Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Memory Verse: John 1:1

]En a]rx^? h#n o[ loIn beginning was the Word,


kai> o[ loj to>n qeoand the Word was with God.



7

Adjectives

You will be able to—


1. understand English adjectives and their various uses;

2. learn and translate various Greek adjectives;

3. identify attributive, predicate, and substantive uses of Greek adjectives;

4. properly identify the grammatical agreement between an adjective and its accompanying substantive;

5. identify the various forms of the verb ei]mi< in the present active indicative;

6. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words; and

7. finish memorizing Jn. 1:1 in Greek.

Definition


An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or pronoun. The adjective often specifies more clearly what the noun or pronoun actually means. It often answers the question “What kind of ______ is it?”
The soft snow hit the windshield.

Answers: What kind of snow? Soft.

The snow was soft.

Three Uses of Adjectives


Adjectives are used in three ways:
1. An attributive adjective attributes a characteristic to the noun it modifies.
The good book

2. A predicate adjective assigns a characteristic to the subject of the sentence.


The book is good.

3. As a substantive, an adjective acts independently, as a noun itself.


The good die young.

Examples:

1. Attributive use:

The red car hit the big truck behind the rear tire.

2. Predicate use:

Roses are red and violets are blue.

3. Substantive use:

The kind receive their rewards, but the unjust are often surprised (i.e., the kind person; the unjust person).

Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. They will match the nouns they modify in number, gender, and case.

Adjectives frequently use a 2-1-2 paradigm scheme:




masculine

=

Second declension forms

feminine

=

First declension forms

neuter

=

Second declension forms

Because you already know the first and second declensions, it is easy to recognize the gender, number, and case of the adjectives.


Adjective Paradigm
a]]gaqo

Declension

2

1

2

Singular

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

a]gaqo

a]gaqh<

a]gaqo

Gen.

a]gaqou?

a]gaqh?j

a]gaqou?


Dat.

a]gaq&?

a]gaq^?

a]gaq&?

Acc.

a]gaqo

a]gaqh

a]gaqo

Plural










Nom.

a]gaqoi<

a]gaqai<

a]gaqa<

Gen.

a]gaqw?n

a]gaqw?n

a]gaqw?n

Dat.

a]gaqoi?j

a]gaqai?j

a]gaqoi?j

Acc.

a]gaqou

a]gaqa

a]gaqa<


Adjective Paradigm for words ending in e, i, or r
di

Declension

2

1

2

Singular

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.


di

dikai

di

Gen.

dikai

dikai

dikai

Dat.

dikai<&

dikai<%

dikai<&

Acc.

di

dikai

di

Voc.

di

dikai

di

Plural










Nom. Voc.

di

di

di

Gen.

dikai

dikai

dikai

Dat.

dikai

dikai

dikai

Acc.

dikai

dikai

di

Attributive position = Adjective has article.

o[ a]gaqo>j lo

o[ loe]gw< ei]mi o[ poimh>n o[ kalo

I am the good shepherd (Jn. 10:11).


e]n t^? e]sxain the last day (Jn. 6:39)


Predicate position = Adjective has no article.

a]gaqo>j o[ lo

o[ lokai> o[ a@nqrwpoj ou$toj di

And this man was righteous (Lk. 2:25).


faiyou appear to men to be righteous (Mat. 23:28).


Substantive use = Adjective is used as a noun—has no noun

The substantive use often has the article but no accompanying noun.


oi[ de> din ai]wbut the righteous unto eternal life (Mat. 25:46)


[O de> diBut the righteous will live by faith (Rom. 1:17).




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