Modern Maya Art in Ancient Traditions

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Ah Dzib P'izté'

Modern Maya Art in
Ancient Traditions




CATALOG OUTLINE





  1. The Installation and Catalog

  2. The Maya, Ancient and Modern

  3. The Concept and Name, Ah Dzib P'izté'

  4. History and Background of Arte Pisteño

  5. Artist Profiles

  6. Glossary

  7. List of Pieces in Catalog

  8. Sponsors and Credits.



The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation of Modern Maya Art

Having lived more than 30 months in the Yucatec Maya community of Pisté in the course of a 15 year period, Dr. Quetzil Castañeda, a professor of anthropology at Lake Forest College, began to study and collect the contemporary art of the Yucatec Maya community of Pisté, México, in the late-1980s. Castañeda initially chose to d only two kilometers from the ancient Maya city and tourist site of Chichén Itzá, in order to do graduate research.

This catalog is a companion to the installation and gallery exhibition of five Maya artists, "Ah Dzib P'izté' Modern Maya Art in Ancient Traditions," that was installed in the Sonnenschein and Albright Galleries of Lake Forest College (November 29, 1999 through December 10, 1999). This catalog of contemporary Maya art documents the artistic evolution of a new form of artwork that emerged in the Yucatec Maya community of Pisté, México.

The Maya, Ancient and Modern

The Maya emerged in the 1st century BC as a complex civilization from the earlier Olmec and Izapa cultures of México and Guatemala. Popular understanding often closely associates Maya Civilization with the independent City-States of the Classic Period (200-900 AD) that developed in the "Southern Lowlands" of the Maya world — that is, the arch between the mountainous highlands of Guatemala to the south and the flat lowlands of the Yucatán Peninsula to the north. These Maya cultures are often the most easily recognized by the general public because of such prominent features as pyramid-temples, hieroglyphic writing, and highly elaborate fine arts in painting, ceramic, stone, stucco, and wood.

These independent societies for which Maya Art and Civilization is best known, suffered political and economic collapse in the 9th century AD. This is an event that has often misled some to believe that Maya civilization was mysteriously abandoned. But these were not the only Maya societies and cultures. Throughout the next centuries, Maya peoples built politically independent societies throughout México, Belize, Honduras, and Guatemala. Even the arrival of Spanish Colonialism in the 16th century, did not "destroy" Maya Civilization. As a people, the Maya have suffered many injustices, but they, their communities, their languages, and their cultures are still alive today.
Just as they have over the last 2000 years, the Maya continue to transculturally adapt, change, and renovate their cultures in relation to neighboring Indian societies, African diasporas, and European migrations. Numbering more than 5 million people speaking more than 20 different Maya languages and practicing manifold more cultures, the Maya have maintained their civilization while living within the contemporary nations of North and Central America.

The Ancient City of Chichén Itzá, located in the northern center of Yucatán, México, was once a powerful capital. When the Spaniards came to conquer Yucatán in the early-1500s, Chichén had already been abandoned because of war in the 10th or 11th century AD. In the 1920s and 1930s, the modern ruins of Chichén Itzá were constructed by archeologists with the purpose of creating a "mecca" of tourism. Two kilometers away from the center of Chichén, the Yucatec Maya of the community of Pisté feel and happily carry the responsibility of their civilization. It is this proud relation to their history and cultural essence that inspires the artists who have worked creatively to further develop the ancient traditions of Maya art within a modern setting and through a contemporary perspective.

The Concept and Name Ah Dzib P'izté'

The title of this exhibit derives from the Yucatec Maya word for "writing" — dzib. The prefix ah — as in ah dzib — indicates a person, that is, a writer, or the role and function of a scribe. The addition of the place-name, P'izté' as spelled in colonial period orthography, indicates a scribe of that specific community. Since writing was practiced not simply by inscribing but also by carving, painting, and creatively inspired activity and knowledge, the ancient Maya associated the scribe with the artist and the artist-scribe with sacred power. In the ancient traditions of Maya culture, the scribe was the keeper of history and esoteric knowledge.

Although artists were also known by other terms – ah chuen
and ah its'at –we refer to the Pisté Maya artists as Ah Dzib P'izté' to accentuate the symbolic associations and interdependency between carving, painting, writing, and inscribing. This symbolism explicitly tells us how these contemporary artists return to the ancient traditions of Maya art and civilization as a source of creative inspiration and cultural connection. Beyond simple technical reproduction of archeologically-known artwork, the Ah Dzib P'izté' artists have developed an original interpretation, not only of the ancient Maya art traditions, but also of their contemporary history of intercultural exchange with Western and other cultures. This art speaks not only the ancient traditions, but it is an artistic writing and accounting of their contemporary cultural world. Specifically arte pisteño is an artistic interpretation and rendition of the pervasive Western fascination with and desire for Maya Civilization. By creating new forms of art in response to this mysterious rapture that enthrall the Western observer, these contemporary Pisté Maya artists reflect back to us a vision not only of their ancient cultures but our own image as they perceive our Western desires and fascinations. In this way, arte pisteño is a powerfully modern art that aesthetically captures our imagination.

History and Background of Pisté Maya Art

The unique wood and stone art of Pisté — arte pisteño — was created in the mid-1970s. Don Vincente Chablé, a custodian of the archeological site of Chichén Itzá, was the originator of this modern Maya art tradition. He was inspired to carve wooden idols in the image of ancient Maya gods and personages as depicted in the Maya hieroglyphic book, such as the Dresden Codex, or in ancient stone and stucco carvings of Chichén and Palenque. The technical artisans who were hired by archeologists to repair and to make replicas of ancient artifacts influenced Chablé, who was an employee of the Mexican National Institution of Anthropology and History (the INAH). He did not seek to carve replicas in the manner of archeological reproduction. Chablé also ignored the styles and forms of other established traditions of handicrafts from other parts of the Yucatán peninsula, such as Muna and Xcan, which are devoted to folkloric representations of the natural world. Instead, Chablé created a wholly new and contemporary interpretation of ancient traditions from all over the Maya world. This is the modern Pisté Maya art.

Chablé experimented with different local trees, especially the chaká and pich, and with different images or forms that he saw everyday in the ruins of Chichén Itzá. He developed a primitivist aesthetic, which was popular with the visitors. At first he sought to guard his art form. Curiosity and envy compelled many young boys and some adults to secretly observe and copy his techniques and artwork as a way to explore economic alternatives to the unstable subsistence farming of corn. Soon enough he began to teach a group of the boys, who also felt protective of their techniques and designs.

This first generation of artisans who came into existence were known as “chac mooleros” because of the statue they most typically carved. The Chac Mool is the famous reclining human figure sitting with knees bent holding in both hands a plate over the abdomen, to receive the fresh heart and blood of sacrifice. Other typical figures include Yum Kax, that is, the Corn God in either bust or full figure, the Jaguar Throne, and Feathered Serpent.

The second generation of artisans refined these figures and forms while improving their technique as the market competition propelled the evolution of both a new tradition of handicrafts and a dynamic artwork. From the third generation, a small group of artists have emerged in the 1990s whose search for a modern Maya aesthetic has led them far beyond the artisanry of the original "chac mooleros." These artists developed a technical mastery at early ages – many began carving when they were eight years old — that has allowed them to fully explore their creative impulses. The five Pisté Maya artists whose profiles and artworks are presented in this catalog and in the Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation have a created a distinctive aesthetic of international importance. The original contributions of these five artists have uniquely effected the development and direction of this aesthetic tradition. Other artists, while influenced by these five, have been selected to contribute to the installation to demonstrate the full diversity and creativity of this Modern Maya art steeped in Ancient Traditions.



Ah Dzib P'izté'

Modern Maya Art in Ancient Traditions


The unique wood and stone art of Pisté — arte pisteño — was created in the mid-1970s. Don Vincente Chablé, a custodian of the archeological site of Chichén Itzá, was the originator of this modern Maya art tradition. He was inspired to carve wooden idols in the image of ancient Maya gods and personages as depicted in the Maya hieroglyphic book, such as the Dresden Codex, or in ancient stone and stucco carvings of Chichén and Palenque. The technical artisans who were hired by archeologists to repair and to make replicas of ancient artifacts influenced Chablé, who was an employee of the Mexican National Institution of Anthropology and History (the INAH). He did not seek to carve replicas in the manner of archeological reproduction. Chablé also ignored the styles and forms of other established traditions of handicrafts from other parts of the Yucatán peninsula, such as Muna and Xcan, which are devoted to folkloric representations of the natural world. Instead, Chablé created a wholly new and contemporary interpretation of ancient traditions from all over the Maya world. This is the modern Pisté Maya art.

Chablé experimented with different local trees, especially the chaká and pich, and with different images or forms that he saw everyday in the ruins of Chichén Itzá. He developed a primitivist aesthetic, which was popular with the visitors. At first he sought to guard his art form. Curiosity and envy compelled many young boys and some adults to secretly observe and copy his techniques and artwork as a way to explore economic alternatives to the unstable subsistence farming of corn. Soon enough he began to teach a group of the boys, who also felt protective of their techniques and designs.

This first generation of artisans who came into existence were known as “chac mooleros” because of the statue they most typically carved. The Chac Mool is the famous reclining human figure sitting with knees bent holding in both hands a plate over the abdomen, to receive the fresh heart and blood of sacrifice. Other typical figures include Yum Kax, that is, the Corn God in either bust or full figure, the Jaguar Throne, and Feathered Serpent.

The second generation of artisans refined these figures and forms while improving their technique as the market competition propelled the evolution of both a new tradition of handicrafts and a dynamic artwork. From the third generation, a small group of artists have emerged in the 1990s whose search for a modern Maya aesthetic has led them far beyond the artisanry of the original "chac mooleros." These artists developed a technical mastery at early ages – many began carving when they were eight years old — that has allowed them to fully explore their creative impulses. The five Pisté Maya artists whose profiles and artworks are presented in this catalog and in the Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation have a created a distinctive aesthetic of international importance. The original contributions of these five artists have uniquely effected the development and direction of this aesthetic tradition. Other artists, while influenced by these five, have been selected to contribute to the installation to demonstrate the full diversity and creativity of this Modern Maya art steeped in Ancient Traditions.

The Artists of Ah Dzib P'izté'

Artist Profiles for the Catalog'99


CORRECTED BY FAF

I. Five Maya Artists from Chichén Itzá

1. Loro – José Leon Tuz Kituc

2. Gilberto Yam Tun

3. Box – Jorge Pool Cauich

4. Wilberth Serrano Mex

5. Juan Gutierrez

II. Other Contributing Maya Artists from Pisté and Chichén Itzá

1. Pablo Tun Bolio

2. Chino – Antonio Armando Pech Canton

3. Felipe Cemé Caamal – tulum batik

4. Faustino Cahum Mex – stela 12 batik

5. Alfonzo Cetz Cime


  1. José Manuel Chan

  2. Alvaro Balam

8. Luis Tuz Kituc

9. Ramon Quijano Balam

10. Juan Mex Mex

11. Sixto Mex Mex

Five Maya Artists from Chichén Itzá


"Loro" or "Perico" — José-León Tuz Kituc

Pieces Exhibited through Field School: Danzante Jaguar (C98-T3), Cetro de Dios K (C98-T4), Mascarón con Penacho Zoomorpho (C98-T2).

Jose León Tuz Cituk — nicknamed “Loro” or "Perico" — is at the center of one of the most visually and technically innovative schools of Pisté art. Born in 1977, this young artist is recognized as the new "maestro de los maestros" — ("teachers of the teachers,") of Pisté art. While Loro was still a teenager, his work had surpassed that of all his former teachers. This was not simply the result of years of experience and full-time dediaction to woodcarving, but stems from an artistic gift that is almost universally aknowledged as unique. Besides a keen eye for form and detail and unmatched technical expertise, Loro is an extremely skilled sketch artists and draftsman. His creative genius as well as his spearheading role in the development of new forms and aesthetic criteria was honored by the community in August 1999 with the first Vincente Chablé Award in Art Pisteño.

As a child Loro absorbed the skills of a master artist that led him at the age of seventeen, to develop a unique method and style for working tabla — that is, the bas-relief cedar boards. This emerged from his working the mascarones or mask medium in which totem-style multi-tiered relief carvings are used to create particularly complex and eye-catching headdresses filled with the traditional Pisté iconography of vision serpents, jaguars, jaguar thrones, eagles, pyramids, chac-mols.

Together with his brother Luis, he established an artist workshop in which this new bas-relief style of art was refined. Although several younger cousins and apprentices are being trained in this workshop, whose work has yet to mature into independent artists, Jorge Pool Cauich (nicknamed "Box" or "Negro") is one artist trained in this school who has emerged with an especially creative and refined work that is highly sought.

While Loro originally learned to carve from several relatives, he and his brother Luis worked briefly in Muna (city of southwest Yucatán known for its artisanry traditions), where tabla reproductions of ancient relief carvings have been made for at least five years. The work of Loro and the artists who have studied with him, such as Luis and Bo’ox, differ from the Muna carvings in several ways. Where the workshops in Muna produce nearly exact reproductions of ancient Bas relief, the Pisté artists tent to combine, elaborate, and re-interpret the original works to better suit the individual figures in a wooden medium. The use of thicker boards of cedar or chaká – for example up to three inches of mahogany in the case of Loro's "Archer" – allows artists to carve in bolder and higher relief than that of the two-dimensional artisanry produced in Muna. The finer lines of this relief are also the result of the use of the conventional carving knife (cuchillo) as well as the straight chisels (formones) and scoop-shaped chisels (gurvias) used in Muna. The open work of the tablas made by Loro and his colleagues also necessitate the use of an electric router and power drill. The creative process also requires exceptional drawing skills, as each piece has an elaborate sketches drawn as a study before the artwork is initiated.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits his masterpiece, "Arquero" or "The Archer" in which Loro's original artistic vision is exemplified in this authentic hybridization of four cultures – Maya, Aztec, 20th Mexican, and Colonial New Spain – and of four art forms — Maya mural painting, Colonial and Mexican canvas painting, Maya stone carving, and 20th century adult comic book cartoon. Here the Central Mexican Aztec warrior initially painted in the romantic period of Colonial New Spain and then re-interpreted in 20th century Mexican kitsch calendar art stands in front of an Aztec eagle and a forlorn Princess inspired by contemporary popular adult comics; all of which are supported by a Maya frieze composed of two Maya Carriers of Time and the Double-Headed Serpent Scepter Bar symbolizing divine kingship. (He showed me the picture of where he got the princess, and it was from a little kitsch calendar. However, it was drawn in the style of adult comics)




Giliberto Yam Tun


Recognized as a "maestro de maestros" by his community, Gilberto has also received a number of awards for his artwork in regional and national exhibitions (most notably in a state-level competition in 1991). Gilberto, a second generation artist in his late thirties, has played a fundamental role as a teacher of the younger artists, such as Loro, Negro, and Wilberth, whose work is currently gaining the greatest international attention. Having learned as a young man to master the technical dimensions and aesthetic elements of all the Pisté arts from his uncle Pablo Tun, Gilberto also underwent a different, if more implicit yet profound, training as a child in close observation of the first generation of artisans.

These pioneers of arte pisteño were campesinos who, once they turned to the arts of carving, were able to bend their intimate knowledge of both natural world of plants, trees, stones, and animals and the Maya world of jungle hidden sculptures, temples, ruins, and non-human spirit-forces to create out of a blank slate an authentically novel aesthetic tradition. While there are several very different Yucatec Maya traditions of carving, such as that of Muna and Xcan, this was new in that it was not an artisanry or form of handicrafts, but a unique expression of intersecting worlds. Whereas the Muna carving develops from archeologically trained technicians hired as staff to make replicas and whereas the Xcan carving is a primitivist folk handicraft, the Pisté art that emerged forged a completely original aesthetic in the re-interpretation of the ancient Maya arts. Central to this artistic process is the creative invention that occurs when an art form, including its symbolism and aesthetics, is transformed into a new media. This, literally, is a process of trans-mediation and re-mediation.

Gilberto has been a powerful force in the Pisté art-world for more than a decade for precisely this reason: It is he that invented new figures in statuary – for example, the Hméenkú or Medicine God – which was quickly stolen to be copied and replicated in rustic quality and quantities by artisans. As well he invented new iconography and symbolism by creating the very rarely used and difficult encrustation of idols with stone and shell. His artistic genius led him as well to experiment with various natural and synthetic materials in the creation of the "acabado" or "painting" of the wood to "finish" the artwork. His influential genius pervades all aspects of the Pisté Maya art-world in that it is his style of painting that has become diagnostic of arte pisteño as artisans produce low quality imitations and other artists invent their own style of painting based on his method.

His signature work, however, is the creation of new figures, especially the totemic mask based on the transmediation of central Mexican ceramics and its hybridization with Pisté Maya and ancient Maya symbolisms. These unique and now very rare works of art are distinguished for their multiple-tiered headdresses that remind one of the Northwest Coast Indian art of totem poles. This period of Gilberto's artwork resonates with this other, separate tradition, not only because of the multiple levels of the work, but because of the stylized naturalism of the human and animal forms. These headdress, like the totem poles, are an exploration of the supernatural worlds of cosmological forces embodied in specific deity-like personages and of animal co-spirit companions (eagles, jaguars, serpents) in relation to the pervasive issues of death-birth, astronomy, time, and sacrifice. What is continually a key conceptual and thematic message in his work is the essential unity of the life-force as manifested in multi-form relations and seemingly heterogeneous figures. Like the ancient Maya art, cultural, and religious traditions, the life-force or being has multiple modes and forms of expression that essentially link persons, animals, stars, and cosmological entities as trans-mediations of a single principle. Gilberto has continued this Maya conceptualization of the world with an original vision and artwork that is marked by subtle combinations of stylization and realism, naturalism and abstractionism, as well as reduction and multiplication of iconography.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits three statues from his early period — Ix Chel, Yum Kax, and U Yumil Dzak — and two of his signature masks in Maya totemic form, Halach Winik.


"Bo’ox" or "Negro" — Jorge Enrique Pool Cauich


Principal Medium: Wood tabla and some work in wood ídolo

Pieces Exhibited through Field School: Kukulkan (1997), Mascarón con Sacerdote de Yaxchilán (C98-T5), Yum Kaax (C98-T6), Cabeza de Palenque (C98-T7)

As the third key artist of the bas-relief school, Jorge Pool Cauich has had a profound impact on the Pisté art scene. Originally a native of Yokdzonot, a nearby village, he came to Pisté to develop as an artist. In the workshop of his uncle Gilberto Yam, Bo’ox began by painting ceramics, drawing batiks, and carving the handicraft art for tourists. In this setting, he was able to absorb the aesthetic and technical styles of the different Pisté schools. Independently setting out by joining the creative and artistic movement pioneered by Loro and Luis Tuz Kituc, Jorge has been able to establish a wholly original and creative style. His genius evolved as he moved from statuary and masks to bas-relief tabla. In critical contrast to Loro and Luis, Bo’ox has returned to the media of the mascaron to create an exquisite art based on a disciplined vision of authentic hybridity. In creating a work of art, he allows for days to review in his mind the reservoir of forms, statuary, stucco murals, and paintings that his ancestors provide him. Having already worked through the technical issues of replicas, his work is now driven by combining the figures, iconography, and symbolism from any part of the Maya world – for example the Queen of Yaxchilan based on a stone carving with a Vision Serpent derived from a Classic Peten Maya vase painting. In Bo’ox's selection of images is based on finding the symbolic and thematic tensions within the corpus of Maya art and aesthetics so as to create conceptual expressions, that is, to create conceptual art within the media of wood sculpture. In this regard his piece, "Creation" is an aesthetic tour de force in his rendition of the Chak or Rain God Mask from Chichén Itzá and the human and animal figures that are deeply carved in the Yaxchilan style which comprise the upper element of the work. His genius then is an aesthetic vision devoted to the communication of an essential message based in the artistic virtuosity of combining heterogeneous elements from nearly 3000 years of Maya art conventions within an original form and with an authentic meaning.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits two of his most important works to date, "Maya Creation 4 Ahau, 8 Cumkú" and the "Xunan Zac Kuk" or "Lady White Quetzal" both in mascaron form.


Wilberth Serrano Mex


Wilberth's artistic style, technical virtuosity, and aesthetic creativity place him, although already a mature artist in his early thirties, in the third generation of Pisté artists. Further, he is wholly within the tradition of the great ancient Maya artists in his development of rich symbolism and visual narrative. In difference with the other artists of intricate detail, which Wilberth has mastered, his aesthetic has led him away from the constraints of statuary. In the mid-1990s when he worked with idolo and mascaron, Wilberth fully matured his skills with different tools, types of wood, and the media of forms. In this period of his artwork, one can note the extraordinary control of iconography, color, shape, balance, and the human figure in action. But driving even this early work, is Wilberth's creativity. As in the works of statuary exhibited in 1997, he successfully expressed his vision of completely new forms, creating unique innovation of traditional iconography. His artwork, often combining primitivism with the intricacy and realism of the Maya baroque, speaks to the viewer whose eyes unfold the meanings carved into the wood. However, it was not until his recent turn to cedar and bas-relief that his special genius for narrative, composition, and symbolism is unleashed. Although a gifted painter with talented control of color, his current work in cedar tabla is finished with a basic wood tone. More than speaking, his work now tells stories, narrates parables and allegories. "The Glory of K'uk'ulcan" is exemplary in this regard, not only as epitomizing his aesthetic, but for its quintessentially Maya expression of art and mythos.

According to Wilberth, the piece (based loosely on an ancient myth) narrates the development of a man from the humble farmer at the base of the figure, to the accomplished warrior who grasps the body of the serpent in the middle, to the older and wiser ruler being blessed by a priest on the summit. Throughout this life story, it is the Feathered Serpent that embodies the genius and hope that allows this man to succeed. Other symbols, such as the face of an old man placed by one of the serpent’s coils, represents the wisdom and patience through whcih this is accheived.

Although they are inspired by the art of the ancient Maya, these images are not replicas or copies, but modern interpretations of the themes and essence of the ancient concerns with the parallel and intersecting worlds of the non-human forces, such as animal co-spirits, dieties, death, and life.
In addition to the "Gloria de K'uk'ulcan" the Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation also exhibits a piece from his early period, "Mascaron de K'uk'ulcan," a recent tabla, "The One James Bought," and a small plaque commissioned by handicraft dealers to make molded copies.



Juan Guillermo Gutíerrez


Juan, in his forties, whose is not a native, has been living in Pisté for more than twenty years and has been working various forms and media throughout his life. Since leaving the Mexican state of Puebla he learned batik in Isla Mujeres from persons who trained Pablo Tun Bolio. While he supports himself and his family through handicraft production of batik sold to Chichén visitors, his passion is the large batiks in re-interpretations of Maya mythos and narrative. His work is a re-vitalization of the ancient traditions of Maya mural and vase painting transposing those arts and styles of painting into the originally non-Maya media of batik. Batik is an intricate art that can be done without much skill to no great end, as is demonstrated by the simplified artisanry sold to tourists. The beauty of the piece depends on the imaginary, mastery of drawing human and animal forms, as well as the technical process of the batik lost-wax. Juan, originally trained as a painter, is often commissioned by restaurants and hotels for murals. Thus, Pisté, the town itself, has an aesthetic tone shaped by Juan's vision of the rich Maya traditions. His work often is often inspired by the public art of such renown Maya cities as Palenque, Yaxchilan, and Bonampak. In his re-composing of both well known and not so familiar scenes, there is always a special aura in which the faithful rendition of the subject in terms of the Maya styles and aesthetic comes closer, is enlarged and focused, and yet, despite this proximity, there is still a mysterious distancing of the piece that compels and attracts.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits his masterful interpretation of the Kich'ee Maya story of the Popol Vuh, "Hunahpu in Xibalba" and the "Smoking God."

Other Contributing Maya Artists from Pisté and Chichén Itzá


“Don Cedo”--Pablo Tun Bolio

Pablo Tun is an artist of legendary proportions. Trained in the first generation of arte pisteño, his artwork is based in a thorough mastery of all the major and subsidiary media – batik, drawing, and carving in both wood and stone. Beyond his technical control, Pablo has been recognized for years as a "maestro de maestros" that he that developed forms and media that have since then been adapted from his original creations. For example, he is the original author of the Maya batik. Having learned batik through work on Isla Mujeres, on the Mexican Caribbean coast, he created a workshop in which he gave training to a small group of artists for over ten years, some of whom are now beginning to develop independently. Another example is the now ubiquitous jaguar head — a form inspired by a key chain that has a small jaguar head. His mastery is evident when one compares one of his jaguar heads with that of the another: One would compare the geometric cuts of stylized abstraction with Pablo's smooth curves, colors, and accurate features of realism. His creativity in the media of wood includes the invention of many other features that are now common iconography of the Pisté statuary and masks. His passion, however, is with batik in which his concern and love for the natural world is expressed in exquisitely painted drawings of original composition. Here Pablo seeks to create visions of Maya culture as it evolved in the tropical jungle and rain forest. Visual allegories of Maya civilization is a continuing mode and thematic that Pablo uses to express his connection with his Maya ancestry and life-world. These evocations of the mysterious grandeur of the Maya focus on the portrayal of different pyramids, ancient statues, ball games, and archeological ruins embedded in various combinations of lush green trees, vines, flowers, parrots, toucans, jaguars, serpents, skulls, stars, the moon, and sky. The symbolism and essential tensions of life, death, and cosmos are captured in extraordinary colors, beautifully envisioned drawings, balanced compositions, and striking realism — the "Paisaje de Chichén Itzá," which is exhibited in Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation, is exemplary here. Pablo's artwork is powerfully authentic and original in his recuperation and dialogue with the tradition of 19th century drawings and paintings of Maya ruins rendered in that pristine moment of discovery by Anglo-American and Northern European travelers and antiquarians.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits "Paisaje de Chichén Itzá" and a Jaguar Head.



"Chino" Marcos Pech Canton (?)


An older artist, approaching his forties, Chino learned the art as part of the second generation of Pisté artists. During his long career he has worked all the forms of mascaron and idolo. His technical skill is so exquisite and disciplined that he, like a number of the younger artists, choose now to concentrate only on small statuary in cedar. Expressing new ideas in traditional forms within a vision of reducing the ornamentation to essential aesthetic of form and concept – as in both pieces that are in the Ah Dzib P'izté' exhibit – is Chino's specific creative genius. The importance of this principle leads him forego the tabla bas-relief, which one might think is a natural medium for his expression, since the tabla that works in the opposite direction of his aesthetic. The accuracy and naturalism of the form, whether human or animal, forges a sacred moment between the beholder of his artwork and and the delicacy of features that communicate sentiments about our basic being.
The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits two of his works, the "Pregnant Ixchel" and a seated "Maya," both are small statuary carved in cedar.


Faustino Cahum Mex


The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits his contemporary interpretation of the 19th century drawing by Catherwood, "Ruins of Tulum in Jungle."


Felipe Cemé Caamal – stela 12 batik


The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits his interpretation of Stela 12 from Piedras Negras.


“Bach”-- Alfonzo Cetz Cime


The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits his mascaron, "Ofrenda"

José Manuel Chan

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits José's tabla "U K'eban K’ux" or "Sacrifice to Life."



Alvaro Balam


The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits a unique stone carving of a Maya Noble.


Luis Tuz Cituk


Age: 24

Address:

Teachers and Associates: Learned from his brother José-León, and works with him and Jorge Pool Cauich

Principal Medium: Tabla and Mascarones

Pieces Exhibited through Field School: Chan Bahlum (C98-T1)

Luis Tuz Cituk works with one of the most innovative and technically skilled group of artists in Pisté. By spearheading a particular school of arte pisteño with his brother Loro after initial training in Muna in the mid-1990s, he is now a highly sought out artist whose most extraordinary work is commissioned by various businesses from Cancun and Mérida wishing to add a unique element of art to their ambience.

Luis works primarily cedar in bas-relief tabla. The carving of thick tablas with a variety of awls, chisels, and knifes, allows him not only to make figures in much higher relief than comparable tabla reproductions from Muna but also frees him to explore symbolic forms and compositions that express a unique and modern vision of the ancient Maya art and aesthetics. While Luis shares with the sketches, imaginative drawings, and other images of ancient sculpture with Loro and Jorge the other apprentice members of this artist workshop, the competitive rivalry that inspires all three artists leads them to an escalating technical virtuosity combined with an intricately evolving aesthetic.


Ramon Quijano Balam

Pieces Exhibited through Field School: Serpiente en Cedro (1997), Ix Chel Grande en Chaká (1997), Ix Chel Pequeña en Chaká (1997), Cuchillo Sacrificial (1997), Ix Chel Pequeña en Cedro (C98-T7), Cabeza de Jaguar en Chaká (C98-T8)

Ramon Quijano Balam is extremely skilled and innovative. Although having learned from a number of different artists, his style is unique in its intricacy of detail. His exploration of the small and medium sized ídolo form in chaká wood or cedar led to a mature art that has dramatically redirected the Pisté art scene. This combination of size and material allows him to so meticulously carve the elements of a piece that can often appear as if they were assembled from separately carved pieces. His rare style has inspired many copies and imitations of his work not only by lesser carvers but by the those create molded stone-plaster reproductions. Truly, this imitation is a sign of a master artist whose original pieces are in high demand.

His wide array of tools, include several different knives, formones, gurvias, and awls. As well, Ramon has created several notebooks of his sketches and drawings developed from his collection of books on the ancient Maya traditions of art and culture. These sources are critical both for re-creating ancient forms in replicative style and for his own creative re-interpretation of figures and mythos. However the beauty of the carving, what completes a piece is the "acabado" the "finishing," which Ramon has artfully mastered. Beyond controlling the basic earthen colors so central to Pisté art, he has been able to pioneer the return of the tropical blues, yellows, greens, whites in the painting of wood in a clear yet subtle manner that revivifies the ancient Maya aesthetic.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits several of his artworks, including the "Serpent in Cedar," "Ix Chel," and "Ah Xim Hméen Kú ((actually, this piece is called “Sabio.” Taalbes, “Ah Na’at” ich Maya?))" – "Medicine Corn God."



Juan Mex Mex


Juan Mex Mex, a native of Pisté, began work as an artist in the early 1990s. His specialty work is statuary and masks in chaká wood based in the symbolic elements of the everyday world of Chichén and Itzá. His painting relies on the subtle natural colors of wood and earth, using reds and browns in lighter shades to best capture the smooth but bold texturing of his carving. He combines a controlled use of acrylic paints with these elements to create powerful statuary. The eagle is an element that he has continued to explore as narrative element in the upper zones and headdresses of figures.


Sixto Mex Mex

Pieces Exhibited through Field School: Mascarón de Sacerdote Maya (1997), Guerrero (1997), Serpiente (C98-T10), Sacerdote (C98-T11)

Sixto has developed his work within the classic Pisté tradition, using only the inherited cuchillos and the chaká wood to make statuary – or ídolos – and masks –mascarones. His imagery and motifs are creative explorations of the iconography of Pisté and Chichén that has emerged in the last decades, that is, many variations of serpents, jaguars, skulls, and Mayas in profile heads, frontal faces, full figure, and action poses, as well as ruins of the Castillo, birth, death, healing. The most distinctive feature of Sixto’s work is the use of three colors of chapopote paint. Where most artists apply a solid coat of either reddish-brown or dark brown chapopote to a given piece, Sixto combines these two colors, as well as a unique yellow chapopote paint. His are among the few polychrome carvings that do not have commercial acrylics. The high quality of Sixto’s home-made chapopote paint also him to create extremely compelling pieces due to their unusual polish, smooth surfaces, and curving features. His triangulo masks are exceptional and unique for the commanding elegance of simplicity and economy of expression. Likewise, his signature in statuary is the pot-bellied, seated figures with the delicately carved hands with long fingers on the knees similar in face and proportions. The detail of the fingernails, feet, and facial features in striking tension with the smoothness of the curves and the economy of iconography.

The Ah Dzib P'izté' Installation exhibits two of his figures, the mascaron of the mustachioed Halach Winik and the specially commissioned Ah Dzib P'izté' figure with braided hair.



A Glossary of Terms The Art of Pisté
Cabeza de Jaguar: Cabezas de Jaguar or Jaguar Heads are a fairly restricted form, and one that is fairly stylistically homogeneous. The first Jaguar Heads in Pisté were made by Pablo Tun Bolio in the early nineties. These Jaguar Heads are similar to masks carved in Oaxaca, which may have served as a model. For years, Tun Bolio and several close relatives were the only artists who knew the full process of making Jaguar Heads, a complex process of rough carving (trazando) requiring dozens of precisely measured points. The demand for these carvings caused some artists to experiment with alternative methods for producing Jaguar Heads, although the style created by Tun Bolio continues to be the most common and best regarded. By 1998, more artists were carving Jaguar Heads like Tun Bolio’s.

These carvings are generally painted in a single shade of chapopote paint, although some are pinted yellow with jaguar markings. They range in size from less than a quarter life-size to larger than life-size.

Another kind of jaguar figure, and one that is relatively rare, is a full-figured Jaguar. These are brightly painted seated jaguars legs and tail nailed on.
Cedar: Cedar (cedro) is, after chaká, the most common kind of wood carved in Pisté. Although some cedar roots or trunks are harvested locally for serpientes or ídolos, most of the cedar carved in Pisté is in the form of tablas purchased from commercial sawmills in Pisté or Valladolid. Although it is much more expensive, cedar has several technical advantages over chaká. It has a denser grain, so it is less necessary to follow the grain in carving. It does not require a drying period, and its attractive color makes it possible to sell unpainted and un-glossed carvings.

Chaká: Chaká, the wood of the white acacia, is the most common wood carved in Pisté. White acacia grows wild in and around the town. Although chaka is soft and easy to carve, it retains a great deal of moisture. Pieces made of chaká require drying, or else modl forms on the surface. This is especially problematic when pieces must be painted and glossesd, as the mold will destroy the surface treatment. The chaka cannot be cured beforehand, as dried pieces are dry and difficult to carve. Chaka also has a thick grain, which can splinter during carving. Chaka pieces also deteriorate more quickly than those of cedar or pích..

There are three kinds of chak’a, the green, white, and red. Green chaka from young trees is considered the least desirable to carve, as it has the courses grain and a fuzzt surface texture. Whie chaka has a denser grain, and is less prone to splinter. It is by far the most commonly carved wood. Red chaka is even denser and better to carve, but somewhat rarer than the white.

Chisels and Awls: Artists in Pisté use a wide range of chisels and awls in woodcarving. These can be straigt-edged (formones) or scoop-shaped (gurvias). Scoop-shaped chisels are generally purchased from abarrotes, as are some small straight-edged chisels. Many other sizes of straight chisel are made from the artists, from a large kind made from a pruning hook and pounded by a piece of wood in the rough shaping of pieces to smaller chisels and awls crafted from screwdrivers.

Ídolo: Ídolos (also refered to as “figuras”) are the most common type of carving in Pisté, the most diverse in style and quality, and the one with the longest history. This generally refers to standing or seated anthropomorphic figures carved in the round, whether in wood or piedra. Other figures in the round, such as chacmooles or serpientes are generally referred to by these more specific names. Although there are several ways of making ídolos, most begin with a a square or wedge-shaped piece of wood. When made of carved piedra, they can be made from a squared block. After the block is shaped with a machete, the course shape of the figure is carved with a machete or chisel. The shape is defined with a knife, and further details are added with a knife and smaller chisels. Most artists begin working ídolos, in carved piedra as children and later in wood. Although some are made in cedar (and even more rarely in pích) the vast majority of ídolos are carved in chaká.

Different characters depicted in ídolos include “gods” based on the ancient Maya pantheon (Ix Chel or Yum Kaax) or more general characters (Guerrero, Guerrero Jaguar, or Sacerdote). Pieces “fit” into one of these categories based on details in the headdress or objects held in the hands. Naturally, there are many hybrid forms. While there are some elements associated with one or the other character, decorations on the body and headdress include serpents, the castillo of Chichen (perhaps the most common headdress element) Jaguar Heads, profiles of “warriors” or “priests,” different arm or leg bands, necklaces, or “tattoo” markings.

Almost all ídolos are sold painted. The basic paintconsists of a coating of petroleum based chapapote paint in dark brown or reddish-brown. Other figures are decorated with comercially-bought acryllic paints in a wode range of colors before the application of an overcoat of petroleum paints. Pieces might also be highlighted with comercial gold paint. Most painted peices are glossed with clear shoe polish.

Íx Chel: Ix Chel or Fertilidad is a common ídolo character. The figure consists of a bare-breasted female who is either in the act of giving birth or holding an infant by the ankles. The headdress consists of a skull between two inward-facing serpent heads. In some of the more detailed figures, the serpents are full-figured and coil down the figure’s back. Ix Chel is the only female character carved in ídolo.

Several artists have given a detailed explanation of the iconography of Ix chal. The baby represents the beginning of life, the female’s breasts the mother and adulthood, and the skull the end of life in death. The two serpents are a general symbols of fertility.


Knife, cuchillo: A knife with a straight edge (cuchillo) is the basic tool used in carving wood or piedra. They are crafted from chapeadoras (pruning hooks) and have a blade shaped into a right triangle.
Guerrero, Guerrero Jaguar, and Sacerdote: Guerreros and sacerdotes (warriors and priests) are the two labels generally given to male ídolos that are not strictly identified as Yum Kaax. The two terms are interchangable, and there are no elements that definitively identify the figure as one or the other. Warriors, for example, do not necessarily hold a kind of weapon, but may, hold the jars associated with the figure called the "medicina" or the dishes with incense associated with the "priest." These figure are also simply referred to as "Maya."

One subset of this genre that is definitiely identifiable by an iconographic element is the Guerrero Jaguar or Hombre Jaguar. These Jaguar Men or Jaguar Warriors have some sort of Jaguar Headdress, either a full-sized Jaguar Head over their own or a head covering which makes their face emerge from the jaguar’s mouth.

Mascarón: Mascarones are a genre of wood or cement carving modeled as a sort of mask. These are not realistically proportioned or wearable, but have a carved head with an elaborate headdress. The images on the headdress are often larger than the face itself. The face of the mask can be carved as a face with detailed eyes, or can have open eyes and mouth. Many artists enjoy making, mascarones because the headdress allows them to compose three, four, or more separate figures. Although the first mascarones were made in chaká or pích, mascarones are now also carved or molded in piedra.

A less common type of mascarón was designed by Pablo tun Bolio. Based on a carving from the tomb of Pacal in Palenque, these mascarones are based on a realistically-carved face with a simple coiffure. Several other artists, including Antonio Dzib Tun have learned to make this type of mask.

Pích: Pích was a one of the first kinds of wood carved in Pisté. Sometime in the 1980’s, Pích supplies became severely depleted and the trees were protected by law. Although figures continue to be made in pích, they are exceedingly rare.

Pích has several technical advantages over chaka. The grain is denser (though not so dense as that of cedar), and is less prone to splinter. Pích retains less moisture than chaka, and therefore requires a shorter drying period. Finally, pích has a characteristic reddish-brown core that contrasts with the white outer layers of the wood. Artists can exploit this effect to produce unpainted pieces with naturally-occurring colored stripes.
Paint: There are several types of paint commonly used on wood carvings in Pisté. The most common of these is chapopote petroleum paint, a mixture of natural plant and mineral pigments with gasoline. This paint is generally brushed over large surfaces or an entire figure before polishing with comercial shoe polish. Chapopote paint is usually in either dark brown or reddish-brown, with a few artists using yellow.

Some artists paint pieces with several colors of comercially-produced colored acrylics before applying the final chapopote coat. The final coat both dulls and blends the bright acrylics. Comercially-bought oil-based gold paint is used to highlight some pieces after the application. This kind of paint is also used to highlight some pieces in piedra.

Finally, some artists create their own blends of pain. Wilberth Serrano Mex, for example, makes polychrome paints by mixing acrylics with a local liquor. These paints can be blended on the surface of carvings, and do not require a chapopote overcoating.

Piedra: Piedra” is a term used in Pisté for a blend of cement used in carving (pool tunich in Maya )or molding figures. These are generally cheaper figures than those made in wood. The composition of this material varies, as the cement can be mixed with gesso (something that is generally disapproved of, as it creates softer and less durable carvings). The majority of figures made in piedra are ídolos, although there are some mascarónes made of piedra and some piedra tablas.


Piedra carvings are either the work of children learning to carve, molded pieces made quickly and cheaply, or more rarely the work of older artists who choose to carve a piece in piedra. Carve piedra pieces are carved over the course of several days, during which the initial block or slab dries and reaches its final hardness. They are carved by scraping with an unsharpened knife, which is why piedra is usually the first medium of young carvers. In the case of molded pieces, a wooden carving is cast in plastick, and the liquid piedra is poured in. Although most artists and merchants mold pieces, the fact that this practice can be used to copy pieces made by other artists makes it negatively valued form of production.

There are several characters that are made principally or exclusively in piedra. Although some chacmooles are made in wood, the majority are in piedra. There are also small models of the castillo and ash—trays that are made exclusively in piedra.


Poolché’: The Maya term for woodcarving, which derives from the words "pool," meaning “to carve” – as well as "head" – and "ché'" meaning “wood.”
Serpiente: Serpent figures are usually made in one of several ways. Some are carved from a block of wood, and are generally angular with square and zig-zagging bodies. This block technique can also be used to make Serpientes enredadas or two entwined serpents. Others serpents are made from a root of a cedar or chaka tree. Artists using roots follow the natural twisting shape of the wood, using the wide base as a head and the tapering tip as a tail.

Tabla: Tabla is a medium of wood or piedra carving based on high or low relief images carved on a flat surface. Although some artists carve tabla images on slabs of piedra, most tabla carving is made on either specially-prepared pieces of chaká or commercial cedar planks bought from sawmills in Pisté or Valladolid.


Tabla carvings can either be cut to the size of the images, or have images arranged within a square border. Most tabla work requires the use of at least a straight-edged chisel, and most artists who specialize in tabla use several kinds of straight or scoop-shaped chisels. Tabla carvings in chaká are often based on profile images of ídolo characters. Pieces made in cedar are more often figures from ancient sculpture or codices. The town of muna is famous for a particular style of tabla carving.

Wood: SEE: Chaká, Cedar and Pích
Yum Kaax: Yum Kaax, Dios de Maiz, or Dios de Medicina is a male ídolo character based on an ancient Maya maize deity. In his guise as Maize God, Pisté’s Yum Kaax holds a corn cob in his hands and/or in front of his knees. As medicine god, he holds a jar or bunch of plants.
TABLA


  1. “El Arquero,” bas-relief tabla in cedar. José Leon Tuz Kituc

  2. “U Tepal K’uk’ulcan,” bas-relief tabla in chaká with chapopote. Wilberth Serrano Mex

  3. “4 Ahau, 8 Cumkú – Creation of Time,” bas-relief tabla in cedar with chapopote. Jorge Pool Cauich

BATIK

  1. “Hunahpu Returns from Xibalba,” in batik. Juan Gutierrez

  2. “Pacal of Palenque,” in batik. Juan Gutierrez

  3. “Ah Dzib yete Ah Its’at,” in batik. Juan Gutierrez

  4. “Stela 12 from Piedras Negras,” in batik. Felipe Cemé Caamal

  5. “Tulum,” in batik. Faustino Cahum Mex

  6. “Chichén Itzá,” in batik. Pablo Tun Bolio

WOOD SCULPTURE – Statuary and Idols

  1. “Ix Chel Yo’m,” wood sculpture in cedar with chapopote . Antonio Pech Canton

  2. “Ix Chel,” wood sculpture in painted chaká. Gilberto Yam Tun


  3. “Yum K’ax,” wood sculpture in painted chaká. Gilberto Yam Tun

  4. “Yum Dzak,” wood sculpture in painted chaká. José Manuel Chan

  5. “El Gobernante,” wood sculpture in cedar with chapopote . Metch

  6. “Chan Bahlum,” wood sculpture in ceiba with chapopote . Luis Tuz Kituc

  7. “Maya Balam Pool,” wood sculpture in painted chaká. Juan Mex Mex

  8. “Ah Dzib Scribano,” wood sculpture in chaká with chapopote . Sixto Mex Mex

  9. “Ix Chel,” wood sculpture in unpainted cedar. Ramon Quijano Balam

  10. “Ah Xim Hméen Kú,” wood sculpture in painted chaká. Ramon Quijano Balam

  11. “Meditación con Hunab K’ú,” wood sculpture in stone stucco. Alvaro Balam

MASCARONES – Sculptured Wood Masks

  1. “Mascaron Ix Balam Xoc,” mask in chaká with chapopote . Jorge Pool Cauich

  2. “Mascaron Uay Eb K’uk’ulcan,” mask in chaká with chapopote . Wilberth Serrano Mex

  3. “Mascaron con Pyramide,” mask in chaká with chapopote . Sixto Mex Mex

  4. “Mascaron Yum Dzak P’aa chi’,” mask in painted chaká. Alfonzo Cetz Cime

  5. “Mascaron Halach Winik — el Tutul Xiu,” totemic mask in pích. Gilberto Yam Tun

  6. “Mascaron Halach Winik — el Chac Xib Chac,” totemic mask in pích. Gilberto Yam Tun

WOOD SCULPTURE – Exotic Forms

  1. “Canoe Journey to Xibalba,” wood sculpture in cedar with chapopote . José Leon Tuz Kituc, Giliberto Yam Tun, Jorge Pool Cauich, Wilberth Serrano Mex

  2. “Balam Pool” Jaguar Head, wood sculpture in painted chaká. Pablo Tun Bolio

  3. “Serpiente Emplumada,” wood sculpture in the root of a cedar tree. Ramon Quijano Balam

Sponsors of Expo’99 — the summer Maya Art Exhibit and Concurso




  • The Field School in Experimental Ethnography [La Escuela de Etnografía Experimental]. Dr. Quetzil E. Castañeda, Director.

  • The US/México Fund [Fideicomiso México/US] — a binational organization created through an agreement between the Rockefeller Foundation, the Mexican National Fund for Culture and the Arts [FONCA], the Bancomer Cultural Foundation.

  • The Municipal Government of Pisté

  • The Ejido Government of Pisté.

  • México’s National Institute of Anthropology and History [the INAH],

  • Centro Cultural de Pisté [The Cultural Center of Pisté]

  • The CECIJEMA Cultural Foundation (México).

  • Tienda La Principal, Pisté, México

  • Restaurante Tio Ney, Pisté, México

  • Restaurante Kukulcan, Pisté, México

  • Centro Cultural CECIJEMA, A.C. , Pisté, México

  • Embotellador Peninsular de Coca-Cola

  • Abarrotes El Alba, Pisté, México

  • Restaurante Las Ruinas, Pisté, México

  • Restaurante Sacbe, Pisté, México

  • Anonymous Citizens of Pisté, Yucatán, México

  • The Ah Dzib P'izté' Artists




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