A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and predicate. (A clause has a verb; a phrase does not.)
Phrase: The great big strong man (an adjective phrase)
Clause: The man who owns the store (an adjectival/relative clause)
A main clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone.
A subordinate clause is dependent on the main clause and cannot stand alone. Note the following subordinate clauses.
When the store opened, the people pushed through the front door.
He knew that power had gone out of him.
It is crucial for students of Greek to gain mastery over (conquer, vanquish) verbs.
Tense generally describes the time of action of the verb (present, future, past), although the time/tense connection has been hotly contested recently (vid. S. Porter, R. Decker, D. Mathewson, et al.). Some see the Greek tense forms as being used to denote Aktionsart (how the action takes place [punctiliar, durative, iterative, inceptive...]) and others stress aspect (the writer’s view or portrayal of the action as opposed to when/how the action actually happened). You should be aware of all three perspectives.
Tense=time: Time is
Kathy walks everyday (present tense).
Kathy walked yesterday (past tense).
Kathy will walk tomorrow (future tense).
Horses gallop across the prairie (omnitemporal/gnomic; what they usually do).
God loves you (timeless).
The Greek verb forms (present/aorist/perfect) are not directly indicative of the
time an event actually happened. Hence the present tense form can be used
for events that are past, present, future, omnitemporal or timeless.
Aktionsart denotes the type of action, how it happens: These types of features
are better understood as a result of the discourse level or based on the lexical
meanings of particular verbs and combinations rather than to try to force such
“meanings” onto the morphological tense forms (present, aorist, perfect).
Continuous/durative action (the event as a process), He is cooking.
Iterative (happens repeatedly) He kept shooting the ball.
Inceptive (event is beginning) She is leaving now.
Omnitemporal/gnomic: Horses gallop across the prairie (omnitemporal/gnomic; what they usually do)
Timeless: God loves you.
Aspect: the writer’s portrayal of an action (Porter/Decker/Mathewson)
the time is indicated more from adverbials, prepositions or time words
than from the “tense” of the verb.
Present/Imperfect: immediacy, details, in progress, descriptive, foreground material
(can be used to portray present, past, future, omnitemporal or