers and infants. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 788–799.
Home visiting programs for at-risk mothers and their infants have grown rapidly in recent years. But the analyses of those visits have yielded different results. The purpose of this study was to assess the roles of maternal depression and attachment insecurity as moderators of the impacts of home visiting services. The Healthy Families Alaska (HFAK) trained 53 home visitors to provide services to families during the study. There were 364 participating families. Of these families 179 were randomly assigned to the (HFAK) group and 185 to the control group. The mothers were interviewed at the beginning of the study. The results yielded that 28% of the mothers met the criteria for clinical depression, attachment anxiety and discomfort with trust/dependence. Some of them reported domestic violence, substance use, high parenting stress and most of them lived in poverty. The families were assessed two years later after the initial interview. The results showed that home visiting benefited both depressed and no depressed mothers. For no depressed mothers, home visiting reduced high parenting stress and increased maternal sensitivity to their children and it also reduced substantial child maltreatment. For depressed mothers, home visiting reduced depression, partner violence. Overall home visiting impacts were greater for no depressed mothers with moderate to high discomfort with trust/dependence and for depressed mothers with low discomfort with trust/dependence. The results of this study show the importance of programs as Healthy Families in our society to help families who might be experiencing some types of functioning problems.
Hubbs-Tait, L., Kere, P. K., McDonalds, A., Osofsky, J., Hann, D., Eberhart, A., & Ware, L. (1996). Children of adolescent mothers: attachment representation, maternal depression, and later behavior problems. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 416-426.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate children of depressed adolescent mothers. The researchers focus on attachment and maternal depression to predict later behavior problems. The participants were 34 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18) and their 44-months old children. The participants were assessed twice during this study. The first time was at 44-months old and the second time 10 months later, at 54-months old. At 44 months old, the children were assessed using the Attachment Story Completion Task and the mothers were assessed by the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to measure the degree of their depressive symptoms. The score was .41. At 55 months old both the mothers and the children again, the mother and children were assess again. The mothers were assessed using the same method (CES-D) and the children using Child Behavior Check List to measure their behavior problems. The results show that children with depressed adolescent mothers were more likely to develop later internalizing and externalizing problems; it also found that children will be more insecure and detached. The findings of this study showed that adolescent parenting can be very difficult, but more importantly it shows that mothers who feel depressed need to seek help because their attitudes will affect the future behavior of their children starting at a very young age.
Kang, S. K., Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Mowbray, C. (2008). Mothers with serious mental illness: when symptoms decline does parenting improve?. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 162-166.
Serious Mental Illness (SMI), which could include; depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are associated with parenting problems. There were three different hypothesis suggested for this study. The purpose of this study was to investigate how mental illness affects parenting and how a decline in the symptoms can affect parenting. The study included a total of 294 mothers ages 18-55 who were diagnosed as having an SMI. A requisite to be eligible to participate in this study included care responsibilities for at least one child of 4 to l6 years of age. The participants were interview three times in a period of three and a half years. The researchers used the 14-item Colorado Symptom Index (CSI), the Block Child Rearing Practices, Nurturance subscale; Rickel and Biassstti 1982 and the Parental Stress Index to evaluate the results. (Higher scores indicated more frequent experiences of psychiatric symptoms). The data indicates that SMI is associated with problematic parenting, parenting stress and dampened nurturance. Populations at higher risk are those with low income, racial-ethnic minorities, low educated individuals, unemployed and those with substance abuse disorders. This longitudinal study was interested in examining change in symptoms and change in parenting over time. The results indicated that overtime on average, symptoms, parenting stress and nurturance declined. Change in symptoms was positively associated with change in parenting (r=.81 p< .001) and negatively associated with change in nurturance (r=-.37, p<.05) meaning that mother who experienced greater symptoms decline also reported greater decline in parenting stress and less significant decline in nurturance. They were unable to find a direct association between initial symptom level and change in symptoms over time. And there was not significant effect on the associations between symptoms and nurturance. The results of this study support hypothesis one because it was concluded that higher levels of symptoms reported higher levels of parenting stress and decline in symptoms was associated with reduction in parenting stress and increase in nurturance.
Min Park, J., Solomon, P., & Mandell, D.S. (2006). Involvement in the child welfare system
among mothers with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 57, 493-497.
This study focused on mothers with mental illness and the child welfare system. The authors hypothesized that mother’s with mental illness are more likely to have had their children taken away from them by the child welfare system. There were 4,827 female participants, ages 15 to 45. The participants were found using multiple data sets from Medicaid and Department of Human Services (DHS). The participants were categorized based on severity of mental illness, type of treatment that they were currently in (inpatient, outpatient, or no treatment), and involvement in the child welfare system (out-of-home care or in-home preventative services). The results indicated that several factors contributed to having more involvement in the child welfare system: older age, women of African American ethnicity and women who were currently in in-patient care with a severe mental illness. In fact, 16.2 % of women in psychiatric in-patient care were more likely to be involved compared to 11.7 % of out-patient care. This study concludes that it is important for the child welfare system to work with the mental health system in not only providing treatment for women who have serious mental illness as but also providing proper treatment for parenting so they will not have to have their children taken away from them. There is also a need with assistance for the women in regards towards dealing with custody arrangements.
Mordoch, E., & Hall, W. A. (2008). Children’s perceptions of living with a parent with a mental illness: finding the rhythm and maintaining the frame. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 1127-1144.
This journal article is centered on the effects of children that live with parents who are diagnosed with mental illness. The article acknowledges the many articles pertaining to children who have parents with a parental mental illness, but that there is need for research on children’s perceptions about managing life when they have a parent who suffers this type of illness. The children who were included in the study were children who lived part-time or full-time with a parent being treated for a mental illness. To gather data for this study, short questionnaires were administered, interviews with family members and siblings were conducted and many hours of observation. When the interviewee was a younger child they were given the opportunity to draw pictures to communicate their thoughts and feelings. This particular research utilized two core variables for their findings: finding the rhythm and maintaining the frame. Finding the rhythm required children to adapt to their parents’ behavior and understand their illness while keeping a parent-sibling connection. Maintaining the frame aimed at allowing children to keep a safe distance from their parents so they could in turn develop their own personality while maintaining the family structure. While trying to find the rhythm and frame, children went through emotional periods but found times of stability when the parent’s illness was less drastic. The study was able to help children who had prior difficulty in coping with their parent’s mental illness. Due to the targeted finding the rhythm and keeping the frame structure, they were more aware of support groups and resources and were able to better manage the family unit and still keep their individuality.
Smith, M. J., Greenberg, J. S., & Seltzer, M. M. (2007). Siblings of adults with schizophrenia: expectations about future caregiving roles. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 29-37.
Two questions were investigated in this research. First, to what extent do siblings expect to be involved in the future caregiving tasks for a brother or sister when parents diagnosed with schizophrenia were not able to any longer? The other question is what factors influence siblings expectations for assuming a future caregiving role for a brother or sister? Siblings were asked if in the future they considered the caregiving for their brothers and sisters since their parents would be unable to. The majority of the participants were recruited with the assistance of the agency responsible for providing services to persons with mental illness. The participants were mostly mothers of age 55 or older with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Two variables were constructed to capture the dimensions of future involvement pertaining to daily living tasks and emotional support. An objective burden scale developed by Tessler and Damache indicated the likelihood of the siblings assisting their brothers and sisters when their parents were no longer able to provide care. More than three fourths of the siblings reported that they would probably help in future caregiving for their siblings. A smaller but still substantial percentage of participants were willing to assist their siblings with instrumental daily tasks. Siblings who expressed a stronger sense of family responsibility ranked a higher percentage of future caregiving role than siblings who were already older and more independent. The results of this research were encouraging and suggest that siblings are prepared to take caregiving roles and that they will maintain family bonds.
Wilson, L., & Crowe, M. (2009). Parenting with a diagnosis bipolar disorder. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65, 877–884.
This study attempts to look at bipolar disorder in parents. It looks specifically at how bipolar disorder is characterized in the DSM-IV and how the parents construct their parenting roles based on popular media. The methodology consisted of discourse analysis which consists of interpretation and persuasion of words and language. The texts that were used included the DSM-IV, interviews, and two popular texts chosen by the participants which were Dr. Phil and Super Nanny. The participants consisted of 4 women and 1 man. They were all given an interview and asked about their disorder, how they handle parenting, and how popular media influences their parenting role. What the authors found was that the parents were very critical of their behaviors and their parenting role and techniques. Television shows such as Super Nanny and Dr. Phil were used to gauge how their parenting techniques measure up with normal parents. Furthermore, the parents showed a heightened sense of inadequacy toward their fluctuations in mood. Because using and teaching their children self-control was difficult for the parents, the parents themselves had to constantly monitor their own behavior. The conclusion states that since parents with bipolar disorder are more aware of their behavior and attitudes around their children, that maybe it would be beneficial for mental health nurses in using language and text to develop better strategies for self-surveillance and parenting roles.
Individual contribution: we set up a meeting time where we discussed possible topics for the annotated bibliography that would in turn develop into the work for the literature review. After a topic of interest was obtained, we each looked for three journal articles pertaining to the subject. When the three annotated bibliographies were completed, the final draft was forwarded to the person in charge of submitting on crops.
(9-8 pts.) Annotations of articles are well-written, insightful, and thorough. They effectively address the key research question, the primary methodology, the results, and the implications.
(7-6 pts.) Annotations of articles are straight-forward, but lack connections and insight. They somewhat address the key research question, the primary methodology, the results, and the implications.
(5-4 pts.) Annotations of articles are poorly written and/or incomplete. They do not address the key research question, the primary methodology, the results, and the implications.
(3 pts.)All sources cited are formatted accurately according to the APA standards.
(2 pts.) Most sources cited are formatted accurately according to the APA standard.
(1 pt.) Some sources cited are formatted accurately according to the APA standard.
Grammar, Punctuation & Spelling
(2 pts.) Excellent grammar and usage. Usage of sophisticated sentence structures, appropriate word choice, and accurate punctuation. Spelling is highly accurate, little to no errors.
(1.5 pts.) Appropriate grammar and usage, though not precise. Simple and some complex phrasing, some inaccurate word choice, and notable punctuation errors. Spelling has several errors, mainly contextual.
(1 pt.) Poor grammar and usage, impeding overall understanding. Frequent syntax errors that impede meaning. Spelling with frequent errors that indicate a lack of care or significant struggle with language use.
Total 10 out of 14 possible points
Hi Lizbeth, Carolina, and Maria,
I found your Annotated Bibliography about parents with mental illnesses topically interesting. Besides the misstep with the citation formatting, most of your annotations were analytically well-written. Good work overall!
p.s. To facilitate a quicker turn-around time for grading this assignment, my comments are mostly focused on higher stakes issues (i.e. content/ideas and organization/coherency). Please use the grading rubric to guide your revision process for other issues.
Please let me know if you have any questions.