Muskogee-creek affiliation

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Extracts from

The Indian Tribes of North America

by John R. Swanton

Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145—1953

726 pages—Smithsonian Institution

pp. 153-174)

Abihka, see Creek Confederacy and Muskogee.
Acuera. Meaning unknown (acu signifies "and" and also "moon").
Connections.—This tribe belonged to the Timucuan or Timuquanan linguistic division of the Muskhogean linguistic family.
Location.—Apparently about the headwaters of the Ocklawaha River [in Florida].
Towns: (See Utina.)

.— The Acuera were first noted by De Soto in a letter written at Tampa Bay to the civil cabildo of Santiago de Cuba. According to information transmitted to him by his officer Baltazar de Gallegos, Acuera was "a large town . . . where with much convenience we might winter," but the Spaniards did not in fact pass through it, though, while they were at Ocale, they sent to Acuera for corn. The name appears later in Laudonnière's narrative of the second French expedition to Florida, 1564-65 (1586), as a tribe allied with the Utina. It is noted sparingly in later Spanish documents but we learn that in 1604 there was an encounter between these Indians and Spanish troops and that there were two Acuera missions in 1655, San Luis and Santa Lucia, both of which had disappeared by 1680. The inland position of the Acuera is partly responsible for the few notices of them. The remnant was probably gathered into the "Pueblo de Timucua," which stood near St. Augustine in 1736, and was finally removed to the Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia County, where Tomoka River keeps the name alive.

Population.— This is nowhere given by itself. (See Utina.)
Aguacaleyquen, see Utina .
Ais. Meaning unknown; there is no basis for Romans' (1775) derivation from the Choctaw word "isi" (deer). Also called: Jece, form of the name given by Dickenson (1699).
Connections.—Circumstantial evidence, particularly resemblance in town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language was similar to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes. (See Calusa.) It is believed that it was connected with the Muskhogean stock.
Location.—Along Indian River on the east coast of the peninsula.
Villages: – The only village mentioned by explorers and geographers bears some form of the tribal name.

History.—Fontaneda (1854) speaks of a Biscayan named Pedro who had been held prisoner in Ais, evidently during the sixteenth century, and spoke the Ais language fluently. Shortly after the Spaniards made their first establishments in the peninsula, a war broke out with the Ais, but peace was concluded in 1570. In 1597 Governor Mendez de Can¸o, who traveled along the entire east coast from the head of the Florida Keys to St. Augustine, reported that the Ais chief had more Indians under him than any other. A little later the Ais killed a Spaniard and two Indians sent to them by Can¸o for which summary revenge was exacted, and still later a difficulty was created by the escape of two Negro slaves and their marriage with Ais men. Relations between the Floridian government and these Indians were afterward friendly but efforts to missionize them uniformly failed. An intimate picture of their condition in 1699 is given by the Quaker Dickenson (1803), who was ship-wrecked on the coast farther south and obliged, with his companions, to travel through their territory. They disappear from history after 1703, but the remnant may have been among those who, according to Romans (1775), passed over to Cuba in 1763, although he speaks of them all as Calusa.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians on the southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, the Tekesta, Guacata, and Jeaga, to have been 1,000. As noted above, the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the largest. We have no other estimates of population applying to the seventeenth century. In 1726, 88 "Costa" Indians were reported in a mission farther north and these may have been drawn from the southeast coast. In 1728, 52 "Costa" Indians were reported.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The Ais were noted as the most important tribe of southeastern Florida, and they were probably responsible for the fact that the water course on which they dwelt came to be called Indian River.
Alabama. Perhaps connected with the native word "albina," meaning "to camp," or alba amo, "weed gatherer," referring to the black drink. Also called: Ma'-mo an-ya-di, or Ma'-mo han-ya, by the Biloxi. Oke-choy-atte, given by Schoolcraft (1851-57), the name of an Alabama town, Oktcaiutci.
Connections. — The Alabama language belonged to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock, and was perhaps connected with the tongues of the Muklasa and Tuskegee, which have not been preserved. It was closely related to Koasati and more remotely to Hitchiti and Choctaw.
Location. — The principal historic seat of this tribe was on the upper course of Alabama River. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.)
Subdivisions: – The Tawasa and Pawokti, which later formed two Alabama towns, were originally independent tribes, though the former, at least, was not properly Alabama. The same may have been true of some other Alabama towns, though we have no proof of the fact.
Villages: Besides the above:

Autauga, on the north bank of Alabama River about the mouth of Autauga Creek in Autauga County.

Kantcati, on Alabama River about 3 miles above Montgomery and on the same side.

Nitahauritz, on the north side of Alabama River west of the confluence of the Alabama and Cahawba Rivers in Dallas County.

Okchayutci, in Benjamin Hawkins' time (about 1800) on the cast bank of Coosa River between Tuskegee and the Muskogee town of Otciapofa. (See Hawkins, 1848, 1916.)

Wetumpka, a branch village reported in 1761.
History. — Native tradition assigns the origin of the Alabama to a point at the confluence of Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, but we seem to hear of the tribe first historically in what is now northern Mississippi west of the Chickasaw country. This is in the narratives of De Soto's chroniclers, which, however, do not altogether agree, since one writer speaks of a province of the name, two others bestow the designation upon a small village, and only Garcilaso (1723), the least reliable, gives the title Fort Alibamo to a stockade- west of the village above mentioned- where the Spaniards had a severe combat. While this stockade was probably held by Alabama Indians, there is no certainty that it was. The next we hear of the tribe it is in its historic seats above given. After the French had established themselves at Mobile they became embroiled in some small affrays between the Alabama and Mobile Indians, but peace was presently established and thereafter the French and Alabama remained good friends as long as French rule continued. This friendship was cemented in 1717 by the establishment of Fort Toulouse in the Alabama country and the admission among them of one, or probably two, refugee tribes, the Tawasa and Pawokti. (See Florida.) About 1763 a movement toward the west began on the part of those Indians who had become accustomed to French rule. Some Alabama joined the Seminole in Florida. Others accompanied the Koasati to Tombigbee River but soon returned to their own country. Still another body went to Louisiana and settled on the banks of the Mississippi River, where they were probably joined from time to time by more. Later they advanced further toward the west and some are still scattered in St. Landry and Calcasieu Parishes, but the greatest single body finally reached Polk County, Tex., where they occupy a piece of land set aside for them by the State. Those who remained behind took a very prominent part in the Creek-American War and lost all their land by the treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814, being obliged to make new settlements between the Coosa and Tallapoosa. They accompanied the rest of the Creeks to Oklahoma, and their descendants are to he found there today, principally about a little station bearing the name just south of Weleetka.
Early in the eighteenth century the Pawokti, and perhaps some other Alabama bands, lived near Apalachicola River [in Florida], whence they were driven in 1708. After the Creek-American War a part of the Alabama again entered Florida, but they do not seem to have maintained an independent existence for a very long period.

Population. — In 1702 Iberville (in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 4, p. 514) estimated that there were 400 families of Alabama in two villages, and the English census of 1715 gives 214 men and a total population of 770 in four villages. These figures must have been exclusive of the Tawasa and Pawokti, which subsequent estimates include. About 1730-40 there is an estimate of 400 men in six towns. In 1792 the number of Alabama men is given as 60, exclusive of 60 Tawasa, but as this last included Kantcati the actual proportion of true Alabama was considerably greater. Hawkins, in 1799, estimated 80 gunmen in four Alabama towns, including Tawasa and Pawokti, but he does not include the population of Okchaiyutci. (See Hawkins, 1848.) In 1832 only two towns are entered which may be safely set down as Alabama, Tawasa and Autauga, and these had a population of 321 besides 21 slaves. The later figures given above do not include those Alabama who had moved to Louisiana. In 1805 Sibley (1832) states there were two villages in Louisiana with 70 men; in 1917 Morse (1822) gives 160 Alabama all told in Texas, but this is probably short of the truth. In 1882 the United States Indian Office reported 290 Alabama, Koasati, and Muskogee in Texas, the larger number of whom were probably Alabama. In 1900 the figure is raised to 470. In 1910 a special agent from the Indian Office reported 192 Alabama alone. The census of 1910 gave 187 in Texas and 111 in Louisiana, a total of 298. The 176 "Creek" Indians returned from Polk County, Tex., in 1930, were mainly Alabama. The number of Alabama in Oklahoma has never been separately reported.

Connection in which they have become noted. — The Alabama attained early literary fame from Garcilaso de la Vega's (1723) description of the storming of "Fort Alibamo." Their later notoriety has rested upon the fact that their name became attached to Alabama River, and still more call its subsequent adoption by the State of Alabama. A railroad station in Oklahoma is named after them, and the term has been applied to places in Genesee County, N. Y., and in Polk County, Wis. There is an Alabama City in Etowah County, Ala., and Alabama in Madison County, Ark.

Amacano. A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee, placed in a mission on the Apalachee coast [of Florida] in 1674 with two others, Chine, and Caparaz (q. v.). The three together had 300 souls.
Amacapiras, see Macapiras.
Apalachee. Meaning perhaps "people on the other side" (as in Hitchiti), or it may be cognate with Choctaw apelachi, "a helper."
Connections. — These Indians belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family, their closest connections having been apparently the Hitchiti and Alabama.
Location. —The Apalachee towns, with few exceptions, were compactly situated in the neighborhood of the present Florida capital, Tallahassee. (See also Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.)

Aute, 8 or 9 days' journey from the main towns and apparently southwest of them.

Ayubale, 77 leagues from St. Augustine.

Bacica, probably near the present Wacissa River.

Bacuqua, seemingly somewhat removed from the main group of towns.

Calahuchi, north of the main group of towns and not certainly Apalachee.

Cupayca, location uncertain; its name seems to be in Timucua.

Ibitachuco, 75 leagues from St. Augustine.

Iniahica, close to the main group of towns, possibly the Timucua name for one of the others given, since hica is the Timucua word for "town".

Ochete, on the coast 8 leagues south of Iniahica.

Ocuia, 84 leagues from St. Augustine.

Ospalaga, 86 leagues from St. Augustine.

Patali, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.

Talimali, 88 leagues from St. Augustine and very likely identical with Iniahica.

Talpatqui, possibly identical with the preceding.

Tomoli, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.

Uzela, on or near Ocilla River.

Yapalaga, near the main group of towns.

Ychutafun, on Apalachicola River.

Yecambi, 90 leagues from St. Augustine.
A few other names are contained in various writings or placed upon sundry charts, but some of these belonged to distinct tribes and were located only temporarily among the Apalachee; others are not mentioned elsewhere but appear to belong in the same category; and still others are simply names of missions and may apply to certain of the towns mentioned above. Thus Chacatos evidently refers to the Chatot tribe, Tama to the Tamali, and Oconi probably to a branch of the Oconee mentioned elsewhere. The Chines were a body of Chatot and derived their name from a chief. Among names which appear only in Spanish we find Santa Fe. Capola and Ilcombe, given on the Popple Map, were probably occupied by Guale and Yamasee refugees. A late Apalachee settlement was called San Marcos.

History. — The Apalachee seem to appear first in history in the chronicles of the Narvaez expedition (Bandelier, 1905). The explorers spent nearly a month in an Apalachee town in the year 1628 but were subjected to constant attacks on the part of the warlike natives, who pursued them during their withdrawal to a coast town named Aute. In October 1539, De Soto arrived in the Apalachee province and remained there the next winter in spite of the unceasing hostility of the natives, who well maintained the reputation for prowess they had acquired 11 years before. Although the province is mentioned from time to time by the first French and Spanish colonists of Florida, it did not receive much attention until the tribes between it and St. Augustine had been pretty well missionized. In a letter written in 1607 we learn that the Apalachee had asked for missionaries and, although one paid a visit to them the next year, the need is reiterated at frequent intervals. It was not until 1633, however, that the work was actually begun. In that year two monks entered the country and the conversion proceeded very rapidly so that by 1647 there were seven churches and convents and eight of the principal chiefs had been baptized. In that year, however, a great rebellion took place. Three missionaries were killed and all of the churches with their sacred objects were destroyed. An expedition sent against the insurgents was repulsed, but shortly afterward the movement collapsed, apparently through a counterrevolution in the tribe itself. After this most of the Apalachee sought baptism and there was no further trouble between them and the Spaniards except for a brief sympathetic movement at the time of the Timucua uprising of 1656. The outstanding complaint on the part of the Indians was that some of them were regularly commandeered to work on the fortifications of St. Augustine. In 1702 a large Apalachee war party was severely defeated by Creek Indians assisted by some English traders, and in 1704 an expedition from South Carolina under Colonel Moore practically destroyed the nation. Moore claims to have carried away the people of three towns and the greater part of the population of four more and to have left but two towns and part of another. Most of these latter appear to have fled to Mobile, where, in 1705, they were granted land on which to settle. The Apalachee who had been carried off by Moore were established near New Windsor, S. C., but when the Yamasee War broke out they joined the hostile Indians and retired for a time to the Lower Creeks. Shortly afterward the English faction among the Lower Creeks became ascendant and the Apalachee returned to Florida, some remaining near their old country and others settling close to Pensacola to be near their relatives about Mobile. By 1718 another Apalachee settlement had been organized by the Spaniards near San Marcos de Apalache and close to their old country. In 1728 we hear of two small Apalachee towns in this neighborhood. Most of them gravitated finally to the neighborhood of Pensacola. In 1764, the year after all French and Spanish possessions east of the Mississippi passed into the hands of Great Britain, the Apalachee, along with several other tribes, migrated into Louisiana, now held by Spain, and settled on Red River, where they and the Taensa conjointly occupied 8 miles of land between Bayou d'Arro and Bayou Jean de Jean. Most of this land was sold in 1803 and the Apalachee, reduced to a small band, appear to have moved about in the same general region until they disappeared. They are now practically forgotten, though a few mixed-blood Apalachee are still said to be in existence.

After the English and Creeks destroyed the Apalachee towns in Florida in 1,704, they established a part of the tribe in a village not far below the present Augusta [Georgia]. In 1715, when the Yamasee War broke out, these Apalachee joined the hostile Indians and went to the Chattahoochee to live near that faction of the Lower Creeks which was favorable to Spain. Soon afterward, however, the English faction gained the ascendancy among the Creeks, and the Apalachee returned to Florida.
A part of this tribe lived for a time among the Lower Creeks and perhaps in this State [Alabama]. Another section settled near Mobile and remained there until West Florida was ceded to Great Britain when they crossed the Mississippi. A few seem to have joined the Creeks and migrated with them to Oklahoma.
Population. — Mooney (1928) estimates 7,000 Apalachee Indians in 1650, a figure which seems to me to be ample. Governor Salazar's mission-by-mission estimate in 1675 yielded a total of 6,130, and a Spanish memorial dated 1676 gives them a population of 5,000. At the time of Moore's raid there appear to have been about 2,000. The South Carolina Census of 1715 gives 4 Apalachee villages, 275 men, and 638 souls. As the Mobile Apalachee were shortly afterward reduced to 100 men, the number of the entire tribe in 1715 must have been about 1,000 By 1758 they appear to have fallen to not much over 100, and in 1814 Sibley reported but 14 men in the Louisiana band, signifying a total of perhaps 50 (Sibley, 1832). Morse's estimate (1822) of 150 in 1817 is evidently considerably too high.

Connection in which they have become noted. —The Apalachee were mentioned repeatedly as a powerful and warlike people, and this character was attested by their stout resistance to Narvaez and De Soto. The sweeping destruction which overtook them at the hands of the Creeks and Carolinians mark an epoch in Southeastern history. Their name is preserved in Apalachee Bay and River, Fla.; Apalachee River, Ga., Apalachee River, Ala.; and most prominently of all, in the Appalachian Mountains, and other terms derived from them. Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, the name of which signifies "Old Town," is on the site of San Luis de Talimali, the principal Spanish mission center. There is a post village named Apalachee in Morgan County, Ga.

Apalachicola. From Hitchiti "Apalachicoli" or Muskogee "Apalachicolo," signifying apparently "People of the other side," with reference probably to the Apalachicola River or some nearby stream. Also called: Tålwa låko or Itålwa låko, "big town," name given by the Muskogee Indians.Palachicola or Parachukla, contractions of Apalachicola.
Connections. — This was one of those tribes of the Muskhogean linguistic stock which spoke the Atsik-hata or Hitchiti language, and which included in addition the Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Oconee, Sawokli, Tamali, Mikasuki, Chiaha, and possibly the Osochi (but see Osochi).
Location. — The earliest known home of the Apalachicola was near the river which bears their name in the center of the Lower Creek country. Later they lived for a considerable period at the point where it comes into existence through the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. At times some of the Apalachicola Indians lived south of the present Florida boundary line and they gave their name to the great river which runs through the panhandle of that State.
Subdivisions and Villages: – The following names of towns or tribes were given by a Tawasa Indian, Lamhatty, to Robert Beverley (1722) and may well have belonged to the Apalachicola: Aulédley, Ephíppick, Sonepáh, and perhaps Socsoóky (or Socsósky). The census of 1832 returned two distinct bodies of Indians under the synonyms Apalachicola and Tålwa låko.

History. — According to Muskogee legend, the ancestors of the Muskogee encountered the Apalachicola in the region above indicated when they entered the country, and they were at first disposed to fight with them but soon made peace. According to one legend the Creek Confederacy came into existence as a result of this treaty. Spanish documents of the seventeenth century are the earliest in which the name appears. It is there used both as the name of a town (as early as 1675) and, in an extended sense, for all of the Lower Creeks. This fact, Muskogee tradition, and the name Tålwa Óåko all show the early importance of the people. They were on more friendly terms with the Spaniards than the Muskogee generally and hence were fallen upon by the Indian allies of the English and carried off, either in 1706 or 1707. They were settled on Savannah River opposite Mount Pleasant, at a place which long bore their name, but in 1716, just after the Yamasee War, they retired into their old country and established themselves at the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. Later they moved higher up the Chattahoochee and lived in Russell County, Ala., remaining in the general neighborhood until they removed to new homes in the present Oklahoma in 1836-40. There they established themselves in the northern part of the Creek Reservation but presently gave up their ceremonial ground and were gradually absorbed in the mass of Indians about them.

Population. — In 1715 just before the outbreak of the Yamasee War, there were said to be 2 settlements of this tribe with 64 warriors and a total population of 214. A Spanish census of 1738 also gave 2 settlements with 60 warriors in one and 45 in the other; a French census of 1750, more than 30 warriors; a British enumeration of 1760, 60; one of 1761, 20; an American estimate of 1792, 100 (including the Chiaha); and the United States Census of 1832, a total population of 239 in 2 settlements.
Connection in which they have become noted .— Apalachicola River, Apalachicola Bay, and the name of the county seat of Franklin County, Fla., are derived from this tribe. The Spaniards applied their name to the Lower Creeks generally, and they were also noted as one of the tribes responsible for the formation of the Confederation.
Very early this tribe lived on the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers, partly in Alabama. Sometime after 1715 they settled in Russell County, [Alabama] on the Chattahoochee River where they occupied at least two different sites before removing with the rest of the Creeks to the other side of the Mississippi.
Atasi. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee (q. v.).

Caparaz. A small tribe or band placed in 1674 in connection with a doctrine called San Luis on the Apalachee coast [of Florida] along with two other bands called Amacano and Chine. Possibly they may have been survivors of the Capachequi encountered by De Soto in 1540. The three bands were estimated to contain 300 people.

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