Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic


A Case Perspective on the prepositions



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A Case Perspective on the prepositions

Genitive


Dative

Accusative

a]po< from

e]n in

ei]j into

e]k out of, from

su

pro

dia< through, by

e]pi< on, at, against

dia< because of

kata< down, against




kata< according to, during

meta< with




meta< after

peri< for, concerning




peri< around, about

e]pi<< on, over




e]pi< on, to, toward

Elision


Prepositions ending in a vowel often drop the final vowel when it comes before a word that begins with a vowel.
di ] e]mou? = through me (Jn. 14:6)

(dia< + e]mou?)


If there is a rough breathing mark on the next word, the final consonant may be shifted:
meq ] h[me(meta< + h[me

Proclitics


A proclitic is a word that has no accent because it is joined so closely with the accented word that follows it.

e]n, ei]j and e]k are proclitics.

They come before (pro) the word with the accent.

Enclitics are accentless words that follow the word with the accent. Personal pronouns are frequently enclitics.


Compounds


Prepositions are often found compounded with a verb in Greek. Sometimes the meaning of the compound may be determined by combining the meaning of the preposition with the meaning of the verb. Other times, however, the preposition affects the meaning of the verb in other ways, most frequently intensifying it.
dia< + ble

diable



Prepositions Chant: 11 Prepositional Moves

e]pi< (hands patting on head)

peri< (right hand finger extended circle head)

pro

ei]j (hands “into” heart—collapse chest)
dia< (finger pushing again “through” the back)

e]n (arms “in” hugging self)

e]]k (hand push “out” from heart finger pointing out, close)

a]po< (fingers pointing “out” both front arms extended out)


kata< (hands push against each other in front)

su

meta< (two arms extend around shoulders of invisible buddies--with)

Vocabulary

It is difficult learning the prepositions as vocabulary items. They are short, but the cases must be learned with each definition. They also have many more meaning possibilities than “normal” words. In Greek, you need to pay particular attention to the small words. Take extra time to master these well. Learn each case of the word almost as a separate item for those that come in more than one case.


a]po<

from (with gen.) (646)

dia<

through (with gen.) (667)




on account of (with acc.)

ei]j

into (with acc.) (1,768)

e]k

out of (with gen.) (914)

e]n

in (with dat.) (2,752)

e]pi<

on, over (with gen.) (890)




on, at, on the basis of, against (with dat.)




on, to, toward, against (with acc.)

kata<


down, against (with gen.) (473)




according to (with acc.)

meta<

with (with gen.) (469)




after, behind (with acc.)

peri<

about, concerning (with gen.) (333)




around, near (with acc.)

pro

to (with acc.) (700)




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