In English, we make no distinction between a “you” singular and a “you” that is plural (“you all”). Some grammars, following King James English, use “thou” for the singular and “ye” for the plural. Such usage is archaic, and hence we will use “you” for both second person singular and plural. You should be aware, however, that in Greek a sharp distinction is made.
Verbs are parsed or conjugated in the following format:
Tense, voice, mood, person, number, lexical form, English meaning.
Shorter form: lu
Chant #1: Present Active Indicative (PAI) of lu
Recite the first column then the second. Practice until it is as natural as breathing.
Gender in English is determined by the sex of the referent: “king . . . he,” “queen . . . she.” Objects that are neither male nor female are considered neuter: “table . . . it.” In Greek some inanimate objects are given male or female designations. Be careful not to confuse Greek grammatical gender with biological gender!
“House” is masculine.
“Temple” is neuter.
“Church, congregation” is feminine.
Both English and Greek inflect words for number. Both languages have singular and plural nouns. Notice the change on the end of the Greek words.
English uses word inflections in order to indicate changes in case. Case is the role a word plays in the sentence (such as subject, object, possessive).
Subjective Case (Greek: Nominative)
This is the subject of the verb.
He hit the ball.
The subject of the sentence can usually be discovered by putting “who” or “what” before the verb.
He ran to the store.
Who ran to the store? He (= subject).
Objective Case (Greek: Accusative)
This is the object of the verb.
The ball hit him. The object of a sentence can usually be discovered by putting a “who” or “what” after the verb.
He hit the ball.