Part I. Inorganic Materials (2003).
Part II. Metals (1999).
Part III. Organic Materials (2003).
Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2003).
Part V. Environment (1999).
Part VI. Museology (2003).
Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).
Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (2003).
Part IX Stone (1999).
Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).
May be obtained from:
Institute of Fine Arts
New York University
14 East 78th Street
New York, New York 10021
PART II: METALS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Casting Technology 1
Coins: Analysis 2
Coins: General Studies 3
Coins: Minting 3
Copper and Copper Alloys: Analysis 3
Copper and Copper Alloys: Conservation 5
Copper and Copper Alloys: History and Technology 6
Copper-Benzotriazole Corrosion Inhibition 7
Gold and Electrum 10
Iron and Steel: Analysis 10
Iron and Steel: Damascene Steel 11
Iron and Steel: History and Technology 12
Iron and Steel: Metallurgy 14
Iron and Steel: Cast Iron 14
Iron and Steel Conservation: Corrosion and General Methods 15
Iron and Steel Conservation: Use of Tannins 15
Lead, Tin and Their Alloys: Alloys 16
Lead, Tin and Their Alloys: Lead 16
Lead, Tin and Their Alloys: Tin 16
Mercury: General 17
Mercury: Gilding 17
Metallurgy: General 17
Outdoor Metal Sculpture: Conservation 19
Silver: Analysis 20
Silver Coinage: Analysis 20
Silver: Conservation 20
Silver: General 20
Silver: Technology 20
L. Aitchison, A History of Metals, Interscience, New York (1960).
Anon., "Centrifugal Casting: A Versatile Tool for the Pewter Industry," Tin and its Uses No.110 10-12 (1976).
Anon., Secrets of Green-Sand Casting Reprinted from the 1906 Edition, Lindsay Publications, Bradley, IL (1983).
J. Baldwin, Contemporary Sculpture Techniques, Reinhold, New York (1967). pp.11-22, 102-106.
P.J. Baus, "Men, Beeswax and Molten Metal: The Art of Lost Wax Casting," Natural History74 No. 7 19-24 (1965).
A. Beale, "A Technical Examination of the Sculpture of Honore Daumier," Daumier Sculpture (1969). pp.9-27.
M. Biddle, "Bell Casting at Winchester," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgical Group1 No.4 13pp. (January, 1965).
E.C. Bunker and J. Ternbach, "A Variation of the `Lost Wax' Process," Expedition12 No.3 41-43 (1970).
S. Casson, The Techniques of Early Greek Sculpture, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1933). pp.148, 154-164.
J.A. Charles, "Heterogeneity in Metals," Archaeometry15 (Part 1) 105-114 (1973).
S. Choate, Creative Casting, Crown, New York (1966).
C.D. Clarke, Metal Casting of Sculpture, Standard Arts Press, Butler, Maryland (1948). xi + 170pp.
H.H. Coghlan, Notes on Prehistoric and Early Iron in the Old World, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1956). pp.71-84.
H.H. Coghlan, "A Note on Prehistoric Casting Moulds," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group2 No.2 73 (1968).
D. DeMenil, Made of Iron, University of St. Thomas Art Department, Houston (1966). p. 38.
D.T. Easby, Jr., "Pre-Hispanic Metallurgy and Metal Working in the New World," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society109 No.2 89-98 (1965).
D.T. Easby, Jr., "Early Metallurgy in the New World," Scientific American24 No.4 72-78, 81 (1966).
A. Emmerich, Sweat of the Sun and Tears of the Moon, University of Washington Press, Seattle (1965). pp.160-164.
A.C. Flemings, "The Solidification of Castings," Scientific American231 No.6 88-95 (1974).
R.J. Forbes, "Man the Maker," In A History of Technology and Engineering, Abelard-Schuman, New York (1958).
R.J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, Volume IX, E.J. Brill, Leiden (1964).
R.J. Gettens, "Joining Methods in the Fabrication of Ancient Chinese Bronze Ceremonial Vessels," In W.J. Young, Editor, Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1965).
R.J. Gettens, The Freer Chinese Bronzes, Volume II, Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C pp.57-120, 159-170 (1967).
E.R. Glazener, Basic Metalwork, Steck, Austin, Texas (1962). pp.141, 145-147.
V.F. Hansen, J.H. Carlson, K.M. Papouchado and N.A. Nielsen, "The Liberty Bell: Composition of the Famous Failure," American Scientist64 614-619 (1976).
H. Hodges, Technology in the Ancient World, Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London (1970). viii + 260pp. + illus., maps.
H. Hoffman and P.F. Davidson, Greek Gold, The Brooklyn Museum, New York (1965). pp.32-33.
W. Hume-Rothecy and G.V. Raynor, The Structure of Metals and Alloys, Fourth Edition, Institute of Metals, London (1962). 380pp.
D.J. Irving, Sculpture, Material and Process, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1970). pp.87-118.
H. Jackson, "Lost Wax Bronze Casting," National Sculpture Review XXII No.1 23-26; No.2 23-25 (1973).
J. Jensen, "A New Casting Medium for Use in Flexible and Rigid Molds," Curator4 76-90 (1961).
R. Ketchum, "Bells and How They are Made," National Antiques Review III No.11 16-17 (1972).
K. Kluge and K.Lehmann, Die Antiken Grossbronzen, Volume 1, Berlin (1927). 250pp.
V. Kondic, Metallurgical Principles of Founding, American Elsevier, New York (1968). x + 286pp.
A.M. Korol'kov, Casting Properties of Metals and Alloys, Consultants Bureau, New York (1963). 146pp.
W. Lamb, Ancient Greek and Roman Bronzes, Argonant, Chicago (1969). xliii + 267pp.
K. Lamm, "The Manufacture of Jewellery During the Migration Period at Melgo in Sweden," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group7 No.2 1-7 (1973).
H. Lechtman, "Appendix to: Further Notes on the Shaft-axe from Khurab, Makran, by C.C. Lambert-Karlovsky," Iran7 164-168 (1969).
H. Lechtman and A. Steinberg, "Bronze Joining: A Study in Ancient Technology," In S. Doeringer, D. Mitten and A. Steinberg, Editors, Art and Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1970). pp.5-36.
D. Long, "`Cire Perdue' Copper Casting in Pre-Columbian Mexico: An Experimental Approach," American Antiquity30 189-192 (1964).
H. Maycon, Metalwork and Enameling, Dover, New York (1971). xii + 335pp.
D.G. Mitten, "The Earliest Greek Sculptre in the Museum," Boston Museum BulletinLXV No.339 4-18 (1967).
G.R. Morton, "Technical Aspects of the Early Iron Industry of Furness," Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group3 No.1 6-11 (1969).
N.F. Mott and H. Jones, The Properties of Metals and Alloys,Dover, New York (1958), pp.152-174.
J.A. Mulholland, A History of Metals in Colonial America, University of Alabama Press, University, Alabama (1981). xiv + 215pp.
R.M. Organ, "Examination of the Ardagh Chalice - A Case History," In W.J. Young, Editor, Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970). pp.238-271.
H.M. Percy, New Materials in Sculpture, Transatlantic Arts, New York (1966). viii + 152pp.
E.R. Petty, Physical Metallurgy of Engineering Materials, American Elsevier, New York (1968). xvi + 304pp.
R. Raven-Hart, "The Casting Technique of Certain Greek Bronzes," Journal of Hellenic Studies78 87-91 (1958).
J.C. Rich, The Materials and Methods of Sculpture, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1947). xxi + 416pp.
G.M. Richter, "Ancient Plaster Casts of Greek Metalware," American Journal of Archaeology62 369-377 (1958).
G.M. Richter, "An Aristogeiton from Baiae," American Journal of Archaeology74 No.3 296-297 (1970).
B.S. Ridgeway, "The Lady from the Sea: A Greek Bronze in Turkey," American Journal of Archaeology71 No.4 329-334 (1967).
B.A. Rogers, The Nature of Metals, Second Edition, American Society for Metals, Cleveland (1964). x + 324pp.
M. Sekino, "Repair of the Great Buddha Statue at Kamakura," Studies in Conservation10 39-46 (1965).
M. E. Shapiro, Cast and Recast, the Sculpture of Fredrick Remington, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1981). 127pp.
D. Shirley, "The Metropolitan Bronze Horse Proves to be Ancient," New York Times, December 24, 1973.
C. Singer, E.J. Holmyer, A.R. Hall and T.I. Williams, A History of Technology, The Clarendon Press, Oxford (1957). Volumes I-III, V.
C.S. Smith, Sources for the History of the Science of Steel 1532-1786, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1968). pp.285-288.
A. Steinberg, "Techniques of Working Bronzes," In Master Bronzes from the Classical World, D.G. Mitten and S. F. Doeringer, Editors, P. von Zabern, Mainz on Rhine (1967). pp.9-11.
A. Steinberg, "Joining Methods on Large Bronze Statues: Some Experiments on Ancient Technolgy," In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, W.J. Young, Editor, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970). pp.103-139.
A. Steinberg, "A Technical Note," In Art and Technology, S. Doeringer, D. Mitten and A. Steinberg, Editors, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1970). pp.107-108.
K. Strauss, Editor, Applied Science in the Casting of Metals, 1st Edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1970). viii + 532pp.
R.H. Brill and W.R. Shields, "Lead Isotopes in Ancient Coins," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.279-304.
J.A. Buckley, "An Analysis of Thirty-one Coins from the Hellenistic Period," Archaeometry27 No.1 102-107 (1985).
G.F. Carter, "Chemical Compositions of Copper-based Roman Coins: Augustan Quadrantes, ca.9-4 B.C.," In Archaeological Chemistry II, G.F. Carter, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C, (1978). pp.347-377.
G.F. Carter, E.R. Calley, J.H. Carlson, G.W. Carriveau, M.J. Hughes, K. Rengan and C. Segebade, "Comparison of Eight Roman Orichthalcum Coin Fragments by Seven Methods," Archaeometry25 No.2 201-213 (1983).
l. J. Cline Love, L. Soto and B.T. Reagor, “Surface Studies of Ancient Gold Coins by X-Ray Flourescence, Scanning Electron Miscroscopy and Scanning Auger Spectroscopy,” Applied Spectroscopy34 No. 2 131-139 (1980).
J. Condamin and M. Picon, "Changes Suffered by Coins in the Course of Time and the Influence of These on the Results of Different Methods of Analysis," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.49-66.
L.P. Goulpeau, P. Lanos and L. Langonet, "The Remanent Magnetization of Ancient Struck Coins," Archaeometry29 (Part 2) 175-186 (1987).
E.T. Hall, "A Summing-up from the Point of View of the Scientist," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.315-320.
K.T.M. Hodge, "Chemical Treatment, Preservation and Analytical Study of Pavnar Coins," Current Science40 No.23 618-620 (1971).
G.S. Hoye, "Magnetic Properties of Ancient Coins," Journal of Archaeological Science10 43-49 (1983).
J.M. Merrick and D.M. Metcalf, "Milliprobe Analyses of Some Problematic Burgundian and Other Gold Coins of the Early Middle Ages," Archaeometry11 61-65 (1969).
D.M. Metcalf and J.M. Merrick, "Studies in the Composition of Early Medieval Coins," Numismatic Chronicle 7 167-181 (1967).
D.M. Metcalf and F. Schweizer, "Milliprobe Analysis of Some Visigothic, Sueric, and Other Gold Coins of the Middle Ages," Archaeometry12 (Part 2) 173-188 (1970).
C. Morrisson, J.-N. Barrandon and C. Brenot, "Composition and Technology of Ancient and Medieval Coinages: A Reassessment of Analytical Results," Museum Notes32 181-207 (1987).
H. Nicolet-Pierre, J.-N. Barrandon and J.-Y. Calvez, "Monnaies archaiques d'Athènes sous Pisistrate et les Pisistradites (ca.545-510): Recherches sur la composition métallique des Wappenmünzen," Revue numismatique27 23-44 (1985).
W.A. Oddy, "The Analysis of Gold Coins: A Comparison of Results Obtained by Non-Destructive Methods," Archaeometry14 (Part 1) 111-119 (1972).
F. Schweitzer, "Analysis of Ancient Coins Using a Point Source Linear X-Ray Spectrometer: A Critical Review," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.153-169.
F. Schweizer and A.M. Friedman, "Comparison of Methods of Analysis of Silver and Gold in Silver Coins," Archaeometry14 (Part 1) 105-109 (1972).
F.C. Thompson, "Sources of Metal Used for Ancient Coins," Cunobelin No.14 27-32 (1968).
P. Tyler, "Analyses of Mid-third-century Roman Antoniniani as Historical Evidence," In Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Editors, Royal Numismatic Society, London (1972). pp.249-260.
See Also: Silver Coinage.
Coins: General Studies
A. Burnett, Coinage in the Roman World, Seaby, London (1987). 168pp.
I. Carradice and M. Price, Coinage in the Greek World, Seaby, London (1988). 154pp.
G.F. Carter, "Ancient Coins as Records of the Past," Chemistry39 14-19 (1966).
P.G. Casey, Understanding Ancient Coins, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, and London (1986). 160pp.
M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1974). Two Volumes, xiv + 919pp.
G.F. Hill, Ancient Greek and Roman Coins, Argonaut Press, Chicago (1964, reprint of 1899). 302pp.
G.K. Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1972). 310pp.
D.D. Kosambi, "Scientific Numismatics," Scientific American 102-111 (1965).
C.M. Kraay, Archaic and Classical Greek Coins, Methuen, London (1976). xxvi + 390pp.
L.R. Laing, Coins and Archaeology, Schocken Books, New York (1969). xvi + 336pp.
W.A. Oddy, "Coin Forgers at Work," MASCA Journal1 No.3 80-81 (1979).
K. Regling, Ancient Numismatics: The Coinage of Ancient Greece and Rome, Argonaut Inc. Publishers, Chicago (1969). 79pp.
M. Sazonov, "The Method of Counterfeiting Ancient Coins of the Bosporus by M. Sazonov as Told by Himself," (translation and commentary by K.V. Golenko) Museum Notes20 25-28 (1975).
C. Seltman, Greek Coins: A History of Metallic Currency and Coinage Down to the Fall of the Hellenistic Kingdoms, Second Edition, Methuen, London (1955). xxvi + 311pp.
G.F. Carter, "A Simplified method for Calculating the Original Number of Dies from Die-Link Statistics," Museum Notes28 195-206 (1988).
J.H. Healy, "The Establishment of Die-sequences in Greek `White Gold and Electrum Coin Series," Numismatic Chronicle11 (7th Series) 31-36 (1971).
Copper and Copper Alloys: Analysis
T. Bastian, "Trace Element and Metallographic Studies of Prehistoric Copper Artifacts in North America: A Review," in J. B. Griffin, Editor, Lake Superior Copper and the Indians: Micellaneous Studies of Great Lakes Prehistory, Anthropology Papers No. 17, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michingan, Ann Arbor (1961). pp. 150-175.
R. Bowman, A.M. Friedman. J. Lerner and J. Milsted, "A Statistical Study of the Impurity Occurrences in Copper Ores and Their Relationship to Ore Types," Archaeometry17 No.2 157-163 (1975).
C.W. Brewer, "Metallographic Examination of the Two Bronze Figures from Khmer," ICOM Committee for Conservation 4th Triennial Meeting, Preprints, ICOM, Paris (1975). pp.25/2/1-25/2/6.
E.R. Caley, "Chemical Examination of Metal Artifacts from Afghanistan," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society62 (Part 4) 44-50 (1972).
E.R. Caley, I.S.M. Chang and N.P. Woods, "Gravimetric and Spectrographic Analysis of Some Ancient Chinese Copper Alloys," Ars Orientalis11 183-194 (1979).
G.F. Carter and T.V. Buttrey, "Chemical Compositions of Copper-Based Roman Coins, II. Augustus and Tiberius," American Numismatic Society Museum Notes22 49-65 (1977).
H.W. Catling and R.E. Jones, "Analyses of Copper and Bronze Artifacts from the Unexplored Mansion, Knossos," Archaeometry19 (Part 1) 57-66 (1977).
P.T. Craddock, "The Composition of the Copper Alloys Used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations, 1. The Greeks Before the Archaic Period," Journal of Archaeological Science3 93-113 (1976).
P.T. Craddock, "The Composition of the Copper Alloys Used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations, 2. The Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greeks," Journal of Archaeological Science4 103-123 (1977).
P.T. Craddock, "The Composition of the Copper Alloys Used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations, 3. The Origins and Early Uses of Brass," Journal of Archaeological Science5 No.1 1-16 (1978).
A.S. Darling and J.H. Healy, "Microprobe Analysis and the Study of Greek Gold-Silver-Copper Alloys," Nature231 443-444 (1971).
T. Dono, "Discovery of Metals and Development of the Culture," Scientific Papers on Japanese Antiques and Arts Crafts No.19 9-14 (1975).
A.L. Fraikor, et al., "Metallurgical Analysis of a Hopewell Copper Earspool," American Antiquity36 No.3 358-361 (1971).
L. Frank, "A Metallographic Study of Certain Pre-Columbian American Implements," American Antiquity17 57-59 (1951).
H.M. Friede, "Composition of Pre-European Copper and Copper-Alloy Artifacts from the Transvaal," Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy75 No.5 185-191 (1975).
A.M. Friedman, et al., "Copper Artifacts: Correlation with Source Types of Copper Ores," Science152 1504-1514 (1966).
S.I. Goad and J. Noakes, "Prehistoric Copper Artifacts in the Eastern United States," In Archaeological Chemistry II, G.F. Carter, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1978). pp.335-346.
C. Goedicke and J. Riederer, "Metallanalysen der Kupferobjekte," In D. Eisleb, Editor, Altpersanische Kulturen 138 (1975). pp.71-73.
J.F. Healy, "The Composition of Mytilenian Electrum," Congrès International de Numismatique Paris, 6-11 Juillet 19532 529-536 (1957).
R. Maddin, et al., "Distinguishing Artifacts Made of Native Copper," Journal of Archaeological Science7 No.3 211-225 (1980).
D.M. Metcalf and J.M. Merrick, "Studies in the Composition of Early Medieval Coins," Numismatic Chronicle7 167-181 (1967).
P.R.S. Moorey and F. Schweizer, "Copper and Copper Alloys in Ancient Iraq, Syria and Palestine: Some New Analyses," Archaeometry14 (Part 2) 177-198 (1972).
E.J. Olsen, "Copper Artifact Analysis with the X-ray Spectrometer," American Antiquity28 234-238 (1962).
C.C. Patterson, "Native Copper, Silver and Gold Accessible to Early Metallurgists," American Antiquity36 No.3 186-321 (1971).
J. Riederer, "Metallanalysen römischer Sesterzen," Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte24 73-98 (1974). Offprint.
J. Riederer and E. Briese, "Metallanalysen römischer Gebrauchsgegenstände," Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 83-88 (1972).
M. Sawada, "Non-Destructive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Ancient Bronze Mirrors Excavated in Japan," Ars Orientalis11 195-213 (1979).
K.A. Schneider, "Results of Copper Analysis, Tunacunnhee Site, Dade County, Georgia," unpublished research report, Geochronology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (1974).
D.L. Schroeder and K. Ruhl, "Metallurgical Characteristics of North American Prehistoric Copperwork," American Antiquity33 162-169 (1968).
F. Schweizer and H. Durand, "Technologische Untersuchung und Restaurierung einer Griechischen Opferschale aus Bronze," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren11 No.1 Gruppe 2 78-95 (1978).
A.O. Shepherd, "Metallographic Study of Copper Artifacts," American Antiquity2 139-140 (1936).
T. Singh and R.B. Singh," Comparison of Copper Wires Through Their Trace Element Profile by NAA," Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Science17 No.1 25-30 (1978). Cited CA 89: 191864e.
R.F. Tylecote, H.A. Ghaznavi and P.J. Boydell, "Partitioning of Trace Elements Between the Ores, Fluxes, Slags and Metal During the Smelting of Copper," Journal of Archaeological Science4 No.4 305-333 (1977).
C.L. Wilson, "A Brief Metallographic Study of Primitive Copper Work," American Antiquity1 109-112 (1935).
See Also: Coins: Analysis.
Copper and Copper Alloys: Conservation
Anon., "Incralac-Protective Coating System for Copper Metals in Exterior Service," International Copper Research Association. 5pp.
S.A. Balezin et al., "Mutual Influence of Stimulators and Inhibitors on the Corrosion of Copper in Water," Report No.BR 30426, Defense Research Information Center, Orpington, England (1973). 4pp. Translation of Uch Zap Mosk Gos Pedegog Inst, 210-213 (1969).
K. Barton, Protection Against Atmospheric Corrosion: Theories and Methods, Translated from the German by J.R. Duncan, John Wiley and Sons, London (1976). x + 194pp.
N.R. Bharucha, "Clear Polyurethane Lacquer for Copper and Copper Alloys," Paper Presented at the CDA-ASM Conference on Copper, Cleveland, Ohio (October 1972). 4pp.
N.R. Bharucha and M.T. Baker, "Clear Lacquers for Copper and Copper Alloys," Report on research carried out by British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association (July 1965). 40pp.
T. Biestek and M. Drys, "Corrosion Products Formed on Copper in Various Corrosive Environments," Powloki Ochronne6 No.3 21-27 (1974).
J.C. Bolger, R.W. Hausslein and H.E. Movler, "A New Theory for Improving the Adhesion of Polymers to Copper," Final Report to INCRA, New York (August 1971). 28pp.
H. Brinch-Madsen, "Schwarze Flecken auf Bronzen," Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren11 No.1 Gruppe 2 96-102 (1978).
D.S. Byers, "The Restoration and Preservation of Some Objects from Etowah," American Antiquity28 No.2 206-216 (1962).
E.J. Caule, "New Protective Inorganic Coatings for Copper Alloys," Paper presented at the CDA-ASM Conference on Copper, Cleveland, Ohio (October 1972). 10pp.
Chase Brass and Copper Company, "Development of Clear Coatings for Protection of Copper Base Alloys," Project report to the International Copper Research Association (1960-1965). 90pp.