Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Definition

A pronoun is a word that stands in place of a noun or other syntactic units usually for brevity or to avoid repetition. The person or object to which the pronoun refers is called its “antecedent.”
Zach threw the ball to Elliott.

It (the ball: antecedent) hit him (Elliott: antecedent) in the head.

Types of Pronouns


There are various types of Pronouns:
1. Personal pronouns stand in for a person: Bill ran a mile. He did it.

2. Demonstrative pronouns point to a person or object that is near (this/these) or far (that/those): This book belongs to that student.

3. Relative pronouns relate a subordinate clause to a noun: It is a great person who attempts to master Greek.

4. Reciprocal pronouns state an interchange between two things/persons: They loved one another.

5. Reflexive pronouns direct the action of the verb back to the subject: She hid herself behind the door.

6. Interrogative pronouns ask a question: Who broke the chair?


The personal pronouns are used over ten thousand times in the New Testament.

The demonstrative pronouns are used about sixteen hundred times, the relative pronouns

about fifteen hundred times, and the interrogatives just over six hundred times and the

others less than that (Wallace, 142). So the personal pronouns are used more frequently than all the other types of pronouns put together.


Case

In English, pronouns have three cases:

1. Subjective, used when a pronoun is the subject of a sentence: He turned left.

2. Possessive, used to indicate ownership: He gave his best.

3. Objective, used when a pronoun is the object of a sentence: He left him.

Number


In English there are singular and plural pronouns. Pronouns agree with their antecedents in number and person.





Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Subjective

I

we

he

they

Possessive

my

our

his

theirs

Objective

me

us

him

them

Subjective

you/thou

you/ye

she

they

Possessive

your

your

hers

theirs

Objective


you

you

her

them

Introduction


In Greek personal pronouns will match their antecedent in person, gender, and number. The case will be determined by the role the pronoun plays in the sentence.

Personal pronouns will be either first person (I, we), second person (you/ye), or third person (he/she/it/they). Because the verb forms indicate the subject of the sentence the


nominative personal pronoun is sometimes redundant and used for emphasis, contrast, or
when switching characters in a narrative.

Greek uses the genitive where we would normally use a possessive pronoun (e.g., his, hers). Learn to chant the first and second person paradigms.


First Person Pronoun Paradigm




Singular




Plural




Nom.

e]gw<

I

h[mei?j

we

Gen.

mou

of me/my

h[mw?n

of us/our

Dat.

moi

to me/for me

h[mi?n


to us/for us

Acc.

me

me

h[ma?j

us

Watch for e]gw< combining with kai< forming ka]gw< (and I).


Emphatic first person forms are made by prefixing an epsilon and adding an accent to the genitive, dative, and accusative singular forms (e]mou?, e]moi<, e]me<).
Second Person Pronoun Paradigm




Singular




Plural




Nom.

su<

you

u[mei?j

you

Gen.

sou

of you/your

u[mw?n

your

Dat.

soi

to/for you

u[mi?n

to/for you

Acc.

se

you

u[ma?j

you

The form is made emphatic by adding an accent to the singulars (sou?, soi<, se<).


Examples:

]Egw< ei]mi to> fw?j tou? koI am the light of the world (Jn. 8:12).


Su> ei# Sij ]IwaYou are Simon, son of John (Jn. 1:42).


a]ll ] e]gw> th>n a]lhBut I speak the truth to you (Jn. 16:7).





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