Musical Theatre – Loesser: Guys and Dolls



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Musical Theatre – Loesser: Guys and Dolls (Runyonland, Fugue for Tin Horns)


1.

Runyonland

a) State the home key and structure of this opening.


Home Key:…………………………………………………………………..(C major)
Structure:…………………………………………………………………….(Episodic)
b) i. Give one word to describe the texture in bars 53 – 60: …………………………………………………………….. (Homophonic).
ii. Give one word to describe the harmonies in bars 1 – 12: ……………………………………………………………..

(Chromatic).
c) Name the key at:
Bar 65:…………………………………………………………(E flat major)
Bar 29:…………………………………………………………(C major)
Bar 47:…………………………………………………………(D flat major)
d) Give bar numbers (and beats, if necessary), where the following devices may be found in this piece.


Devices

Bars/beats

Call and response




A pedal note




Melodic movement in 3rds




Glissandi in brass



Devices


Bars/beats

Call and response

123+419

A pedal note

1 – 4, 43-46

Melodic movement in 3rds

45- 46

Glissandi in brass

43,44

e) How does the composer achieve the atmosphere of a bustling New York scene in this musical opening?


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(A busy and frenetic opening, with lots of different musical ideas to depict different characters which are introduced with each different structural episode. Overall, there are 5 episodes. The repeated crotchet chords at the start of episode one represent a swift walking pace as characters enter. Layers of ideas are added, all of which are linked with action and movement onstage. Arpeggio figures and chromatic content found in bars 1- 12 and in episode 5, enhance a busy scene and a sprightly melodic line at the start supports lots of movement onstage. There is orchestral interaction of lines and timbres – as seen at the beginning of episode 2 where the interaction between lower brass and saxes are followed by a unison call in trombones with a harmonic response in saxes. Certain instruments become more prominent, i.e. the String Bass and additional layers add to the effectiveness of the bustling activity. The changes of key from C upwards to D flat then E flat would also support the build up of atmosphere. Homophonic movement such as that found in bars 53 – 60 would offer opportunities for performers onstage to unite in the same movement. Many of the melodic ideas are angular and “quirky”, which further supports the ‘hurrying’ and bustling atmosphere).


2.



Fugue for Tin Horns.
a) Tick which three of the following are heard in the extract, and suggest a bar number where they may be found.


DEVICE

TICK

BAR

Trill







Syncopation







Lower auxiliary note







Modulation to the dominant







Harmonics







Contrary motion









DEVICE

TICK

BAR

Trill







Syncopation



7, 8, 10 etc (in vocal line)

Lower auxiliary note



6 – vocal entry

Modulation to the dominant







Harmonics







Contrary motion



55 (accompaniment)

b) The first chord in bar 1 is D¨ 7, a seventh chord on the tonic in root position. (Note: even though this is cut/split common time, the beats of the bar have been referred to as four crotchet beats per bar).


In the same way, describe the chords heard:
in bar 231,2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………

(E¨7,a ii7 chord in root position)
in bar 28 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

(D¨6, tonic root + added 6th)
in bar 533 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(E¨9, supertonic 9th)
c) Identify three musical features to be found occurring throughout this piece (until the outro):
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (Same tune)

ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (Same chords)

iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. (Same rhythms i.e. off beat jazz).
d) i. What section begins at bar 1?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..(Introduction)
ii. Comment on the musical style of the opening section.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(The key is D flat major. There is a distinctive tonic/dominant bass line, in a vamping pianistic style. The clarinet is particularly prominent - quite Gershwinesque! The introduction is based on

chords of the 7th, and the triplet trumpet fanfare in bar 3 signals the start of the horse race. There is a jazzy swing feel to the music. The texture is quite light and the opening is in a strict rhythmic tempo).
e) This piece can be divided into 6 sections. State the form of the piece, and outline the main structure.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (The form of the piece is a Canon, with each voice singing the main tune 3 times. The structural division into 6 sections may be realized as follows:




Intro

Canon 1


Nicely-Nicely


Canon 2

Benny


Canon 3

Rusty



2nd & 3rd Entries

Coda/Outro


1-6

6-18

18-22

22-26

26-50

51-58


Instruments only

Main tune -solo

Nicely-Nicely

carries on with

second half of tune in

counterpoint with main

tune


Completes the first round

of canonic entries

Completes remaining entries

Contrasting style to finish

3.



Runyonland.
a) Name one theme from this show quoted in this opening, and give the bar numbers where it is heard.
Theme:……………………………………………………………………………..(Luck be a Lady Tonight)

Bars:………………………………………………………………………………… (29 – 45; 47 -50).

b) Describe the types of chords found in the following bars:


Bars

Chords

61




301




611




251






Bars

Chords

61

G7, first inversion chord, 6/5

291

C major, tonic, root position, 5/3

611

F9, root position

251

E flat added 6th chord, 6


Fugue for Tin Horns.
c) Comment on the use of texture in this piece.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(Thin/light to begin, but building up with each vocal entry. It is a canon for the three vocal parts so is polyphonic texture – and it remains contrapuntal and dense throughout. However, it is homophonic at the end for the outro, i.e. bars 52-56).

d) Describe what composition devices / features are found in the following bars:
Bars 124 - 613 ………………………………………………………………………………………(imitation)
Bars 10413 ………………………………………………………………………………………(sequence)
Bar 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………..(fanfare)
e) Identify six distinctive features of the main tune for example as sung by Nicely, bars 63 - 26
i. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
iii. …...............................................................................................................
iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
v. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
vi. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(Anacrusis at the start; syncopation in certain bars; the dotted rhythms, giving the effect of a swing beat; the chromatic triplet; sequential patterns; the falling 5th).


Musical Theatre – Bernstein: Westside Story (Tonight, Maria)

1.



Tonight.
a) Comment on the tonality of this piece.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(The piece starts in A minor, the home key. It finishes in C major, the relative major).
b) Comment on any features of rhythmic interest, bars 53 – 68.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (The time signature is unusual, and is 4/4 & 2/4 every other bar, the same way that the ensemble actually starts; note some triplets in the vocal line which offsets the steady quavers of the accompaniment; move to 3/8 in bars 62 and 65, which give a triple bar in the midst of the quadruple/simple beat ).

c) Describe the chords heard in the following bars:


Bars

Chords

691




84




1291




1401-2






Bars

Chords

691

Supertonic major 7th, B maj chord in 3rd inversion, ii4/2

84

F major chord in 2nd inversion, 6/4

1291

Diminished 7th chord

1401-2

D maj 7 chord in 2nd inversion, 4/3

d) Identify the keys and cadences in the following bars:


Bars 1253 1261 Key: …………………………………..…… Cadence: …………..…………………......

(E flat major, perfect cadence).
Bars 1172 118 Key: ……………………………..………… Cadence: ………………………..……......

(C major, perfect cadence).

e) What do you understand by the term leitmotif? Explain, with reference to ‘Tonight’.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….(A leitmotif, used in a show, musical or opera is a short theme/musical idea associated with a character, object or idea in the work. It is either quoted at appropriate moments to enhance the dramatic effect, or it could be built up symphonically. The quaver triplet motif in the introduction is an important feature and reappears elsewhere in the work, but the main leitmotif here is that melodic idea given to the name ‘Maria’, e.g. the opening, but particularly that sung by the tenor e.g. bars 144 - 15.This is a three note figure which consists of two characteristic intervals – the tritone/augmented 4th between the E flat up to A natural, and the upward semitone interval from the A natural to B flat. This rising augmented 4th (tritone) in the first two notes of this theme is also known as the ‘devil’s leap’ because of the difficulty in singing the interval. It was avoided in early ecclesiastical composition, but is widely used in atonal melodies today. Also, the following two note rising semitone motif (resolution; cf. Jaws) – first heard across the bar lines in voice and strings (bars 9-11; 15-16), and finally in orchestral strings (bars 51-52).


The same motif is heard in the bass of the accompaniment in bars 15-17; 34-36).

2.



Maria.
a). Comment on the overall tonality of this piece.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(The first, recitative-like section is in B major, while the song itself is in E flat major.
b) Identify and briefly describe the section which begins at bar 28.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(This is section A1, a repeat of the opening A section first heard in bars 9 – 14. Here, the melody is played by the orchestra while the tenor vocal line is broken up with the ‘Maria’ motif, repeated. The tessitura – i.e. pitch – is high, with an alternative given from bars 36-40).
c) State the key and the cadence heard in the following bars:
Bars 16 – 181 Key: ……………………………………………………..Cadence: ………………………………………….

(E flat major, interrupted)
Bars 24 – 25 Key: ………………………………………………………Cadence: ………………………………………….

(F minor, plagal).
d) Describe the chords found in the following bars.
Bar 123 …………………………………………………………………………………. (Dominant root, V 5/3).

Bar 321 …………………………………………………………………………………. (F minor7th chord).

Bar 491 …………………………………………………………………………………. (Flattened submediant chord, root position – G flat major chord, 5/3).
e) Comment on the writing for voice in this song.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (Parlando / recit style to start, quiet delivery. This first section introduces some of the motifs used in the piece. The first section A opens with the main motif on ‘Maria’, with the tritone leap upwards and a further semitone - otherwise note the stepwise movement and the triplet rhythms. This is to be sung warmly, and sweetly. In the second section, A2, the tenor still has the tune (cresc) which is now doubled in the orchestra. From bar 18 the opening note (E flat) is heard a tritone higher, as the motif is inverted, more loudly and more demanding for the soloist. Bar 24, the soloist sings a sudden pp. The middle section for the soloist is more of a countermelody –using the same motif but inverted, with a downward direction. This song is operatic and extensive, with an alternative part written for the more capable tenor singers. The final coda reverts to the soft parlando style of the opening. A popular solo for tenors, very demanding in terms of technique, expression and effective delivery).

3.



Tonight.
a) Comment on the key and harmonies in bars 68 – 76.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


(This starts with a change of key signature and a perfect cadence to A major. Tonic pedal A in the bass until bar 72.The syncopated accompaniment begins on the chord of the tonic with an added 2nd i.e. Amaj add 2), which moves to the chord of the supertonic 7th in third inversion i.e. ii 4/2 –B7 with the 7th in the bass. This progression is repeated in bars 70/71. In bar 72, the tonic with the added 2nd is again heard, and includes the 7th and 9th on the last beat of that bar. In bar 73, the music touches on the chord of the submediant minor i.e. F# min, before settling on what logically appears to be the dominant major 7th, without the root, in first inversion i.e. G#, B, D#. This slips to a chord of G, which is the flattened seventh of the opening key A of this section. This G major chord in bar 75 then acts in its own right as dominant preparation for a perfect cadence and modulation to C major.
b) Complete the following statements:


  1. The layer of texture heard in the flute, clarinet and violin in bar 85 is known as a ……………………………………………………………………………………………….(countermelody).




  1. The rhythmic device heard in the accompaniment at bar 76 is known as …………………………………………………………………………………………………(syncopation).




  1. The device heard in the part sung by the ‘Sharks’ in bars 130 -132 is known as ………………………………………………………………………………………………..(augmentation).




  1. The device heard in the bass part in bars 20 – 29 is known as an ………………………………………………………………………………………………..(ostinato).


Maria.
c) Identify two distinctive features of the accompaniment in this piece.


  1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………




  1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The ostinati syncopated rhythms in the bass)

  2. The doubling of the vocal line by the orchestra)

d) The following musical directions appear on the score of ‘Maria’. Explain what they mean, and suggest a bar number where they may be found.




Sign / direction

Meaning

Bar

pizz.







con sord.







tremelo







8va….:









Sign / direction

Meaning

Bar

pizz.


Pizzicato –plucked strings

244

con sord.

With the mute

5 (violins)

tremolo

Rapid alternation between (in this case) the two notes

8 (accomp)

8va….:

Play an octave higher than written

514(accomp)

e) Describe the musical style of the first eight bars.


………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(This functions as an introduction to the song. It is in a recitative, parlando type style as the main character Tony, whispers the name ‘Maria’. The texture is very light and sparse – very delicate as he whispers his inner thoughts. The triplet idea of the main theme is introduced immediately above a held note in horn, and a gentle descending stepwise line in the bassoon part. Note chromatic movement upwards in the bass in bar 3. Bar 5 and 6 are based on the opening 2 bars, but a cresc. Is heard in bar 7 and 8 which builds up to the opening of the song itself. The accompaniment in bars 7 and 8 echo the falling two note motif associated with Ma-ri-a in this introduction. Interestingly, this becomes inverted in the actual song e.g. bar 9.This passage is in B major, heard p, is in common time with a tempo instruction of ‘slowly and freely’.



Musical Theatre – Boublil and Schoenberg: Les Miserables (On My Own, One Day More)

1.



On My Own.
a) Complete the following table to show the structural details of this piece. Include all sections, with bar numbers. The first section has been completed for you.


Introduction



















Bars 1 - 2






















Introduction

Section A

Section A

Section B

Section A

Section A

Coda

Bars 1 - 2

3 - 10

3 - 10


11 - 18

19 - 26

27 - 34

35 - 38

b) Describe the texture in bars 11 – 18.


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(The texture here is melody dominated homophony. It becomes thicker in this section, and the heavier tread of the crotchet chords in the accompaniment is the main reason why.).
c) i. Explain what is meant by the term modulation.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(Modulation means when the music moves to a key other than the home key).
ii. Give the bar numbers of two modulations, identifying the new key and its relationship to the home key (e.g. F# minor, dominant minor).
Example 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(C major, bar 30 – flattened leading-note).

Example 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...



(A major, bars 536,- dominant).
d) Tick four of the following devices which are present in this piece, and suggest a bar number where an example may be found.


Device

Tick


Bar

A fugal entry







A syncopated accompaniment







A descending chromatic bass







A tonic pedal







Harmonics







An anacrusis









Device

Tick

Bar

A fugal entry







A syncopated accompaniment



R.H. piano, bars 3-5

A descending chromatic bass



L.H. piano, bars 6 – 7

A tonic pedal

L.H. piano, bars 1-3


Harmonics







An anacrusis



24,44,104 etc

e) Identify any features of rhythmic interest in this piece.


………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (Common Time; syncopated r.h. accomp e.g. bars 1 – 5 etc; syncopation also evident in vocal line e.g. bars 8, 10 etc; time sig and accent shift change to 2/4 in bars 8, 24 and 32; accent shift change from 3/4 to 4/4 in bars 9 -10, 25 -26 and 33 -34; rhythms used throughout are mainly quavers, dotted quavers and semiquavers).

2.



One Day More.
a) Identify the opening tonality and structure of this extract.
Tonality: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(A major).
Structure: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(Through composed: an introduction followed by seven sections).
b) Identify the chords in the following bars. Explain fully e.g. A major chord, root position, 5/3.
Bar 341 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(E flat major chord, root position, 5/3).

Bar 323 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..


(B flat major chord, first inversion, 6/3).
Bar 61 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(F# minor seventh chord, root position, F#7).
Bar 621 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(G# diminished 7th chord).
Bar 632 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(D7 chord, first inversion, 6/5).
c) State the key in bar 29 and its relationship to the opening tonality.
Key: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. (F major).
Relationship to opening tonality: ……………………………………………………… (Flattened submediant).
d) Using bar numbers and beat divisions (e.g. bar 103 meaning the bar 10 beat 3), locate an example of:


  1. Antiphonal vocal writing Bar: …………………………………………. (17 - 25).

  2. An ostinato pattern Bar: …………………………………………. (1-2).

  3. A sequence Bar: …………………………………………. (28 - 32).

  4. An accent shift Bar: ………………………………………… (61 - 64).

e) This ensemble provides an exciting climax to the first act of Les Miserables. How does the composer build up the intensity and the drama in the music?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….


(This finale starts with the main motif and character of the musical, in a powerful opening solo. The ensemble then builds up by introducing other characters, each singing their own theme tunes. In all there are seven characters: Jean Valjean, Marius and Cosette, Eponine, Enjolras and the revolutionaries, the Thenardiers and Javert. The themes, all of which have been introduced by these characters earlier in the act are cleverly combined into a complex and multi-dimensional musical texture, and there is vocal interaction between the characters. The themes are interwoven from various solos, e.g. ‘I dreamed a dream’. The ensemble follows the operatic traditions with strong ensemble singing based on the primary triads. The result is very dramatic, with the singing supported by a rich accompaniment from the orchestra. The tessitura is high, the dynamic is ff, and there is added percussion to enhance the tension. The strong unison statement in bar 62 delivers the final message and the final burst of vocal harmonies in the final 3-note motif is powerful.

3.



On My Own.
a) Tick four of the following cadences which are present in this piece, and suggest a bar number where an example may be found.



Device

Tick

Bar

Perfect cadence in D major







Perfect cadence in D minor






Perfect cadence in A major







Perfect cadence in A minor







Perfect cadence in B major







Perfect cadence in B minor









Device

Tick

Bar

Perfect cadence in D major



2431

Perfect cadence in D minor



313,4 -32

Perfect cadence in A major



53,4 - 6

Perfect cadence in A minor







Perfect cadence in B major





Perfect cadence in B minor



73,4 - 8



  1. Comment on the texture in this piece.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….



(The texture throughout is melody dominated homophony i.e. a melody based on a chordal accompaniment. To begin with, the texture is light with quite sparse instrumentation –however, the texture becomes much thicker in Section B. The final coda is again very light and almost ethereal).

One Day More.
c) Name the section and key at bar 36.
Section: ……………………………………………………………..(This is section 4: Valjean and Javert).
Key: ……………………………………………………………………(A major).

d) Identify a feature of harmonic interest, Bar 343,435.


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(The change of key here is from an A flat chord to an E major chord which becomes the dominant chord preparing for a perfect cadence in A major. The pivot note, or note in common, is A flat - the root of the chord in bar 343,4; this is rewritten and incorporated into the next chord as a G#, the third of the E major chord).
e) State the tonality of the following bars. Your answer should be one of the following:
major / atonal / modal / minor

Bar


Tonality

13




17




22




26




27






Bar

Tonality

13

major

17

major

22

minor

26

major

27

minor










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