A course in Cinema and Television at the Master’s level is a professional step towards successful careers in Cinema and Television. The multiplicity of Television channels being a reality, a formal training in these areas will equip the students with adequate confidence and leadership to take up challenging careers. The syllabus that is envisaged for a course in Cinema and Television fulfills the requirements.
Cinema and Television are the most important sources through which present day man as a spectator finds fulfillment in Entertainment, Information, Education, and Adventure and in various other areas. And at a higher level, he attains an insight regarding artistic values.
Cinema has a history of more than hundred years and Television about sixty. Both originated on different technological bases and therefore, for sometime there was aggressive antagonism between the two. However, further advancement forced inter-dependability between the two and in most of the areas there is a healthy synthesis of technologies. Most of the institutions undertaking training in Cinema and Television have clearly understood this fact and steer the courses in a composite manner.
A hundred years of history of Cinema has laid down clarity in concepts, which are the strong motive forces for a detailed study. The inter-dependability in technologies and the amalgamation in the artistic expressions in the fields of Cinema and Television have to be understood as a single entity.
For study and training, one has to depend on practical that give quick results. Therefore, videography is the technical means through which all the essential academic requirements of the courses are fulfilled. Cinema remains the motive force at the conceptual level.
The following syllabus tries to impart adequate training in Cinema and Television at the M.A. level.
1. Course Structure The course has a symmetrical approach - that is, four semesters. Emphasis is laid on practical and projects. Every semester ends with a project and the Course ends with a Graduation Film.
2. Eligibility I. Basic academic qualification is a graduation in any field.
(However preference will be given to the candidates with the following: -Training in Multimedia, Animation, Graphics, Videography, Film Appreciation, Journalism, Communication, Visual Arts, Painting, Theatre, Architecture and Music.)
II. Candidates will be finally selected after an interview.
III. Merit list will be drawn on the basis of the qualifying examination and interview (that is, 50:50)
3. Course Summary
1. Techniques of Cinema and Television –Visual aspect 1
2. Techniques of Cinema and Television-Audio aspect 1
3. Techniques of Cinema and Television-Editing aspect 1
4. Evaluation The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts; (a) internal evaluation and (b) external evaluation. 25% weightage shall be given to internal evaluation and the remaining 75% to external evaluation and the ration and weightage between internal and external is 1:3. Both internal and external evaluation shall be carried out using direct grading system.
Internal evaluation: The Internal evaluation shall be based on predetermined transparent system periodic written tests, assignments, seminars and attendance in respect of practical courses. The weightage assigned to various components for internal evaluation is a follows.
Components of Internal Evaluation
Assignment ……………… 1
Seminar ……………… 2
Attendance ……………… 1
Two Test papers ……………… 2
Grades for attendance
% of attendance
Between 85 and 90
Between 80 and below 85
Between 75 and below 85
To ensure transparency of the evaluation process, the internal assessment grade awarded to the students in each course in a semester shall be published on the notice board at least one week before the commencement of external examination. There shall not be any chance for improvement for internal grade.
The course teacher and the faculty advisor shall maintain the academic record of each student registered for the course which shall be forwarded to the University through the college Principal and a copy should be kept in the college for at least two years for verification.
External evaluation: The external examination in theory courses is to be conducted by the University with question papers set by external experts. The evaluation of the answer scripts shall be done by examiners based on a well-defined scheme of valuation. The external evaluation shall be done immediately after the examination preferably through centralized valuation.
Photocopies of the answer scripts of the external examination shall be made available to the students for scrutiny on request and revaluation/scrutiny of answer scripts shall be done as per the existing rules prevailing in the University.
The question paper should be strictly on the basis of model question paper set by BOS and there shall be a combined meeting of the question paper setters for scrutiny and finalization of question paper. Each set of question should be accompanied by its scheme of valuation.
Direct Grading System
Grade point (G)
3.5 to 4.00
2.5 to 3.49
0.5 to 1.49
0.00 to 0.49
The overall grade for a programme for certification shall be based on CGPA with a 7- point scale given below:
3.50 to 3.79
3.00 to 3.49
2.50 to 2.99
2.00 to 2.49
1.50 to 1.99
1.00 to 1.49
Each course is evaluated by assigning a letter grade (A, B, C, D or E) to that course by the method of direct grading. The internal (weightage = 1) and external weightage =3) components of a course are separately graded and then combined to get the grade of the course after taking into account of their weightage.
A separate minimum of C grade is required for a pass for both internal evaluation and external evaluation for every course.
A student who falls to secure a minimum grade for a pass in a course will be permitted to write the examination along with the next batch.
After the successful completion of a semester, Semester Grade Point Average (SGPA) of a student in that semester is calculated using the formula given below. For the successful completion of semester, a student should pass all courses and score a minimum SGPA of 2.0. However, a student is permitted to move to the next semester irrespective of her/his SGPA.
For instance, 3 if a student has registered for ‘n’ courses of credits C1, C2 …Cn in a semester and if she/he scored credit points P1, P2 … Pn respectively in these courses, then SGPA of the student in that semester is calculated using the formula.
Where S1, S2, S3 and S4 are the total credits in semester 1, semester 2, semester 3 and semester 4.
The minimum requirement of aggregate attendance during a semester for appearing the end semester examination shall be 75%. Condonation of shortage of attendance to a maximum of 10 days in a semester subject to two times during the whole period of post graduate programme may be granted by the university.
If a student represents his/her institution, university, state or nation in sports, NSS, NCC or cultural or any other officially sponsored activities such as college union/university union activities he/she shall be eligible to claim attendance for the actual number of days participated subject to a maximum of 10 days in a semester based on the specific recommendations of the head of department and Principal of the college concerned.
A student who does not satisfy the requirements of attendance shall not be permitted to take the end semester examinations.
6. Internship (On the Job Training)
Internship is on the job training to assimilate the professionalism in a career. The students will have to undergo an Internship at a T.V. Studio/Channel for a fortnight during the fourth semester. The students would prepare individual reports after the Internship and the same should be attested by the organization under which the student did the Internship. The students’ comprehensive report will be submitted to the HOD for evaluation. A faculty member will monitor the students during the Internship.
M.A. CINEMA & TELEVISION
(SEMSTER WISE DISTRIBUTION OF COURSES AND CREDITS AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION)
The academic work in the Semester aims at bringing students of different disciplines to a common level of comprehension of the subjects. Unit I Cinema, Television and Video in the Spectrum of art – Verbal and Non-verbal communication - Functional Art – Decorative Art – Performing Art and Music.
Unit II Form and Function – Visuals – Shots – Image Sizes – Composition for still frame and moving frame.
Unit III Lenses – Fixed Focus lenses – Variable focus lenses – Depth of focus – Depth of field – Wide Angle – Normal lens – Tele lens – Image quality.
Unit IV View Points – Moving shots – Camera Movement – Subject Movement – Combined Movement – Zoom and Dolly – Crane Shots – Steady Cam.
Unit V Shot Transition – Cuts-Match Cut – Jump Cut – Dissolve – Fade – Wipe – Keying in – Mapping.
The place of audio as an important element and the methods of its application should be understood as an affective factor in communication.
Unit I Technique of Sound – Perception of Sound – Silent Shot – Synchronizing methods – Nature of Sound – Microphones – Speakers.
Unit II Shooting Silent Shot – Shooting Synchronous Shot – Location Recording – Pilot Track – Direct Sound – Sound Mixer.
Unit III Photographic Recording – Magnetic Recording – Digital Recording.
Unit IV Single Track Recording – Multiple Track Recording – Stereophonic Sound – Surround Sound – DTS and Dolby.
Unit V Components of Sound Track in Cinema & Television – Voice – Music – Synchronous Sound Effect – Ambience.
1. Sound : Efron
2. Acoustics : Mackenzie
3. Background Music : Lowry
4. From Microphone to Ear : G. Slot
5. The Tape Recorder : Nijsen
6. Techniques of Film Music : John Hunttey
TECHNIQUES OF CINEMA AND TELEVISION:
The student should grasp the various methods through which shots are juxtaposed so that the process of communication becomes meaningful and simple. Unit I Form and Function with regard to Editing – Montage Concepts – Relational / Constructive Editing – Advanced Montage/Principles.
Unit II Concept of Continuity – Physical Continuity Psychological Continuity – Concept of Imaginary Line.
Unit III Unity of Time and Space – Filmic Time and Space – Time and Space in Theatre – Unity of Time and Space in Cinema & Television.
Unit IV Mis-en-Scene/Mis-en-Shot-Mis-en-Scene in Theatre – Mis-en-Scene in Cinema & Television – Editing Photographic Materials – Editing Electronic Images.
Unit V Linear Editing – Non-Linear Editing (Practical Work)
1. Film and Its Technique : P. Spottis Woode
2. Technique of Editing 16mm Films : John Burder
3. The Technique of Film Editing : Karel Rreiz and Carvin Miller
4. Notes of A Director/Bursar: : S.M. Eisenstein
METHODS OF SHOOTING
The student should get a clear idea for visualizing and shooting the same.
Unit I Preparing a Short Film of 10 Minutes Duration – Idea – Synopsis –Treatment Screenplay – Shooting Script – Shot Breakdown.
Unit II Shooting on Location – Key Light – Filler Light – Background Light – Natural Light – Artificial Light Color Temperature – Measuring Incident / Reflected Light.
Unit III Use of Filters – Effect Filters – Correction Filters Diffusers – UV Filters – Day for Night Shooting – Matching Indoor and Outdoor Lighting – Mixing Natural Light and Artificial Lights.
Unit IV Different Video Formats – SVHS – Beta System – Digital – Different Film Formats – 8mm – 16mm – 35mm – Cinemascope – 70mm.
Unit V Practical: Handling a SVHS – Camera on Location – Shooting Various Shots on Composition, Continuity, Movements, Lenses and View Point.
1. Independent Film Making : Lenny Lipton
2. Audio Encyclopedia : Tremaine Howard
3. Background Music : Lowry H
4. Digital Principle & Application : Malvino Leech
The total input of the full semester should be manifested through the project.
Shooting of a ten minutes fiction situation.
This could be based on the script prepared on a fresh idea, and then the entire procedure in Unit I Paper IV will have to be gone through.
SHORT FILMS AND DOCUMENTARIES
The student should get a thorough grounding on the various TV shorts based on the historical perspectives of short films. Unit I Classification of short films and Documentaries ito different genres: - Actualities – News – Compilation Films – Educational Films – Propaganda Films – Sponsored Documentaries – Creative Documentaries – History and Important Milestone in Documentary Movement.
Unit II Television Documentaries – History and Important Milestone – National Geographic Channel – Discovery Channel – History Channel.
Unit III Television Serials – Single Episode – Multiple Episodes – Mega Serials – History and Development – Soap Operas – Other Kinds of Serials – Adventure – Mystery – Comedy – Horror – Voyeuristic etc.
Unit IV Form and Content of Serials – Methods of Scripting – Technique and Form – Serials and TV Audience.
Unit V TV News – Electronic News Gathering – Methods of TV News Presentation – Role Played by BBC, CNN, Doordarshan etc.
1. Documentary Films : Paul Rotha
2. Documentary Films : CILECT Publication
3. Creative Documentary : Chapters from ‘Technique of Film Editing’ by Karel Reiz.
4. Film Culture : Adam Sitney
5. Television: Critical Methods : Wadswarth Publishing Company &Application J. Butter
6. Hollywood Genres : T. Schatz
TELEVISION SHORTS AND FILM SHORTS
To expand the area of concept with regard to short films and TV programmes. Unit I ENG and Investigative Journalism – Preparation and Methods – Quality of Objectivity and Truth.
Unit II TV and Panel Discussion – Compering – Anchoring – Commentary for TV Coverage of Sports, Festivals and Other Events – Articulation and Reflex Response – Voice Training and Modulation.
Unit III Imaginative Documentaries – Works of Grierson, Flaherty, Satyajit Ray, Sukhdev and Other Masters.
Unit IV Cartoon Films – TV Cartoons – Contributions of Walt Disney and Others.
Unit V Covering a Local Event with a Single Camera – Edit the Same into a Coherent Whole Not Exceeding 10 Minutes – Practical.
At the conceptual level, the student should gain adequate information and practice to shape his ideas. Unit I Scripting for Non – Fiction Films – Content Structure – Form – Format for a Script.
Unit II Scripting for Fiction Film – Beginning – Middle – End – Exposition – Complication – Crisis – Climax – Resolution – Idea – Synopsis – Treatment – Screenplay – Shooting Script.
Unit III Writing Dialogue – Purpose – Theatrical Dialogue Versus Natural Dialogues – Commentary – Monologue.
Unit IV Growth of Cinema as an Art Form – Important Milestones – Actualities – Talkies – Neo-Realism – New Wave – Experimental.
Unit V Cinema and Television – Interaction and Synthesis in Technologies.
1. Television Production : Alan Wartzel
2. Art of Dramatic Writing : Lajos Egri
3. Play Writing : Bernard Grebanier
4. Technique of Screenplay Writing : Eugene Vale.
SHAPING THE FORM
To make the student to comprehend the details those go into the shaping of an artistic form. Unit I Acting Component – Performance for TV and Film – Star – Trained Actor – Non Actors – Anti Heroes – Child Actors – Type Casting – Creative Devices to Get Good Performance from Actors – Angle, Lenses, Lighting, View-Point, Colour, Editing etc. Make-up for Actors.
Unit II Synchronous Dialogue – Overlapping Dialogue – Reaction Shots – Creative Use of Dialogue – Dialogue as Counter Point.
Unit III Use of Song – Purpose of Music – Theme Music – Leit Motif – Music as Counter Point – Effect Music – Electronic Music.
Unit IV Post Synchronization – Play back – Piolet Track – Dubbing.
Unit V Sound Recording and Re recording – Mixing Sound – Art of Mixing.
Practical: Shooting a Dialogue Scene.
1. An Actor Prepares : C.Stanislavsky
2. Creating A Role : C.Stanislavsky
3. Building A Character : C.Stanislavsky
4. Film Sense : S.M.Eisenstein
5. What Is Cinema (Vol. I & II) : Andre Bazin
SHOOTING WITHIN TV STUDIO
The students should gain detailed knowledge with regard to shooting within a studio.Unit I Components of a TV Studio – Studio Floor – Audio Control Room – Vision Mixer – Master Control – VTR – Telecine.
Unit II Prepare a Five Minute Fiction Scene and Plan for Shooting with a Single Camera – Prepare a Floor Chart with Flow of Action, Movement, Camera Set Ups etc. Edit the sequence and assess the result (Single day for shooting and single day for editing).
Unit III Prepare a News Presentation in the Studio with Three Cameras – One for Captions and Inserts and two for News Readers (One day for each student).
Unit IV Prepare a Script of 10 Minutes Duration for a Fiction Scene – Prepare a floor Chart – Use Multiple Cameras (three) – Prepare a Story Board for the same and shoot the project in the studio.
1. Lessons with Eisestein : Vladimir Nizhny
2. What is Cinema Vol. I & II : Andre Basin
3. Goddard on Goddard : Jean Kuc Goddard
4. How to Read A Film : James Monaco
5. Signs and Meanings in The Cinema : Peter Woollens
To give adequate confidence in selecting and preparing a socially relevant event. Select a topic that requires investigation to bring out the truth. Go into the details through deep research.
Shoot with a video camera to make a programme not exceeding 10 minutes.
Pre shooting preparation should not take more than a week.
Idea to shooting script plan may be worked out for final approval by the supervising faculty.
Shooting should be completed within two days and editing and completion another three days.
1. Television - The Critical View : H. Newcombe
2. Film Art : D. Broadwell& K. Thomson
3. Ideology and Image : B.Nichols
4. Feminism and Film Theory : C. Pentley
5. Script Writing for Short Films : James Beveridge
6. Feeling and Form : Susanna K. Langer
COURSE 3 -1
ART AND CRAFT FOR CINEMA AND TELEVISION
The student should gain adequate information regarding the art and technique for cinema and TV images.
Unit I The Art of Photographic Images – Technology of Photographic Images – Silver Halide – Grain Size – Picture Resolution – Colour Saturation – Slow and Fast Films – Grading – Rushes to release print.
Unit II The Art of Electronic Imaging – Composite Signal, Band Width – Scanning Process in Camera – Scanning Process in Receiver – CCD Camera – Cable TV – Microwave Link – Satellite TV – Up linking – DTH – High Definition TV.
Unit III Video Recording – Various Formats – Analogous Recording – Digital Recording.
Unit IV Expanding Screen Size in Cinema Projection – Visual Space and Audio Equation – Normal Format Aspect Ratio – 1 : 1.33 – Cinemascope – Vista Vision – 70 mm – I - Max.
Unit V Cinema Aesthetics – Video Aesthetics.
1. Film Criticism and Theory : G. Mast
2. How to Read A Film : James Monaco
3. Meaning of Art : Herbert Reed
4. The Art of Color and Design : V.K. Ball
5. Montage Eisestein : Jacques Aumont
6. Art and Visual Perception : Rudolf Arnheim
COURSE 3 -2
CINEMA AND TV: PROCESS OF CONSOLIDATION
To student should be adequately prepared for the use of the methods used both in TV and Cinema. Unit I Methods of Dubbing in Cinema – Methods of Dubbing in Video – Consolidation of Methods.
Unit II Music Recording – Background Music Recording – Music Director and Director – Procedure for Background Music Recording.
Unit III Choosing Playback situation in a story – Purpose of Songs – Title Songs – Overture – Procedure for Song Recording – Union Rules.
Unit IV Choreography for Films and TV Programmes – Choreography as a Unified Part of the Visual Design of the Film – Shooting a Dance Sequence with Single Camera and Multiple Cameras.
Unit V Shooting Live Action of Panel Discussions. Festivals, Music, Programmes and Sports with Multiple Cameras for TV.
1. Social History of Art : Arnold Hauser
2. Confessions of a Cultist : Andrew Garnis
3. Dialectics of Nature : Frederic Engels
4. Understand Media : Marshall Mc Luhan
5. Semiotics of Cinema : Christian Metz
SYNTHESIS OF CINEMA AND TV TECHNIQUES
To give adequate information to the students regarding the ddiversity and commonality in the Craft and Art of TV and Cinema. Unit I Process of Editing with Photographic Images – Rushes – Rough Cut – Final Cut – Negative Cutting – RR Print – Grading – Release Print.
Unit II Process of Editing with Electronic System – Original Negative – Electronic Transfer of Positive Image to Tape or Disc – Capturing Methods – Linear Editing – Dubbing – Recording – Mixing – Cutting of Negative - Grading – First Print – Corrected Print – Release Print.
Unit III Animation and Special Effects – Animation Films – animation and Live Action – Special Effects for Entertainment Industry – Commercials – Experiment Films.
Unit IV Detailed Study of an Action Sequence – Image Size – Camera View Points – Movements – Mass and Volume – Pause – Counter Angles.
Unit V Practicals Analysis of an Action Sequence or Dialogue Sequence or Playback Sequence not Exceeding 10 Minutes in Duration for Submission as a Term Assignment.
1. Technique of Editing : Karel Reiz
2. Technique of Film : R. Spottis Woode
3. Scripting for Video and
Audio Visual Media : Dwight Swain
4. Digital Character Animation : George Maestri
5. Disney Animation : Thomas, Frank and Johnson Ollie
6. Techniques of Film Cutting Room : Ernest Walter
7. Adobe Premiere : User Guide
COURSE 3 -4
GROWTH OF CINEMA AND TELEVISION AS AN ART FORM
(THROUGH DISCUSSIONS AND SCREENING)
The student should receive adequate information on the growth of Cinema and TV as the modern artistic medium.
Unit I Silent Period in Cinema – Growth of silent Visuals as an Expressive Medium for Communication – Realistic Tendency – Expressionism – Influence of Styles of Painting on Cinema-Non Verbal Communication.
Unit II Arrival of Talkies – Cinema and Photoplays – Theatrical Dialogues, Script and Framing of Shots – Verbal Communication and Theatre Influence.
Unit III Arrival of Color – Hollywood Specializes in Different Genre of Films – Birth of Television.
Unit IV II World War – Economic Depression – Neo-Realism – Spread of TV – Video Recording Revolutionizes TV Medium.
Unit V New Wave – Interaction of Cinema and Television – A Synthesis in Technology and Art – Science Fiction Films – Experimental Films.
1. How to Read a Film : James Monaco
2. Hliveliest Art : Arthur Knight
3. Indian Cinema : S. Krishnaswamy
4. Film Form and Film Sense : S.M. Eisestein
5. Signs and Meanings in Cinema : Peter Wollen
6. Film Culture : Adam Sitney
7. Cinema As A Graphic Art : V. Nilsen
8. Non-Fiction Film : Richard Merum Barsum
9. Short Fiction scenario : S. Eisenstein
10. Techniques of Screenplay Writing : Eugene Vale
12. Film Theory and Criticism : Gerald Marsh and Cohen
13. American Cinematographer’s Manual : A.S.D.
COURSE 3 - 5
MEDIA ETHICS AND EDUCATION (Theory)
To understand the positive as well as negative influence of media and the critical evaluation of media Unit I
Ethics – Branches of Ethics, Media Ethics – Mass Media and the shape of the Human Moral Environment. Applied Ethics – Ethical issues in different media professions – Journalism, Cinema, Advertising, Photography, Graphic Design, Animation etc.- Overview of Codes and Regulations in India. Digital Media Ethics.
Media Education – Objectives and Skills – Key Concepts, Media Scenario: Present Trends – Different Starting points for Media Education – Media Impact in Society – Social and Psychological impacts
Culture and Communication – Culture as Communication – Inter-cultural Communication – Values, World view and Perception – Values in Culture – Values and Communication – From Ethnocentrism to Ethno relativism
Mass Media: Relevance and significance. Purpose and functions of Mass Media – Mass Media, Individuals and Society – Connecting to “Reality” through Media – Media and Society: Normative theory
Media Language – Media as Art Experiences – De-Mystifying the Media – Media and Consumerism – The Philosophy commercialism – Media and De-humanization – Sex and Violence in the Media – Media and Moral Permissiveness – Media and Imperialism – Cultural Erosion and Mental Colonization – Media Control – Alternative Media
Mass Media and the Moral Imagination : Philip J Rossi
Media Education in India : Jacob Srambickal
Media Ethics : Bart Pattyn
Communication Ethics and Universal : Clifford Christmas
Internship is on the job training to assimilate professionalism in one’s career. The students will have to undergo an Internship at a TV Studio/Channel for a fortnight during the fourth semester. The students would prepare individual reports after the Internship and the same should be attested by the organization under which the student did the internship. The students’ comprehensive report will be submitted to the HOD for evaluation. A faculty member will monitor the students during the internship.
COURSE 4 -2
STRUCTURE OF A FICTION FILM
The student should reach a high professional level in preparing the Graduation Film.
Detailed Analysis of a Full Length Fiction Film by the teacher for the benefits of the students. The Analysis will be based on the Following: -
Story structure, Development, Fulfillment – Characterization – Anticipation – Suspense.
Use of Technology for Artistic Purposes. Camera – Sound – Editing.
Use of Audio – Structure of the Sound Track.
Place of the film in the Spectrum of Art.
Contribution of Editor, Art Director, Music Director, Special Effects Expert, Choreographer, Stunt Director, Make-up Man.
The list as suggested in the previous semesters.
COURSE 4 -3
PRACTICAL ANALYSIS: FICTION FILM
The student should reach a high professional level in preparing the Graduation Film.
Each Student will individually select a Film of his / her Choice under guidance from the teacher and give a detailed analysis of the Film. He/She will submit a minimum 20 Page Report for Assessment.
The list as suggested in the previous semesters.
COURSE 4 -4
GRADUATION FILM: PROJECT IV
The student should reach a high professional level in preparing the Graduation Film. Graduation Film A Student will work on an idea approved by the concerned faculty and will bring out detailed screenplay for a sort fiction / non fiction film of 23 minutes duration. The student will get a maximum of 10 weeks for the pre-shooting, shooting and post-shooting stages.
The entire schedule will be fixed by the faculty and if the film remains incomplete, will be assessed as it is.
A Viva Voce will be held based on the Graduation Film.