Mastering New Testament Greek Textbook Ted Hildebrandt Baker Academic



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The Article

While Greek has no indefinite article like the English “a” (e.g., a book), the Greek article, usually translated “the,” occurs throughout the New Testament although it often can be used as a substitute for a personal pronoun, demonstrative pronoun (this/that) or a relative pronoun (who/which). The article is inflected for gender, number, and case. Indeed, the article must match its noun in gender, number, and case. The article marks the gender of a noun, whether it is a first, second, or third declension noun. The article can sometimes function as a pronoun (he, she, it . . . ) and at root has a nominalizing impact on the words it goes with. Sometimes it is not translated at all especially with proper nouns (“Jesus” not “the Jesus”) or abstracts (“grace” not “the grace”).
Examples:


lo

“word” or “a word”

Nom. sg. masc. (Acts 13:15)

o[ lo

“the word”

Nom. sg. masc. (Jn. 1:1)

lo

“word” or “a word”

Acc. sg. masc. (Jn. 8:51)

to>n lo

“the word”

Acc. sg. masc. (Jn. 4:39)


Article Forms




Singular

Plural




Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

o[

h[

to<

oi[

ai[

ta<

Gen.

tou?

th?j

tou?

tw?n

tw?n

tw?n

Dat.

t&?

t^?

t&?

toi?j

tai?j

toi?j

Acc.

to

th

to<

tou

ta

ta<

Note that o[, oi[, h[, and ai[ are proclitics, each bearing no accent because it is associated so closely with (leans on) the following word. Being able to recognize the case of the article is handy, since that will also tell you the case of the accompanying noun. Thus, it is a good way to double-check whether or not you are declining a noun properly.

The 2-1-2 Noun Chant (recite this so it becomes automatic)


2-Declension 1-Declension 2-Declension

lo

lo

lo

lolo

lo

lo

lo

Vocabulary


a]ga

love (116)

a]lh

truth (109)

a[marti

sin (173)

basilei

kingdom (162)

grafh<, -h?j, h[

writing, Scripture (50)

e]gei

I raise up (144)

e]kklhsi

assembly, church (114)

e@rgon, -ou, to<

work (169)

maqhth

disciple (261)

w!ra, -aj, h[

hour (106)

6

Prepositions

You will be able to—


1. understand English prepositions and the various ways they connect words,

2. translate the various Greek prepositions and how they relate to the noun inflectional system,

3. recognize and predict when prepositions will have a letter elided,

4. identify and translate prepositions when they are compounded with other word forms,

5. master ten more high-frequency vocabulary words, and

6. memorize Jn. 1:1 in Greek.




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