National information infrastructure



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References


Bijker, W.E. and J. Law (eds.). 1992. “Shaping Technology/Building Society. Studies in Sociotechnical Change.” Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 341.

Brenac, E. 1991. “La grande technologie entre l'Etat et le marché,” Actes du séminaire international des 8-9 novembre 1990, Université Pierre Mendès-France, Grenoble.

Breton, T. 1994. “Les téléservices en France. Quels marchés pour les autoroutes de l'information?,” Paris: La Documentation française.

Busson, A. 1995. "France Télécom et les autoroutes de l'information: le client, le service et la technologie,” Communications & Strategies. n°19, 3ème trimestre, 95-116.

Cave, M. and M. Shurmer. 1995. "Business strategy and regulation of multi-media in the UK,” Communications & Strategies. n°19, 3ème trimestre, 117-140.

Cohen, E. 1992. “Le colbertisme high tech. Economie des télécom et du grand projet,” Paris: Hachette.

Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel. 1995, October 24. “Avis du CSA sur le projet de loi sur les autoroutes de l'information,” Paris.

Collins, R. 1994, September 29-October 1. "Convergence between telecommunications and television. Technological change, regulatory lag and the case of satellite television in the European community.” Paper presented at the Symposium international sur la convergence des techniques de communication. Université du Québec à Montréal.

Dupuis, P. 1995, June. "Téléservices et collectivités locales. Nouvelle société ou nouveaux marchés?,” Pouvoirs locaux. Les cahiers de la décentralisation. n°25, 19-24.

European Commission. 1993. “Growth, competitiveness, employment. The challenges and ways forward into the 21st century” (The White Paper). Brussels.

European Commission. 1994. “Strategy options to strengthen the European Programme Industry in the context of the audiovisual policy of the European Union” (The Audiovisual Green Paper). Brussels.

Guieysee, M., L. Levasseur et E. Turpin. 1995. "Du chalcolthique aux grands boulevards de l'information: techniques, services et économie du multimédia,” Communication & Strategies. n°19, 3 ème trimestre, 141-172.

High-Level Group on the Information Society. 1994. “Europe and the Global Information Society. Recommendations to the European Council” (The Bangemann Report), Brussels.

Lasserre, B. 1994, March. “Quelle réglementation pour les télécommunications françaises?.” Report prepared for the Minister of Industry, Posts and Telecommunications and Trade; Paris.

Lorente, S. 1995, October 5-7. "Similarities and differences between the Gore Report and the Bangemann Report,” Paper presented at the International Conference on the Social Shaping of IS--Comparing the NII and the EU Action Plan, Bremen, Germany.

Ministère de l'Industrie des Postes et Télécommunications et du Commerce Extérieur. 1994. “Les autoroutes de l'information. Appel à propositions,” Interventions et débats de la journée d'informationd'information 19 décembre. Paris.

Ministère de l'Industrie, des Postes et Télécommunications et du Commerce Extréieur. 1994. “Les autoroutes et services de l'information,” Actes du colloque du 7 décembre. Paris.

Mueller, M. "Universal service in telephone history: a reconstruction.” Telecommunications Policy, 17, 352-369.

Pinch, T.J. and W.E. Bijker. 1984. "The social construction of facts and artifacts: Or how the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other,” Social Studies of Science, 14: 399-441.

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Vedel, T., G. Thomas, and V. Schneider. 1995, September 30-October 2. "Lessons from stone-age telematics. What can we learn from videotex and audiotex experiences in Europe?" Paper presented at the 23rd Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Solomon, Maryland.

Wilson, F. 1987. Interest-group politics in France. Cambridge: University Press.


Tables and Figures

Table 1. Employment in France by sectors

(million)19821990





















Agriculture 1,760

(8,20%) 1,250

(5,60%)




















Manufacturing 7,345

(34,2%) 6,690

(30,1%)



















Services 12,360

(57,6%) 14,290

(64,3%)




















Total 21,465

22,230




















Source: Breton Report

Table 2. The Commission's Action Plan "Europe's way towards the Information society"


Following the Bangemann report, the European Commission adopted in July 1994 an Action plan which is organized along 4 themes:

- review of the telecommunications regulatory framework in order to provide a fully liberalized environment

- development of networks, applications and new services though European pilot projects

- study of the social and cultural impact of the Information society

- promotion of the Information society

In parallel, the Fourth R&D Framework Programme was launched for the period 1994-199. This programme embraces all Community supported R&D activities. About 30% of funding will be devoted to topics related to information technology and communications. By contrast with previous programmes, a new line was added to carry out targeted socio-economic research. However, this effort will represent less than 1% of funding distributed.










Table 3. Examples of projects accepted for trials


National platforms

- atm network

- renater 2 (network linking universities and research centers)

- Education network (linking primary and secondary schools in 13 regions)


Regional platforms

(12 are proposed by regional authorities)

- cristal project piloted by Conseil régional d'Alsace: Building up of a of network linking all cities in the region as well as universities. Will provide access to jobs listings, social security information, regional information,

- Project sponsored by Conseil régional Midi Pyrénées. Access to the Internet and exchange of teaching experiences among schools.


Services

- batru -Bringing atm to Residential Users - piloted by France Télécom (Brest/Lille): atm network to provide videophone and on-line banking and retail services using twisted pairs

- Multicâble (Paris, 2,500 households): "Electronic village" with telephone service, access to the Internet, on-line information, shopping services on cable tv.

Similar trials will take place in Annecy (8,000 households) and Nice (5 to 10,000 households).

- Teleport (Roubaix)

- mmds (Haute-Vienne, Corse)







Source: Personal interviews, December 1995


Table 4. Selected France Télécom multimedia trials


Type of services

Partners













Information for consumers

(Magic Yellow Pages)Office d'Annonces

(subsidiary of Havas)













On-line information and transaction services

(France en ligne)Bellanger, Fillipacchi Groups















One-stop shopping for business travels

Havas, Hertz














Video games loading

Sony, Lyonnaise Communications














Video-On-Demand, Near-Video-On-DemandTF1













On-line information services, shopping, banking

(Multicâble)Lyonnaise Communications















Source: Busson, 1995

Table 5. The growth of cable TV in France

(Thousand)1988



199019921994
























Homes passed

9572,7764,6625,802
































Homes connected

930,5141,0481,617

































Source: Agence Câble and Association des villes câblées

Table 6. Directorates involved in European IS policy


DG III - Industry

DG IV - Competition

DG X - Information, Communication, Culture and Audiovisual

DG XII - Science Research and Development

DG XIII - Telecommunications, Information market and Exploitation of Research

DG XV - Internal Market and Financial Services







Table 7. French households' equipment in communication devices


Equipment

Penetration rate













Television

with multiple sets95%

35%














Telephone95%













Videocassette recorder60%













CD player60%













Video games station35%













Minitel35%













PC

with CD-ROM

with modems20%

5%

3%















Source: Author's analysis

CountryName of the public telecommunication operator

State of privatization

















BelgiumBelgacom49,9% in progress



















BritainBritish Telecom100%

Completed





















FranceFrance TélécomPartial

Postponed to 1996 due to unions opposition





















GermanyDeutsche Telekom25% planned in mid-1996, another 25% two years later. The privatisation would be carried out through a subsequent increase of capital, while the German

State would retain its shares until the year 2000.



















GreeceOTE6 to 8% planned in 1996

Previous attempts to privatize 49% than 25% failed due to political and unions opposition





















ItalySTETPlanned in 1996



















IrelandTelecom Eireann Sell-off of 35% planned


















NetherlandsKoninklijke PTT Nederland (KPN).30% privatised in 1994

Sell off of .another third in progress

Government does not intend to reduce its stake to less than one third before 2004




















PortugalPortugal Telecom (PT)25 to 30% planned in 1996



















SpainTelefonica12% sold off in Fall 1995. The move will reduce the state's stake to 20% from 32%.



















SwedenTeliaPlanned by 1997





















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