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Mythology Notes
Lesson 1: Myth: The Museum of the Mind
In a museum, you may already have seen a statue of a Greek goddess or a Roman gladiator. If so, you know how people looked long ago and how they imagined their gods looked.

By reading myths, you can also discover what people thought long ago, what they feared and what they hoped for—even which character traits they admired and which ones they disliked.

What kind of people created these myths? First of all, they were imaginative and capable of telling stories that have lasted for thousands of years.

They were observers of the natural world around them, but they were also in awe of it. They invented stories to account for thunderstorms, floods, eclipses, even the changing seasons, because such occurrences, once explained, seemed less frightening.

They were curious about how the world began and how the first human beings were created; they speculated about death and life after death.

They lived by a moral code, which required children to obey parents, parents and children to be reverent of the gods, and all people to be generous to one another.

They pictured their gods as looking and acting as they did themselves. Thus gods quarreled and were jealous or fell in and out of love, but they were also wise and just. Gods could change their outward forms at will, had superhuman strength, and were immortal. In these last three characteristics, they differed from people.

Because ancient people revealed so much about themselves in their myths, reading those myths, like visiting a museum, makes the past come to life.

Lesson 1 Worksheet: Finding the Message in the Myths

Although some myths were probably told simply to entertain listeners, most had a more serious purpose.


  1. Some were attempts to explain natural phenomena such as floods.

  2. Some were religious speculation on human beings’ relationships to the gods or on such mysteries as creation, death, and the afterlife.

  3. Some examined human behavior, both people’s failings and their virtues.

Read each of the following well-known myths and decide whether it belongs in Group A, B, or C above. Then state what it explains or teaches.



  1. Daedalus and Icarus:
    To escape from a prison where he and his son were being held, Daedalus made wings of wax and feathers. In flight, the son, Icarus, ignored his father’s warning about flying too close to the sun. Its heat melted the wax, Icarus’ wings fell apart, and he plunged to his death.

    This myth belongs to Group ______ or Group ______. It teaches that _______________


    ________________________________________________________________________



  2. Persephone and Pluto (Hades)
    Persephone, the beautiful daughter of Demeter, goddess of agriculture, was kidnapped by Pluto (Hades) and taken to his kingdom, the Underworld. Demeter, angered by Pluto’s boldness and grieving for her daughter, forbade the earth to give forth fruit until Zeus, the most powerful god, worked out a compromise. For five months of the year, Persephone would be with her mother and all growing things would flourish, but during the other seven months, she would be with Pluto and the world would turn barren and cold.

    This myth belongs in Group ______. It explains ________________________________


    ________________________________________________________________________



  3. Orpheus and Eurydice

    Soon after the talented musician Orpheus married a beautiful nymph named Eurydice, she was bitten by a snake and died. Orpheus, determined to bring his bride back from the Underworld, went there himself and so charmed Hades with his music that the god agreed to let Eurydice return to life, on one condition. Orpheus must not look back on Eurydice as he was leading her out of Hades’ kingdom. Unfortunately, Orpheus stole one glimpse of his bride and she was lost to him forever.

    This myth belongs in Group ______ or Group ______. It explains __________________

    ________________________________________________________________________

Vocabulary from the myths:



  1. Demeter’s Roman name was Ceres. What name for a popular breakfast food derived from it? ______________________________________________________________________________

  2. Orpheum is often used as a name for a theater. Can you explain why this is appropriate? ______________________________________________________________________________


Lesson 2: Myths in Our Modern World
Myths? They are just fantastic stories about long ago; they don’t belong in the twenty-first century.

Right?

Wrong! Even though you may not be aware of them, myths still play a part in your daily life.

Perhaps you’d like proof?

Let’s imagine that when you got up this morning, you washed your face with Dove soap before going down to breakfast.

While you were eating your cereal, you happened to notice a picture of the Corn Goddess on the box. Just then, your mother called to you to hurry. You were already late for school, and she’d have to give you a ride in the Mercury.

In your first class, you took out your Venus pencil to do your algebra. English came next: you were expected to write a paragraph, using chronological order. In science, your teacher explained the characteristics of arachnids. In social studies, your class, divided in hawks and doves, had a lively debate about the country’s military policies.

After school, you put on your Nike running shoes, hoping they’d “put wings on your feet.” Later, your track coach told you that your time was off. You thought that was probably because your Achilles tendon was still sore.

Back home, you checked the bulletin board and found that your household chore for the day was cleaning the bathroom with Ajax cleanser.

Finally, with chores and homework finished, you could turn on your Panasonic TV.

How alert were you to the part mythic characters played in your day? Try the game on the next page to find out.


Lesson 2 Worksheet: Mythic References in Everyday Life
In the imaginary account of your day, try to find twelve references to myths and list them below. Clue: Actually, there are fifteen references. Many are proper nouns or adjectives, but some are indirect references to the characters in the myths.


Mythological Reference Description

1. ____________________ ________

2. ____________________ ________

3. ____________________ ________

4. ____________________ ________

5. ____________________ ________

6. ____________________ ________

Mythological Reference Description

7. ____________________ _________

8. ____________________ _________

9. ____________________ _________

10. ____________________ _________

11. ___________________ _________

12. ___________________ _________



Now match the descriptions below with the words or phrases you have written above. For example, “A” is matched with Dove soap because Dove is a beauty soap with a gentle cleansing action, and because the dove was Venus’ (Aphrodite’s) symbol. CAUTION: A description may be used more than once.


    1. Aphrodite (Venus in Roman myths) was the goddess of love, beauty, unity, and peace. The gentle dove was her symbol.

    2. Ares (Mars in Roman) was the god of war. Armor, the spear, the dog, and birds of prey were his symbols.

    3. Demeter (Ceres in Roman) was the goddess of agriculture. A popular type of breakfast food derives its name from her Roman name.
    4. In American Indian belief, this beautiful goddess was sent by the Great Spirit to teach people how to grow the grain, which became an important part of their diet.


    5. When this great Greek warrior was a boy, his mother, hoping to make him immortal, dipped him in the River Styx, but she held him by his heel, and it remained vulnerable to injury.

    6. Like the warrior in Description E, this Greek was capable of destroying all who came in his way. Today a powerful cleanser bears his name.

    7. One of the old gods, Cronus, was the father of Zeus. You probably know his as Father Time, the old man with the sickle. In Greek, his name means “time.”

    8. The goddess Athena taught the young woman Arachne to weave. Arachne became so skillful that she challenged Athena to a weaving contest and so angered the goddess that Athena changed the girl into a spider. Ever since, all spiders are name for Arachne.

    9. Hermes (Mercury in Roman) moved swiftly because he had winged sandals and a winged cap.

    10. Nike, the goddess of victory, rewarded the winners of athletic contests. A famous statue of Nike, found on the island of Samothrace, is called the Winged Victory of Samothrace.

    11. The god of woods and fields, Pan’s name means all or every. From reeds, he made himself a pipe on which he played sad songs in memory of the love he lost.


Lesson 3: Where Do All Our Heroes Come from?

Who is the hero of your school? An outstanding athlete? The outspoken editor of your school newspaper? Or an ordinary student, whose quick thinking saved someone in danger?

Who are our national heroes? Sports idols? Movie stars? Astronauts? Or scientists trying to conquer disease?

In other words, what qualities make a hero? Physical strength is one, certainly, as is the will to win, and both are characteristic of great athletes. If we add courage and intelligence, we can see why the crusading editor or the astronaut would also qualify.

But what about the person who risks his life to save another’s, or the scientist who devotes a lifetime to relieving pain and suffering? We say such people are altruistic, that is, more interested in others’ welfare than in their own. Perhaps that makes them the greatest heroes of all.

In mythology, we shall study ancient heroes such as Achilles, the great warrior, Hercules, the strong man; and Odysseus, the crafty man who was “never at a loss.”

From their deeds we can figure out what ancient people expected of their heroes. They had to be brave as Achilles, have the superhuman strength of Hercules, and the cleverness and persistence of Odysseus. A hero had to be a good leader, like a father to his followers, merciful to the weak, but merciless to his enemies.

The mercilessness and craftiness that Odysseus showed are not qualities that we admire today. Yet in books, movies, or TV programs, we like to see the hero win out against the “bad guys” by whatever means.

Of course, the mythical heroes often received help from the gods. The goddess Athena was at Odysseus’ side to help him defeat his enemies; with her assistance, he became a superman.

Mythical heroes are never real. They simply represent what people at a given time in history saw as the ideal. Of course, we have inherited those myths, handed down through the centuries.

Real-life heroes can never become myths, but they can become legends as more and more stories are told about their lives and deeds. Thus, Babe Ruth has become legendary in baseball. John Wayne, who always played the “good guy” in westerns, is a legendary movie star, and Davy Crockett, a legendary frontiersman. No doubt, many other such heroes will appear in your lifetime.


Lesson 3 Worksheet: Tracing Our Beliefs and Ideals to Their Source
In ancient Greece and Rome, warriors were the heroes because combat, whether to gain territory or take revenge, was a part of everyday life.

In the medieval period, heroes were still fighters, but ideas about the hero, or ideal man, were changing. At King Arthur’s court, as you may have read, knights were pledged to use their strength only for good causes. They fought only to help those who were too weak to defend themselves against evil forces. The “perfect knight” of the Arthurian legends was more gentle, more polite, and more altruistic that the Greek ideal.

Our country has produced its own ideal types. For instance, we admire the “self-made man” or “self-made woman”—a person, sometimes from a family with very little money, who has achieved success through his or her own efforts. WE admire persistence and the determination to win out over great odds.

Let’s take a look now at some American heroes and heroines, and see how they combine the ideal qualities of different periods of history.




    1. Abe Lincoln, “the rail splitter,” rose to become president. He is often referred to as the man who freed the slaves. Lincoln is a hero in the minds of Americans because________
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.



    2. Clara Barton almost single-handedly organized the nursing of wounded northern soldiers during the Civil War. She gave up her job, faced many physical hardships, and overcame much opposition to her work. What heroic qualities does this information about Barton bring to mind? ___________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________________

      _______________________________________________________________________.



    3. John F. Kennedy’s administration as president is often described as “Camelot,” the name of King Arthur’s court. What does “Camelot” say about Kennedy’s ideas? How does that name help to make him seem more heroic? _________________________________
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.



    4. Sojourner Truth, an escaped slave with no education, became an effective speaker and campaigner for the cause of abolition (freedom for the slaves). What heroic qualities did Truth display? ___________________________________________________________
      _______________________________________________________________________.
      How did she resemble Lincoln? _____________________________________________.



    5. Many of our contemporary heroes are in the world of sports. How are their accomplishments similar to those of ancient heroes? _____________________________
      _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.



Lesson 4: Why Study Myths?

Perhaps you have seen the movie Excalibur
or a rerun of Camelot. Both are versions of the King Arthur legend, a story that has been told and retold throughout the centuries. If you have watched My Fair Lady, that musical comedy was based on a play by the modern playwright George Bernard Shaw, who based his play on the ancient Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea.

Myths have always provided inspiration for writers, artists, and composers. That’s why knowing the myths can help you to appreciate art and music and to understand literature.

You gain another advantage from knowing the myths—you are able to recognize and understand allusions (references) to them, which writers often use to make a point. Of course, allusion is a general term; not all allusions writers make are to myths. But we’ll get to that in a minute. Allusions may be new to you, but you have already encountered metaphors and similes, probably, and know that both are comparisons. The difference between them is that a simile states the comparison clearly, using like or as.

“I’m as restless as a willow in a windstorm.” SIMILE

He pussyfooted up the stairs. METAPHOR

(Here it is not stated, but merely suggested that the person’s movements are as stealthy and quiet as a cat’s.)

Now for the allusion. Suppose a friend tells you that he has nicknamed the new teacher Ichabod Crane. He’s using an allusion, but you won’t know its significance unless you have read “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” by Washington Irving. In that short story, the schoolmaster, Ichabod Crane, is tall, thin, and awkward-looking.

If, when you have slept late on Saturday morning, your father greets you with “Here comes Rip Van Winkle,” you won’t be sure what he means unless you understand his reference or allusion. Rip Van Winkle, another Washington Irving character, slept for twenty years!

Do you see now that allusions can be a kind of comparison? Now let’s find our what you can do with some mythological allusions.


Lesson 4 Worksheet: Learning to Read the Language of Allusion


Helen, thy beauty is to me

Like those Nicean barks of yore,

That gently, o’er a perfumed sea,

Thy weary, way worn wanderer bore

To his own native shore.

Nicean = Greek

Bark = sailing ship
--From Edgar Allan Poe’s “To Helen”


Poe wrote this poem for a real woman; she was not named Helen. He uses allusion to suggest that she is like Helen of Troy, the most beautiful woman in the ancient world. When a Trojan prince stole Helen from her husband, the Greeks went to war against Troy. Returning from the war, the Greeks made slow progress toward home, thus the reference to the “weary, way worn wanderer.” Can you see how knowledge of myth is necessary to make the poem’s allusions understandable?
Now it’s your turn. See if you can recognize the mythical source of the allusions that follow.

  1. .bid the soul of Orpheus sing
    Such notes as warbled to the string
    Drew iron tears from Pluto’s cheek
    And made Hell grant what love did seek.
    --From John Milton’s “Il Penseroso”

    1. Thy myth referred to is the love story of _______________ and ________________.

    2. Pluto is another name for ____________; Hell is another name for ___________.

    3. What did Hell grant, and what did love seek? _____________________________
      __________________________________________________________________

  2. He who died
    For soaring too audacious near the sun
    (audacious = daring)
    Where that same treacherous wax began to run

    --From John Keats’s “Endymion”


    1. This poem refers or alludes to the myth of ________________ and _____________.

    2. Who was “too audacious” and what happened to him? ______________________
      _________________________________________________________________.

  3. A little Cyclops with one eye
    Staring to threaten and defy
    .
    --From William Wordsworth’s “The Daisy”

    1. Why is the comparison of the daisy to the Cyclops appropriate? _______________
      _________________________________________________________________.

    2. What figure of speech is being used here? _______________________________

Allusions occur not only in poetry, but also in everyday speech. Both of the following refer to the Trojan War …remember the story of the Trojan horse? Both are in current use.




Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.

He fought like a Trojan.





Lesson 5: Why Study Myths?

When you were in elementary school, your teacher may have pasted gold stars on your best papers. For a special February holiday, he or she probably decorated the windows and bulletin boards with red cardboard cupids and hearts. Of course, in every classroom, an American flag hung.

The gold stars, the cardboard cupids, even our flag—all are symbols. That is, they represent something beyond themselves: the stars represent achievement; the cupids, Valentine’s Day; and the flag, our country.

By now you are becoming aware of the part myths play in our daily lives and will not be surprised that many familiar symbols have their origin in mythology. Take that Valentine’s Day cupid for example. In roman mythology, Cupid (Eros, as the Greeks called him) was the son of Venus, goddess of love. Any victim of Cupid’s arrows was supposed to fall in love immediately. Appropriately, Cupid is the symbol of our most romantic holiday.

Do you know why the owl symbolizes wisdom and the peacock, pride? The owl was associated with Athena, goddess of wisdom, while Hera, wife of Zeus, a proud and vain goddess, favored the peacock.

Zeus, the most powerful of the gods, had a favorite bird, too, the eagle, king of the birds. Thus, our American eagle, which appears on the Great Seal of the United States, can be said to represent freedom and power.

Other mythological symbols are all around you. AS you grow more familiar with the stories of the Greek gods and heroes, you will find yourself becoming aware of the role myth plays in advertisements.



Lesson 5 Worksheet: Recognizing Symbols from the Myths
Ten familiar advertising symbols are listed below in Column A; try matching them with the appropriate mythological figures in Column B. One figure in Column B is used twice.




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