Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic

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Vocabulary

zwh<, -h?j, h[


life (135)

qa

death (120)

kri

I judge (114)

me

I remain (118)

mo

only, alone (114)

nu?n

now (147)

ou]]de<

and not, nor (143)

Pau?loj, -ou, o[

Paul (158)

s&

I save (106)

to

then (160)

11

Demonstrative, Relative, Reflexive, and Reciprocal Pronouns

You will be able to—

1. recognize the various forms of the demonstrative pronouns

e]kei?noj (that) and ou$toj (this),

2. translate demonstrative pronouns and identify how they function within the syntax of the sentence,

3. recognize the various forms of the relative pronoun,

4. translate relative pronouns and identify how they function within the syntax of the sentence,

5. gain more practice in translating and working with Greek, and

6. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.

Introduction


We will explore four types of pronouns in this chapter. Pronouns are words used in place of one or more nouns. We have already looked at personal pronouns (he, she, it, I, you, they).

In this chapter we will examine four new types of pronouns: demonstrative, relative, reflexive, and reciprocal.


Demonstrative Pronouns


Demonstratives are pointers. They point to things near (“this/these”) or things far (“that/those”). “These” and “those” are the plural forms.

Demonstratives may function like adjectives when they modify a word, or like pronouns when they stand alone.


Adjective: He bought this computer.

Pronoun: This is the computer.


Greek has two demonstratives:


e]kei?noj, e]kei

that/those (masc., fem., neut.)

ou$toj, au!th, tou?to

this/these (masc., fem., neut.)

These can function either like a pronoun (when they stand alone) or like an adjective (thus agreeing with their antecedent in gender, number, and case).

When a demonstrative pronoun is adjectival, the noun often has the article and the demonstrative does not. It is then translated as an attributive adjective (e.g., “this book”).

Note that this is the opposite of other adjectives, which without the article are translated as predicate adjectives (e.g. “The book is red”).

The demonstratives are declined using the normal 2-1-2 declension schemes that you already know. Learn to recognize these forms as they apply now to the demonstrative pronouns (this/that).

e]kei?noj (that/those)




Singular

Plural




2

1

2

2

1

2




Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

e]kei?noj

e]kei

e]kei?no

e]kei?noi

e]kei?nai

e]kei?na

Gen.

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

Dat.

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei

Acc.

e]kei?non

e]kei

e]kei?no

e]kei

e]kei

e]kei?na


ou$toj (this/these)




Singular

Plural




2

1

2

2

1

2




Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

ou$toj

au!th

tou?to

ou$toi

au$tai

tau?ta

Gen.

tou

tau

tou

tou

tou

tou

Dat.

tou

tau

tou

tou

tau

tou


Acc.

tou?ton

tau

tou?to

tou

tau

tau?ta

Note: When there is an a or h in the ending, the stem will have an au, otherwise it is ou. Note also the addition of the t in ou$toj in the same pattern as the article (missing the t in the nom. masc./fem. singular and plural but present elsewhere). Interestingly the article may be used as a demonstrative or relative and even a personal pronoun in certain contexts.


Examples:
e@sontai ga>r ai[ h[mefor those days will be (Mk. 13:19)


e]gw> ou]k ei]mi> e]k tou? koI am not of this world (Jn. 8:23).


e]n tou maqhtai< e]ste

by this everyone will know that you are my disciples (Jn. 13:35).


makablessed are those (Lk. 12:38).




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