Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



Download 5.03 Mb.
Page7/115
Date08.11.2016
Size5.03 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   ...   115

Declining Nouns

Verbs are parsed (PAI, 1st sg, from luFor example:


loi[erw?n Genitive, Plural, Neuter, from i[ero

Word Order


The order of words in a sentence in Greek may be the same as in English (subject + verb + object). Greek puts inflectional endings on nouns to mark their case. This allows Greek to change the word order for various purposes without substantially altering the meaning of a sentence. For example, the subject may be placed after the verb and the object placed before the verb for emphasis while retaining the original meaning of the sentence. Recent studies have shown that word order is important, so the good student will keep an eye on the order of syntactic units (VSOM versus SVOM etc.).

One comment on the vocabulary forms. In lexical lists, nouns such as dou?loj are followed by -ou?, which gives the genitive singular ending, indicating that it is a second declension noun. The o[ article is given to specify that it is masculine.


Second Declension Noun Chant


lolo

lo

lo

lo

lo

lo

lo

Vocabulary

a]gapa


I love (143)

gra

I write (191)

de<

but, and (2,792)

dou?loj, -ou, o[

servant, slave (124)

eu[ri

I find (176)

i[ero

temple (71)

lao

people (142)

no

law (194)

oi#koj, -ou, o[

house (114)

w[j

as, about, how (504)

5

First Declension Nouns

You will be able to—


1. understand the English syntax of nouns in sentences (subject, object, number, gender, etc.),

2. understand the Greek noun system (gender, number, case),

3. write out and chant the first declension paradigm for feminine nouns, and

4. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words.


Introduction

There are three noun declensions in Greek. We have learned the second declension with its masculine and neuter nouns and its characteristic o endings. Now we will focus on the first declension. First declension nouns are largely feminine, as indicated by placing the feminine article h[ (“the”) after the nominative singular form. Each noun should be learned with its definite article, which indicates its gender. The stem of first declension nouns ends with an alpha or eta. Learn to chant through this eta first declension of grafh<. Learn to recognize the variations on the other two forms (alpha and masculine form).

Feminine First Declension Forms (Stem Ending in h)
grafh<, h[ = writing, Scripture





Singular

Plural

Inflectional Endings

Nom./Voc.

grafh<

grafai<

h

ai

Gen.

grafh?j

grafw?n

hj

wn

Dat.

graf^?

grafai?j

^

aij

Acc.

grafh

grafa

hn

aj


Meanings: Translation of Inflectional Forms




Singular




Plural







Nom.

grafh<

A writing

grafai<

writings


(subject of sentence)

Gen.

grafh?j

of a writing

grafw?n

of writings

(possessive/description)

Dat.

graf^?

to a writing

grafai?j

to writings

(indirect object/agency)

Acc.

grafh

A writing

grafa

writings

(direct object)

Voc.

grafh<

O writing

grafai<

O writings

(direct address)



Nominative

=

subject of the sentence, predicate nom., apposition

Genitive

=

possessive/description/origin usually translated with “of”

Dative

=

indirect object, usually translated with “to,” “for,” “by,” “at,” or “with” (2 by 4 ate [at] with)


Accusative

=

direct object of a sentence, double accusative

Vocative

=

direct address (e.g., “O writings, show us . . .”)

The nominative can be used as in an appositional use. Apposition is when this

form restates or specifies a noun. For example: “Paul, a servant, an apostle writes,”

where “a servant” and “an apostle” are appositional renaming or specifying Paul.


Feminine First Declension Forms (Stem Ending in a)
w!ra, h[ = hour





Singular

Plural

Nom./Voc.

w!ra

hour

w$rai

hours

(subject of sentence)

Gen.

w!raj

of an hour

w[rw?n

of hours

(possessive/descrip.)

Dat.

w!r%

for an hour

w!raij

for hours

(indirect object/ag.)

Acc.


w!ran

hour

w!raj

hours

(direct object)

Note that the nominative and vocative have the same form. The w!ra and grafh<

forms are largely the same except for the simple shift of the eta to an alpha in the singular.
Masculine First Declension Forms (Stem Ending in h)
profh




Singular




Plural







Nom.

profh

prophet

profh?tai

prophets

(subject)

Gen.

profh

of a prophet

profhtw?n

of prophets

(possessive)

Dat.

profh

to a prophet

profh

to prophets

(indirect object)

Acc.

profh

prophet


profh

prophets

(direct object)

Voc.

profh?ta

O prophet

profh?tai

O prophets

(direct address)

Note that the only major variation here is the genitive singular, which takes an -ou ending. Beyond that, it is much the same as grafh<. Vocatives are rare.


Nouns ending in a consonantal blend (y, c, or z) or double
consonant do




Singular




Plural







Nom.

do

glory

do

glories

(subject)

Gen.

do

of glory

docw?n

of glories

(possessive)

Dat.

do

to glory

do

to glories

(indirect object)


Acc.

do

glory

do

glories

(direct object)

Voc.

do

O glory

do

O glories

(direct address)





Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   ...   115


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2019
send message

    Main page