Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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Five Stem Variations

The adding of the sigma may change the final consonant of the verb stem in the following five ways:
1. If after a palatal (k, g, or x)

[k, g, or x] + s ==> c


e@xw ==> e!cw I will have (note breathing change) . . .

a@gw ==> a@cw I will lead, bring . . .


2. If after a labial (p, b, or f)

[p, b, or f] + s ==> y


ble
blegra gra
3. If after a dental (t, d, or q)

[t, d, or q] + s ==> s


pei pei4. If after a liquid (l, m, n, or r), (I call these “lemoners”—lmnr + s), the sigma is dropped and the w is accented with a circumflex. When a present stem ends in a double liquid consonant, one of them is sometimes dropped. The key is the circumflex over the primary ending instead of the normal acute accent. With the dropping of the sigma, there is a strengthening of the o and e connecting vowels so that the o becomes ou? and the e becomes an ei?.


me menw?

I will remain.

a]poste a]postelw?

I will send.

a]poste a]postelou<meqa

We will send.

me menei?te

You-all will remain.

5. If the stem ends in a sibilant (s, z), the sibilant is dropped and the sigma of the ending is kept.

s& swFuture Connective s Addition

Velars


Dentals

k, g, or x + s = c

t, d, or q + s = s

Labials

Liquid (Lemoners)

p, b, or f + s = y

l, m, n, or r + s = w?, -ou?men, -ei?te, etc.

Sibilants




s or z + s = s





Future of the Verb of Being: ei]mi< (I am)




Singular




Plural




1.

e@somai

I will be

e]so

We will be

2.

e@s^

You will be

e@sesqe

You will be

3.

e@stai

He/she/it will be

e@sontai

They will be

Be able to recognize the ei]mi< futures when you see them.

Deponent Futures

Some verbs in the present tense have an active voice, but in the future tense there is no active form (“deponent” or true middles?):


Present

Future




lamba

lh

I will take, receive

ginw

gnw

I will know

Irregular Futures


Occasionally the future stem is totally different from the original present stem. Thus, as you learn more verbs, you should learn both stem forms. You just have to learn these tricky irregular verbs and keep your eyes open for them. The good part is that there are not too many of them.


Present

Future




e@rxomai

e]leu

I will come, go

ginw

gnw

I will know

le

e]rw?

I will say

Chant the Future Active and Middle Indicative:

lulu

lulu

Translation Examples


o!te oi[ nekroi> a]kou

when the dead will hear the voice (Jn. 5:25)


a]ll ] e!cei to> fw?j th?j zwh?j

But he will have the light of life (Jn. 8:12)


e]n e]keiin that day you will know (Jn. 14:20)




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